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1.
Evol Med Public Health ; 2020(1): 187-195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33209304

RESUMO

Background: Cancer is a common diagnosis in many mammalian species, yet they vary in their vulnerability to cancer. The factors driving this variation are unknown, but life history theory offers potential explanations to why cancer defense mechanisms are not equal across species. Methodology: Here we report the prevalence of neoplasia and malignancy in 37 mammalian species, representing 11 mammalian orders, using 42 years of well curated necropsy data from the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. We collected data on life history components of these species and tested for associations between life history traits and both neoplasia and malignancy, while controlling for phylogenetic history. Results: These results support Peto's paradox, in that we find no association between lifespan and/or body mass and the prevalence of neoplasia or malignancy. However, a positive relationship exists between litter size and prevalence of malignancy (P = 0.005, Adj. R2 = 0.212), suggesting that a species' life history strategy may influence cancer vulnerabilities. Lastly, we tested for the relationship between placental invasiveness and malignancy. We find no evidence for an association between placental depth and malignancy prevalence (P = 0.618, Adj. R2 = 0.068). Conclusions: Life history theory offers a powerful framework to understand variation in cancer defenses across the tree of life. These findings provide insight into the relationship between life history traits and cancer vulnerabilities, which suggest a trade-off between reproduction and cancer defenses. Lay summary: Why are some mammals more vulnerable to cancer than others? We test whether life history trade-offs may explain this variation in cancer risk. Bigger, longer-lived animals do not develop more cancer compared to smaller, shorter-lived animals. However, we find a positive association between litter size and cancer prevalence in mammals.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392794

RESUMO

A 12-year-old female African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis) displayed lethargy and anorexia for 1 week. Radiographs detected a moderately reduced volume of aerated lung with lobulated margins with the left lung predominantly affected. Transcelomic ultrasound revealed marked consolidation of the left lung. Postmortem examination confirmed suppurative and histiocytic pneumonia, worse in the left lung, caused by Mycobacterium chelonae. Given that amphibian pulmonary consolidation and celomic effusion can have similar radiographic findings, ultrasound may be helpful to differentiate.

3.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 135(2): 135-150, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392966

RESUMO

American bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus are thought to be important in the global spread of ranaviruses-often lethal viruses of cold-blooded vertebrates-because they are commonly farmed, dominate international trade, and may be 'carriers' of ranavirus infections. However, whether American bullfrogs are easily infected and maintain long-lasting ranavirus infections, or are refractory to or rapidly clear infections, remains unknown. We tracked the dynamics of ranavirus in American bullfrogs through time and with temperature in multiple types of samples and also screened shipments from commercial suppliers to determine whether we could detect subclinical infections. Collectively, we found that tadpoles and juveniles were commonly infected at moderate doses, and while some died, others controlled and appeared to clear their infections. Some individuals, however, harbored subclinical infections for up to 49 d, suggesting that American bullfrogs may be important carriers. Indeed, tadpoles and metamorphosed frogs from 2 of 5 commercial suppliers harbored subclinicial infections. Juveniles at warmer temperatures had less intense but still persistent infections. Because diagnostic performance was strongly related to infection intensity, non-lethal samples (i.e. tail or toe clips, swabs, and environmental DNA) had only a moderate chance of detecting subclinical infections. Even internal tissues may fail to detect subclinical infections. However, viral shedding was correlated with the intensity of infection, so while subclinically infected tadpoles shed virus for 35-49 d, the low levels might lead to little transmission. We suggest that a quantitative focus on virus dynamics within hosts can provide a more nuanced view of ranavirus infections and the risk presented by American bullfrogs in trade.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Ranavirus , Animais , Anuros , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Larva , Rana catesbeiana , Estados Unidos
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1896): 20182378, 2019 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963925

