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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166435

RESUMO

In freshwater environments, microbial assemblages attached to submerged substrates play an essential role in ecosystem processes such as primary production, supported by periphyton, or organic matter decomposition, supported by microbial communities attached to leaf litter or sediments. These microbial assemblages, also called biofilms, are not only involved in nutrients fluxes but also in contaminants dynamics. Biofilms can accumulate metals and organic contaminants transported by the water flow and/or adsorbed onto substrates. Furthermore, due to their high metabolic activity and their role in aquatic food webs, microbial biofilms are also likely to influence contaminant fate in aquatic ecosystems. In this review, we provide (1) a critical overview of the analytical methods currently in use for detecting and quantifying metals and organic micropollutants in microbial biofilms attached to benthic substrata (rocks, sediments, leaf litter); (2) a review of the distribution of those contaminants within aquatic biofilms and the role of these benthic microbial communities in contaminant fate; (3) a set of future challenges concerning the role of biofilms in contaminant accumulation and trophic transfers in the aquatic food web. This literature review highlighted that most knowledge on the interaction between biofilm and contaminants is focused on contaminants dynamics in periphyton while technical limitations are still preventing a thorough estimation of contaminants accumulation in biofilms attached to leaf litter or sediments. In addition, microbial biofilms represent an important food resource in freshwater ecosystems, yet their role in dietary contaminant exposure has been neglected for a long time, and the importance of biofilms in trophic transfer of contaminants is still understudied.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 391: 122197, 2020 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058227

RESUMO

Sediment microbial communities were exposed for 21 days to an environmental concentration of copper to assess Cu-induced composition changes and resulting effects on microbial sensitivity to acute Cu and As toxicity. Chronic Cu exposure reduced the diversity of the bacterial and archaeal communities from Day 0 to Day 21. The pollution-induced community tolerance concept (PICT) predicts that loss of the most sensitive taxa and gain of more tolerant ones should increase the capacity of Cu-exposed communities to tolerate acute Cu toxicity. Although diversity loss and functional costs of adaptation could have increased their sensitivity to subsequent toxic stress, no increased sensitivity to As was observed. PICT responses varied according to heterotrophic activity, selected as the functional endpoint for toxicity testing, with different results for Cu and As. This suggests that induced tolerance to Cu and As was supported by different species with different metabolic capacities. Ecological risk assessment of contaminants would gain accuracy from further research on the relative contribution of tolerance acquisition and co-tolerance processes on the functional response of microbial communities.

3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6680-6689, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863366

RESUMO

Surface sediments can accumulate contaminants that affect microorganisms and invertebrates and disturb benthic ecological functions. However, effects of contaminants on ecological functions supported by sediment communities are understudied. Here, we tested the relevance of two simple tools to assess the ecotoxicological effects of metal contamination on natural sediment communities using particulate organic matter breakdown and decomposition as a functional descriptor. To this aim, we performed a 21-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of Cu and As (nominal concentration of 40 mg kg-1 dw each) using the bait-lamina method (cellulose, bran flakes, and active coal in PVC strips) as well as artificial tablets (cellulose, bran flakes and active coal embedded in an agar matrix). Sediment toxicity was also evaluated using the standardized ostracod toxicity test. Both the bait-lamina and artificial tablet methods showed low effects of As on organic matter breakdown and decomposition but strong effects of Cu on this important ecological function. Both also showed that the presence of Cu and As in mixture in the sediment induced total inhibition of organic matter breakdown and decomposition. The ostracod toxicity test also showed high toxicity of Cu-spiked and Cu-plus-As-spiked sediments and low toxicity of As-spiked sediments. Besides confirming that artificial organic matter substrates are relevant and useful for assessing the functional effects of contaminants on sediment micro- and macro-organism communities, these results suggest that the proposed methods offer promising perspectives for developing tools for use in assessing functional ecotoxicology in the sediment compartment.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos , Invertebrados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Testes de Toxicidade
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18930-18937, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055743

RESUMO

Antibiotics have a wide application range in human and veterinary medicines. Being designed for pharmacological stability, most antibiotics are recalcitrant to biodegradation after ingestion and can be persistent in the environment. Antibiotic residues have been detected as contaminants in various environmental compartments where they cause human and environmental threats, notably with respect to the potential emergence and proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. An important component of managing environmental risk caused by antibiotics is to understand exposure of soil and water resources to their residues. One challenge is to gain knowledge on the fate of antibiotics in the ecosystem along the soil-water continuum, and on the collateral impact of antibiotics on environmental microorganisms responsible for crucially important ecosystem functions. In this context, the ANTIBIOTOX project aims at studying the environmental fate and impact of two antibiotics of the sulfonamide class of antibiotics, sulfamethazine (SMZ), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX).