RESUMO

Amphibian skin is highly variable in structure and function across anurans, and plays an important role in physiological homeostasis and immune defence. For example, skin sloughing has been shown to reduce pathogen loads on the skin, such as the lethal fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd), but interspecific variation in sloughing frequency is largely unknown. Using phylogenetic linear mixed models, we assessed the relationship between skin turnover rate, skin morphology, ecological traits and overall evidence of Bd-driven declines. We examined skin sloughing rates in 21 frog species from three continents, as well as structural skin characteristics measured from preserved specimens. We found that sloughing rate varies significantly with phylogenetic group, but was not associated with evidence of Bd-driven declines, or other skin characteristics examined. This is the first comparison of sloughing rate across a wide range of amphibian species, and creates the first database of amphibian sloughing behaviour. Given the strong phylogenetic signal observed in sloughing rate, approximate sloughing rates of related species may be predicted based on phylogenetic position. While not related to available evidence of declines, understanding variation in sloughing rate may help explain differences in the severity of infection in genera with relatively slow skin turnover rates (e.g. Atelopus).


Assuntos
Anuros , Quitridiomicetos/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Anuros/fisiologia , Dermatomicoses/fisiopatologia , Filogenia
5.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(3): 696-705, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517641

RESUMO

A group of five juvenile Meller's chameleons (Trioceros melleri) experienced 100% mortality over a period of 1 mo due to ranavirus infection. The index case was found dead without premonitory signs. The three subsequent cases presented with nonspecific clinical signs (lethargy, decreased appetite, ocular discharge) and were ultimately euthanatized. The final case died after initially presenting with skin lesions. Postmortem examination revealed thin body condition in all five animals and mild coelomic effusion and petechiae affecting the tongue and kidneys of one animal. Microscopically, all animals had multifocal necrosis of the spleen, liver, and kidney; four of five animals had necrosis of the nasal cavity; and two of five had necrosis of adrenal tissue, bone marrow, and skin. Numerous basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusions were present in the liver of all animals and nasal mucosa of three of the five animals. Consensus polymerase chain reaction for herpesvirus and adenovirus were negative, whereas ranavirus quantitative polymerase chain reaction was positive. Virus isolation followed by whole genome sequencing and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis classified the isolates as a strain of frog virus 3 (FV3) most closely related to an FV3 isolate responsible for a previous outbreak in the zoo's eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) group. This case series documents the first known occurrence of ranavirus-associated disease in chameleons and demonstrates the potential for interspecies transmission between chelonian and squamate reptiles.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Lagartos/virologia , Ranavirus , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/mortalidade , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/patologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia
6.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204314, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325919

RESUMO

Spindly Leg Syndrome (SLS) is a persistent animal welfare issue associated with the rearing of amphibians in captivity. We conducted two experiments to investigate the effects of diet, water composition and overfeeding on prevalence of SLS in newly metamorphosed harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp.). In our first experiment, we offered 400 full-sibling tadpoles of Atelopus certus isocaloric diets in treatments of 31%, 37%, 42% and 48% crude protein respectively. Tadpoles fed higher protein diets metamorphosed faster, but the incidence of SLS exceeded 80% in all treatments leading to the conclusion that variation in dietary protein was not responsible for causing SLS. We used 720 full-sibling Atelopus glyphus tadpoles in a second experiment to examine the effects of diet type, water composition and diet ration on SLS. We found that an overall incidence of 58% spindly leg in tadpoles reared in tap water, but reduced to about 10% in water treated by reverse osmosis and then reconstituted. It is possible that the reverse osmosis treatment removed some factor that caused the SLS, or that the reconstitution may have added a mineral lacking in the original tap water. Within tap water treatments, overfeeding tadpoles in tanks increased the incidence of SLS. We recommend further experimental research into this condition to identify the causative factors in the water. Additional research into the nutritional composition of food available to wild tadpoles would be useful in formulating captive diets, that have to date been solely based on surrogate species.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Bufonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Água/análise , Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Proteínas na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Metamorfose Biológica
7.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 128(2): 93-103, 2018 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733024