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecotoxicologia , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Água/química , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade
5.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2437, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386312

RESUMO

Global contamination of streams by a large variety of compounds, such as nutrients and pesticides, may exert a high pressure on aquatic organisms, including microbial communities and their activity of organic matter decomposition. In this study, we assessed the potential interaction between nutrients and a fungicide and herbicide [tebuconazole (TBZ) and S-metolachlor (S-Met), respectively] at realistic environmental concentrations on the structure (biomass, diversity) and decomposition activity of fungal and bacterial communities (leaf decay rates, extracellular enzymatic activities) associated with Alnus glutinosa (Alnus) leaves. A 40-day microcosm experiment was used to combine two nutrient conditions (mesotrophic and eutrophic) with four pesticide treatments at a nominal concentrations of 15 µg L-1 (control, TBZ and S-Met, alone or mixed) following a 2 × 4 full factorial design. We also investigated resulting indirect effects on Gammarus fossarum feeding rates using leaves previously exposed to each of the treatments described above. Results showed interactive effects between nutrients and pesticides, only when nutrient (i.e., nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations were the highest (eutrophic condition). Specifically, slight decreases in Alnus leaf decomposition rates were observed in channels exposed to TBZ (0.01119 days-1) and S-Met (0.01139 days-1) than in control ones (0.01334 days-1) that can partially be explained by changes in the structure of leaf-associated microbial communities. However, exposition to both TBZ and S-Met in mixture (MIX) led to comparable decay rates to those exposed to the pesticides alone (0.01048 days-1), suggesting no interaction between these two compounds on microbial decomposition. Moreover, stimulation in ligninolytic activities (laccase and phenol oxidase) was observed in presence of the fungicide, possibly highlighting detoxification mechanisms employed by microbes. Such stimulation was not observed for laccase activity exposed to the MIX, suggesting antagonistic interaction of these two compounds on the ability of microbial communities to cope with stress by xenobiotics. Besides, no effects of the treatments were observed on leaf palatability for macroinvertebrates. Overall, the present study highlights that complex interactions between nutrients and xenobiotics in streams and resulting from global change can negatively affect microbial communities associated with leaf litter, although effects on higher trophic-level organisms remains unclear.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1852, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158909

RESUMO

In many aquatic ecosystems, sediments are an essential compartment, which supports high levels of specific and functional biodiversity thus contributing to ecological functioning. Sediments are exposed to inputs from ground or surface waters and from surrounding watershed that can lead to the accumulation of toxic and persistent contaminants potentially harmful for benthic sediment-living communities, including microbial assemblages. As benthic microbial communities play crucial roles in ecological processes such as organic matter recycling and biomass production, we performed a 21-day laboratory channel experiment to assess the structural and functional impact of metals on natural microbial communities chronically exposed to sediments spiked with copper (Cu) and/or arsenic (As) alone or mixed at environmentally relevant concentrations (40 mg kg-1 for each metal). Heterotrophic microbial community responses to metals were evaluated both in terms of genetic structure (using ARISA analysis) and functional potential (using exoenzymatic, metabolic and functional genes analyses). Exposure to Cu had rapid marked effects on the structure and most of the functions of the exposed communities. Exposure to As had almost undetectable effects, possibly due to both lack of As bioavailability or toxicity toward the exposed communities. However, when the two metals were combined, certain functional responses suggested a possible interaction between Cu and As toxicity on heterotrophic communities. We also observed temporal dynamics in the functional response of sediment communities to chronic Cu exposure, alone or in mixture, with some functions being resilient and others being impacted throughout the experiment or only after several weeks of exposure. Taken together, these findings reveal that metal contamination of sediment could impact both the genetic structure and the functional potential of chronically exposed microbial communities. Given their functional role in aquatic ecosystems, it poses an ecological risk as it may impact ecosystem functioning.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013533

RESUMO

Aquatic ecosystems are generally subjected to multiple perturbations due to simultaneous or successive combinations of various natural and anthropogenic environmental pressures. To better assess and predict the resulting ecological consequences, increasing attention should be given to the accumulation of stresses on freshwater ecosystems and its effects on the vulnerability of aquatic organisms, including microbial communities, which play crucial functional roles. Here we used a microcosm study to assess the influence of an experimental warming on the vulnerability of phototrophic and heterotrophic periphytic communities to acute and chronic copper (Cu) toxicity. Natural periphytic communities were submitted for 4 weeks to three different temperatures (18, 23, and 28°C) in microcosms contaminated (at about 15 µg L-1) or not with Cu. The vulnerability of both phototrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities to subsequent acute Cu stress was then assessed by measuring their levels of sensitivity to Cu from bioassays targeting phototrophic (photosynthetic activity) and heterotrophic (ß-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase extracellular enzymatic activities) microbial functions. We postulated that both the increase in temperature and the chronic Cu exposure would modify microbial community structure, thus leading to changes in the capacity of phototrophic and heterotrophic communities to tolerate subsequent acute exposure to Cu. Our results demonstrated that the influence of temperature on the vulnerability of phototrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities to Cu toxicity can vary greatly according to function studied. These findings emphasize the importance of considering different functional compartments and different functional descriptors to better assess the vulnerability of periphyton to multiple stresses and predict the risks induced by multiple stressors for ecosystem balance and functioning.

8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(1): 970-974, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29090440

RESUMO

The first French-Swiss workshop on ecotoxicology of freshwater sediment communities was co-organized by the French Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (Irstea) and the Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology (Ecotox Centre EAWAG-EPFL) in Villié-Morgon (Beaujolais Region, France) on April 27-28, 2017. The workshop brought together scientists working in different fields of expertise (ecotoxicologists, ecologists, environmental chemists…), environmental stakeholder groups and managers, as well as economic players (start-ups and consultancies) to better connect research needs of potential end-users with research outputs. The objectives of this workshop were (i) to establish the state of the art of research in the characterization of sediment contamination and in the evaluation of the effects on sediment-associated biological communities and ecosystem functioning and (ii) to give an overview of the French and Swiss regulations dealing with the assessment of contaminated sediments in freshwater ecosystems. The ultimate goal was to collectively identify research needs and knowledge gaps, as well as to highlight ways to improve the ecotoxicological assessment of sediments in freshwater environments by further considering the structure and functions of associated microbial and invertebrate communities.


Assuntos
Biota , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Animais , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia/normas , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , França , Suíça , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 607-608: 1018-1025, 2017 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724220

RESUMO

By measuring levels of tolerance to toxicants in microbial communities using functional toxicity tests under controlled conditions, pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approaches offer an effect-based tool to assess the ecological risk of chemicals in aquatic systems. However, induced tolerance of exposed microbial communities cannot always be attributed solely to the presence of toxicants as various environmental factors, such as temperature, can also be involved. Several PICT studies have been conducted to assess the effects of copper (Cu) on phototrophic periphyton, but little is known about the influence of temperature on the response of these microbial communities to acute and chronic exposure to Cu. Here, we report on a microcosm approach to assess the effects of two contrasting temperatures (18°C and 28°C) on (i) the baseline level of Cu tolerance in non-Cu-exposed phototrophic periphyton (i.e. effect of temperature on tolerance baseline), (ii) Cu tolerance acquisition by phototrophic periphyton in response to a 3-week chronic exposure to Cu at a nominal concentration of 60µgL-1 (i.e. effect of temperature on PICT selection) and (iii) tolerance measured during short-term toxicity tests (i.e. effect of temperature on PICT detection). The aim was to evaluate how temperature conditions during the different phases of the PICT approaches may modify the causal relationship between chronic Cu exposure and measured Cu tolerance levels. Our results evidence the influence of temperature both on the basal capacity of phototrophic periphyton to tolerate subsequent exposure to Cu (i.e. influence on tolerance baseline) and on its capacity to acquire tolerance following chronic exposure to Cu (i.e. influence on PICT selection). Hence temperature must be considered when using PICT to establish causal links between chronic Cu exposure and effects on phototrophic periphyton.