RESUMO

Amphibian populations are in decline worldwide as they face a barrage of challenges, including infectious diseases caused by ranaviruses and the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Here we describe seasonal dynamics of Bd and ranavirus detection in free-ranging post-metamorphic wood frogs Lithobates sylvaticus, boreal chorus frogs Pseudacris maculata/triseriata, and gray treefrogs Hyla versicolor/chrysoscelis, sampled over a 3 season gradient in Minnesota (USA) wetlands. We detected Bd in 36% (n = 259) of individuals sampled in 3 wetlands in 2014, and 33% (n = 255) of individuals sampled in 8 wetlands in 2015. We also detected ranavirus in 60% and 18% of individuals sampled in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Ranavirus and Bd were detected concurrently in 26% and 2% of animals sampled in 2014 and 2015, respectively. We report clinical signs and associated infection status of sampled frogs; of the clinical signs observed, skin discoloration was significantly associated with ranavirus infection. Using generalized estimating equations, we found that species, season, wetland, and a species × season interaction term were significant predictors of Bd detection, whereas test year approached significance as a predictor of ranavirus detection. The odds of detecting both pathogens concurrently was significantly influenced by species, season, a species × season interaction term, year, and environmental ammonia. We propose an amphibian health monitoring scheme that couples population size surveys with seasonal molecular surveys of pathogen presence. This information is crucial to monitoring the health of remaining strongholds of healthy amphibian populations, as they face an uncertain future of further anthropogenic change.


Assuntos
Anuros/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Ranavirus , Animais , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/virologia , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/microbiologia , Áreas Alagadas
8.
Ecol Evol ; 7(23): 10216-10232, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238549

RESUMO

As extinctions continue across the globe, conservation biologists are turning to species reintroduction programs as one optimistic tool for addressing the biodiversity crisis. For repatriation to become a viable strategy, fundamental prerequisites include determining the causes of declines and assessing whether the causes persist in the environment. Invasive species-especially pathogens-are an increasingly significant factor contributing to biodiversity loss. We hypothesized that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of the deadly amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, was important in the rapid (<10 years) localized extirpation of a North American frog (Rana boylii) and that Bd remains widespread among extant amphibians in the region of extirpation. We used an interdisciplinary approach, combining interviews with herpetological experts, analysis of archived field notes and museum specimen collections, and field sampling of the extant amphibian assemblage to examine (1) historical relative abundance of R. boylii; (2) potential causes of R. boylii declines; and (3) historical and contemporary prevalence of Bd. We found that R. boylii were relatively abundant prior to their rapid extirpation, and an increase in Bd prevalence coincided with R. boylii declines during a time of rapid change in the region, wherein backcountry recreation, urban development, and the amphibian pet trade were all on the rise. In addition, extreme flooding during the winter of 1969 coincided with localized extirpations in R. boylii populations observed by interview respondents. We conclude that Bd likely played an important role in the rapid extirpation of R. boylii from southern California and that multiple natural and anthropogenic factors may have worked in concert to make this possible in a relatively short period of time. This study emphasizes the importance of recognizing historical ecological contexts in making future management and reintroduction decisions.

9.
Vet Pathol ; 54(3): 355-357, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438113
10.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 47(3): 855-861, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27691969

RESUMO

Recurrent eosinophilic granuloma (EG) in two captive eastern black rhinoceros ( Diceros bicornis michaeli) was effectively managed with glucocorticoids and antihistamines. The first case was a female and the second case was a male. The animals were housed at separate institutions and initially presented with hemorrhagic oral lesions. Multifocal lesions occurred in the second case. Multiple biopsies were taken from each animal, all of which were consistent with EG. Each animal was anesthetized multiple times for surgical treatment but experienced frequent recurrence. Due to lack of response to therapy and the risks and adverse events associated with repeated anesthesia, medical treatment was initiated in both cases using a tapering dose of oral dexamethasone. The lesions dramatically improved, but would recur frequently after treatment. Hydroxyzine, an oral antihistamine, greatly reduced the incidence and severity of the lesions. Medical management with glucocorticoids and antihistamines minimized stressful anesthetic events in both cases and contributed to the successful management of this recurrent disease. The exact pathogenesis of EG in black rhinoceros remains unknown but response to antihistamines suggests an allergic etiology.


Assuntos
Crioterapia/veterinária , Granuloma Eosinófilo/veterinária , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/uso terapêutico , Perissodáctilos , Animais , Granuloma Eosinófilo/terapia , Feminino , Masculino , Doenças da Boca/veterinária , Mucosa Bucal/patologia
12.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 46(4): 941-4, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26667557

RESUMO

A 7-yr-old male captive American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) presented with a 2-wk history of an enlarged, ulcerated nuptial pad on the mediopalmar surface of the first digit of the left carpus. A 3-mm wedge biopsy of the mass was not diagnostic and differentials included an epidermal inclusion cyst or squamous cell carcinoma. No fungal or acid-fast organisms were cultured or noted on impression smear. Wide surgical resection of the mass and associated first digit were performed. Histopathology confirmed squamous cell carcinoma associated with the dermal nuptial gland with neoplastic cells extending close to deep surgical margins. Two months after surgery, no recurrence was noted. Although experimental tumor studies in amphibians are well documented, clinical reports of cutaneous neoplasia management in captive amphibians are scarce. Squamous cell carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis when male anurans present with nuptial gland enlargement.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/veterinária , Membro Anterior/cirurgia , Rana catesbeiana/cirurgia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/veterinária , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia
14.
PLoS One ; 10(6): e0125330, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26083349

RESUMO

We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease. Standardized population monitoring of key amphibian and reptile species should be established with urgency to enable early detection of potential impacts of disease emergence in this global biodiversity hotspot.


Assuntos
Anuros/virologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Micoses/veterinária , Ranavirus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia da Água , Animais , Anuros/microbiologia , Biodiversidade , Quitridiomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/epidemiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Micoses/epidemiologia
15.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0115656, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25738656

RESUMO

The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a major conservation concern because of its role in decimating amphibian populations worldwide. We used quantitative PCR to screen 244 museum specimens from the Korean Peninsula, collected between 1911 and 2004, for the presence of Bd to gain insight into its history in Asia. Three specimens of Rugosa emeljanovi (previously Rana or Glandirana rugosa), collected in 1911 from Wonsan, North Korea, tested positive for Bd. Histology of these positive specimens revealed mild hyperkeratosis - a non-specific host response commonly found in Bd-infected frogs - but no Bd zoospores or zoosporangia. Our results indicate that Bd was present in Korea more than 100 years ago, consistent with hypotheses suggesting that Korean amphibians may be infected by endemic Asian Bd strains.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/microbiologia , Quitridiomicetos/genética , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Genes Fúngicos , História do Século XX , Micoses/história , República da Coreia
16.
Zoo Biol ; 33(6): 485-501, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25296396

RESUMO

Amphibian biology is intricate, and there are many inter-related factors that need to be understood before establishing successful Conservation Breeding Programs (CBPs). Nutritional needs of amphibians are highly integrated with disease and their husbandry needs, and the diversity of developmental stages, natural habitats, and feeding strategies result in many different recommendations for proper care and feeding. This review identifies several areas where there is substantial room for improvement in maintaining healthy ex situ amphibian populations specifically in the areas of obtaining and utilizing natural history data for both amphibians and their dietary items, achieving more appropriate environmental parameters, understanding stress and hormone production, and promoting better physical and population health. Using a scientific or research framework to answer questions about disease, nutrition, husbandry, genetics, and endocrinology of ex situ amphibians will improve specialists' understanding of the needs of these species. In general, there is a lack of baseline data and comparative information for most basic aspects of amphibian biology as well as standardized laboratory approaches. Instituting a formalized research approach in multiple scientific disciplines will be beneficial not only to the management of current ex situ populations, but also in moving forward with future conservation and reintroduction projects. This overview of gaps in knowledge concerning ex situ amphibian care should serve as a foundation for much needed future research in these areas.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais de Zoológico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia , Anfíbios/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/prevenção & controle , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/veterinária , Cruzamento/métodos , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina A/veterinária
17.
Zoo Biol ; 33(6): 586-91, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25279727