Assuntos
Cobre/análise , Água Doce/química , Perifíton/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 59-74, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598469

RESUMO

Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O3/OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.


Assuntos
Tensoativos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
11.
J Hazard Mater ; 334: 223-232, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28415000

RESUMO

Biological communities in aquatic environments most commonly face multiple stress, where natural and anthropogenic stressors often act jointly. Their interactions are most easily assessed using short cycle organisms such as periphytic diatoms. In this experiment, we analyzed the combined effects of copper exposure and warming on diatom successions over 6 weeks. Natural biofilm collected in winter was left to grow in mesocosms exposed or unexposed to realistic Cu concentrations at four different temperatures. Separate and joint impacts of the two stressors were determined through structural and functional endpoints. Both temperature and copper influenced the biological responses; their interaction, when significant, was always antagonistic. Diatom communities gradually changed with rising temperature. Under copper exposure, the dominant Planothidium lanceolatum was superseded by Achnanthidium exiguum, which accounted for about 70% relative abundance in the warmest conditions (18-23°C). Tolerance to copper was derived from dose-response curves based on photosynthesis inhibition. Cu-induced community tolerance was always found, but it decreased with warming and time. Biodiversity loss associated with lower Cu tolerance under combined Cu exposure and increasing temperatures evidences the major influence of cumulative stressors on aquatic health. These results highlight the crucial interplay between environmental stressors, which are expected to intensify with climate change.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adaptação Fisiológica , Biodiversidade , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Mudança Climática , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microalgas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microalgas/fisiologia
12.
Aquat Toxicol ; 173: 120-131, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26859779

RESUMO

Loss of biodiversity and altered ecosystem functioning are driven by the cumulative effects of multiple natural and anthropogenic stressors affecting both quantity and quality of water resources. Here we performed a 40-day laboratory microcosm experiment to assess the individual and combined effects of drought and the model fungicide tebuconazole (TBZ) on leaf litter decomposition (LLD), a fundamental biogeochemical process in freshwater ecosystems. Starting out from a worst-case scenario perspective, leaf-associated microbial communities were exposed to severe drought conditions (four 5-day drought periods alternated with 4-day immersion periods) and/or a chronic exposure to TBZ (nominal concentration of 20µgL(-1)). We assessed the direct effects of drought and fungicide on the structure (biomass, diversity) and activity (extracellular enzymatic potential) of fungal and bacterial assemblages colonizing leaves. We also investigated indirect effects on the feeding rates of the amphipod Gammarus fossarum on leaves previously exposed to drought and/or TBZ contamination. Results indicate a stronger effect of drought stress than fungicide contamination under the experimental conditions applied. Indeed, the drought stress strongly impacted microbial community structure and activities, inhibiting the LLD process and leading to cascading effects on macroinvertebrate feeding. However, despite the lack of significant effect of TBZ applied alone, the effects of drought on microbial functions (i.e., decrease in LLD and in enzymatic activities) and on Gammarus feeding rates were more pronounced when drought and TBZ stresses were applied together. In a perspective of ecological risk assessment and ecosystem management for sustainability, these findings stress the need for deeper insight into how multiple stressors can affect the functioning of aquatic ecosystems and associated services.


Assuntos
Secas , Ecossistema , Microbiota , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Triazóis/farmacologia , Anfípodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Anfípodes/fisiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia Ambiental , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Água Doce/química , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
14.
Environ Pollut ; 208(Pt B): 821-9, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26608872

RESUMO

Streams located in vineyard areas are highly prone to metal pollution. In a context of global change, aquatic systems are generally subjected to multi-stress conditions due to multiple chemical and/or physical pressures. Among various environmental factors that modulate the ecological effects of toxicants, special attention should be paid to climate change, which is driving an increase in extreme climate events such as sharp temperature rises. In lotic ecosystems, periphyton ensures key ecological functions such as primary production and nutrient cycling. However, although the effects of metals on microbial communities are relatively well known, there is scant data on possible interactions between temperature increase and metal pollution. Here we led a study to evaluate the influence of temperature on the response of phototrophic periphyton to copper (Cu) exposure. Winter communities, collected in a 8 °C river water, were subjected for six weeks to four thermal conditions in microcosms in presence or not of Cu (nominal concentration of 15 µg L(-1)). At the initial river temperature (8 °C), our results confirmed the chronic impact of Cu on periphyton, both in terms of structure (biomass, distribution of algal groups, diatomic composition) and function (photosynthetic efficiency). At higher temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C), Cu effects were modulated. Indeed, temperature increase reduced Cu effects on algal biomass, algal class proportions, diatom assemblage composition and photosynthetic efficiency. This reduction of Cu effects on periphyton may be related to lower bioaccumulation of Cu and/or to selection of more Cu-tolerant species at higher temperatures.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Cobre/análise , Rios/química , Temperatura , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomassa , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A , Cobre/metabolismo , Cobre/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Diatomáceas/metabolismo , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Microbiologia da Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(6): 4025-36, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25037097

RESUMO

Streams located in vineyard areas are particularly exposed to mixtures of dissolved and particulate contaminants such as metals and organic pesticides. In this context, phototrophic biofilms are increasingly used as indicators of river water contaminations through pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) assessments based on short-term toxicity tests with individual or mixtures of toxicants. We conducted a laboratory experiment to evaluate the relative influence of the dissolved and particulate fractions on the effects of metals and pesticides on phototrophic biofilms in a context of contamination from a vineyard watershed. Three sets of artificial channels were supplied with (i) unfiltered water from a stream reference site, (ii) unfiltered water from a stream contaminated site, and (iii) filtered water (0.45 µm) from the same contaminated site. Biofilm growth, diatom community structure, and dissolved toxicant concentrations differed slightly between channels supplied with unfiltered or filtered water from the contaminated site. However, PICT assessments with individual toxicants or mixtures of toxicants extracted from passive samplers suggested no significant difference in tolerance to metals and organic pesticides between phototrophic communities supplied with unfiltered or filtered contaminated water. Our results confirm the use of extracts from passive samplers as a promising approach in short-term toxicity tests to characterize impacts of contamination on aquatic communities.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , França , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 22(6): 4037-45, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25167827

RESUMO

Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approaches involve comparing tolerance levels of natural communities to a particular contaminant or a contaminant mixture using short-term toxicity tests performed under controlled conditions. However, results from toxicity tests can be modulated by various environmental and experimental conditions, raising questions about their reproducibility and comparability. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the influence of exposure duration, periphyton suspension concentration, and periphyton maturation stage on the measurement of short-term effects of copper on phototrophic periphyton communities. Our results showed the very weak influence of exposure duration in the tested range (2-6 h) on toxicity level, whereas periphyton biomass in the tested suspension (in terms of both chlorophyll a concentrations and dry weight), proved a crucial determinant in toxicity assessment. Results also highlighted the potential tolerance increase with the periphyton maturation stage. This parameter conditioned the positive linear relationship between tolerance level and periphyton suspension concentration, leading to an increase in the linear regression slope with the maturation stage. This suggests that such a relationship is probably highly periphyton-dependent. Consequently, to enable data toxicity comparisons, an a priori normalization of the periphyton suspension biomass is necessary, and PICT approaches require the use, as much of possible, of periphyton with similar maturation stage. Finally, the present study clearly shows that a better standardization of PICT approaches could help to improve reproducibility. It could thus facilitate the comparison of tolerance levels measured in the same study (e.g., spatial and/or temporal and/or inter-treatment comparison) as well as the comparison obtained from different experimental and in situ research.


Assuntos
Biota/efeitos dos fármacos , Cobre/toxicidade , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Exposição Ambiental , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Análise de Variância , Biomassa , Biota/fisiologia , Clorofila/análise , Clorofila A , Cobre/análise , França , Modelos Lineares , Fatores de Tempo , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 90(3): 563-74, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25135322

RESUMO

The pollution of lakes and rivers by pesticides is a growing problem worldwide. However, the impacts of these substances on microbial communities are still poorly understood, partly because next-generation sequencing (NGS) has rarely been used in an ecotoxicology context to study bacterial communities despite its interest for accessing rare taxa. Microcosm experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of tebuconazole (TBZ) on the structure and composition of bacterial communities from two types of freshwater ecosystem (lakes and rivers) with differing histories of pollutant contamination (pristine vs. previously exposed sites). Pyrosequencing revealed that bacterial diversity was higher in the river than in the lakes and in previously exposed sites than in pristine sites. Lakes and river stations shared very few OTUs, and differences at the phylum level were identified between these ecosystems (i.e. the relative importance of Actinobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria). Despite differences between these ecosystems and their contamination history, no significant effect of TBZ on bacterial community structure or composition was observed. Compared to functional parameters that displayed variable responses, we demonstrated that a combination of classical methods and NGS is necessary to investigate the ecotoxicological responses of microbial communities to pollutants.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Lagos/microbiologia , Consórcios Microbianos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/microbiologia , Triazóis/toxicidade , Poluentes da Água/toxicidade , Actinobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria/genética , Sequência de Bases , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Gammaproteobacteria/efeitos dos fármacos , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Consórcios Microbianos/genética , Microbiota/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Chemosphere ; 117: 208-15, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25061887

RESUMO

Diuron was found to be mineralized in buffer strip soil (BS) and in the sediments (SED) of the Morcille river in the Beaujolais vineyard repeatedly treated with this herbicide. Enrichment cultures from BS and SED samples led to the isolation of three bacterial strains transforming diuron to 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) its aniline derivative. 16S rRNA sequencing revealed that they belonged to the genus Arthrobacter (99% of similarity to Arthrobacter globiformis strain K01-01) and were designated as Arthrobacter sp. BS1, BS2 and SED1. Diuron-degrading potential characterized by sequencing of the puhA gene, characterizing the diuron-degradaing potential, revealed 99% similarity to A. globiformis strain D47 puhA gene isolated a decade ago in the UK. These isolates were also able to use chlorotoluron for their growth. Although able to degrade linuron and monolinuron to related aniline derivatives they were not growing on them. Enrichment cultures led to the isolation of a strain from the sediments entirely degrading 3,4-DCA. 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that it was affiliated to the genus Achromobacter (99% of similarity to Achromobacter sp. CH1) and was designated as Achromobacter sp. SP1. The dcaQ gene encoding enzyme responsible for the transformation of 3,4-DCA to chlorocatechol was found in SP1 with 99% similarity to that of Comamonas testosteroni WDL7. This isolate also used for its growth a range of anilines (3-chloro-4-methyl-aniline, 4-isopropylaniline, 4-chloroaniline, 3-chloroaniline, 4-bromoaniline). The mixed culture composed of BS2 and SP1 strains entirely mineralizes (14)C-diuron to (14)CO2. Diuron-mineralization observed in the enrichment culture could result from the metabolic cooperation between these two populations.


Assuntos
Achromobacter/metabolismo , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Arthrobacter/metabolismo , Diurona/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , França , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 473-474: 496-506, 2014 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24388902

RESUMO

This study deals with the use of Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) extracts to assess the impact of low-dose pesticide mixtures on natural biofilm communities originating from either a chronically contaminated or a reference field site. To investigate how natural biofilm communities, pre-exposed to pesticides in situ or not might respond to environmentally realistic changes in pesticide pressure, they were exposed to either clean water or to POCIS extracts (PE) in order to represent toxic pressure with a realistic pesticide mixture directly isolated from the field. The impacts of PE were assessed on structure, physiology and growth of biofilms. Initial levels of tolerance of phototrophic communities to PE were also estimated at day 0. PE exposure led to negative effects on diatom growth kinetics independently of in-field biofilm exposure history. In contrast, the impacts observed on dry weight, ash-free dry mass and algal fluorescence-related parameters followed different trends depending on biofilm origin. Exposure to PE induced changes in diatom assemblages for the biofilm originating from the reference field site with higher relative abundance of Eolimna minima and Nitzschia palea with PE exposure. Initial tolerance of phototrophic communities to PE was 8-fold higher for the biofilm originating from the chronically contaminated site compared to the reference field site. The use of POCIS extracts allowed us to highlight both chronic impacts of low doses of a mixture of pesticides on natural communities with regard to biofilm exposure history as well as initial levels of tolerance of phototrophic communities.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento Ambiental , Medição de Risco
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