RESUMO

The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney's Animal Kingdom Workshop on "Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition," identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities. Four general areas of improvement were identified in relation to how measurements are currently being taken to evaluate ex situ amphibian health: nutrition, infectious diseases, husbandry, and integrated biology including genetics and endocrinology. The proposed actions that will be taken in order to address the identified gaps include: (1) identify and quantify major health issues affecting ex situ amphibian populations, (2) identify and coordinate laboratories to conduct analyses using standardized and validated protocols to measure nutritional, infectious diseases, genetic, and hormonal parameters, (3) determine in situ baseline distribution of parameters related to amphibian health, and (4) establish an inter-disciplinary research approach to target specific hypotheses related to amphibian health such as the effects of population genetics (e.g., relatedness, inbreeding) on disease susceptibility, or how environmental parameters are related to chronic stress and hormone production. We think is important to address current gaps in knowledge regarding amphibian health in order to increase the probability to succeed in addressing the issues faced by in situ and ex situ amphibians populations. We are confident that the recommendations provided in this manuscript will facilitate to address these challenges and could have a positive impact in both the health of in situ and ex situ amphibian populations, worldwide.


Assuntos
Anfíbios/fisiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais de Zoológico , Cruzamento/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Pesquisa/tendências , Animais , Coleta de Dados/métodos , Educação , Genética Populacional
18.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 111(2): 139-52, 2014 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25266901

RESUMO

A captive 'survival assurance' population of 56 endangered boreal toads Anaxyrus boreas boreas, housed within a cosmopolitan collection of amphibians originating from Southeast Asia and other locations, experienced high mortality (91%) in April to July 2010. Histological examination demonstrated lesions consistent with ranaviral disease, including multicentric necrosis of skin, kidney, liver, spleen, and hematopoietic tissue, vasculitis, and myriad basophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. Initial confirmation of ranavirus infection was made by Taqman real-time PCR analysis of a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene and detection of iridovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy. Preliminary DNA sequence analysis of the MCP, DNA polymerase, and neurofilament protein (NFP) genes demonstrated highest identity with Bohle iridovirus (BIV). A virus, tentatively designated zoo ranavirus (ZRV), was subsequently isolated, and viral protein profiles, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, and next generation DNA sequencing were performed. Comparison of a concatenated set of 4 ZRV genes, for which BIV sequence data are available, with sequence data from representative ranaviruses confirmed that ZRV was most similar to BIV. This is the first report of a BIV-like agent outside of Australia. However, it is not clear whether ZRV is a novel North American variant of BIV or whether it was acquired by exposure to amphibians co-inhabiting the same facility and originating from different geographic locations. Lastly, several surviving toads remained PCR-positive 10 wk after the conclusion of the outbreak. This finding has implications for the management of amphibians destined for use in reintroduction programs, as their release may inadvertently lead to viral dissemination.


Assuntos
Bufonidae/virologia , Iridovirus/isolamento & purificação , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Hospitais Veterinários , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas Virais , Viroses/virologia
19.
Zoo Biol ; 33(6): 516-26, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25255888

RESUMO

The success of ex situ survival assurance populations as tools for amphibian conservation depends on the health and reproductive success of founder populations. Necropsy examination and histopathology of animals that die in assurance populations are useful for the identification of population-limiting disease problems and can help to direct applied research efforts in areas such as amphibian husbandry and nutrition. This study reviewed postmortem findings in 167 frogs from 13 species that died in a large Panamanian rescue and survival assurance population between 2006 and 2011. Common problems identified in long-term captive animals, especially in Atelopus species, were epithelial squamous metaplasia suggestive of vitamin A deficiency and a polycystic nephropathy resembling lesions seen in laboratory animals with electrolyte imbalances. Metabolic bone disease was a significant contributor to morbidity in captive-bred juvenile frogs of Gastrotheca cornuta, Hemiphractus fasciatus, and Hylomantis lemur. Findings common to multiple species included poor overall nutritional condition that was sometimes attributable to maladaptation to captive husbandry and epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis possibly reflecting environmental skin irritation. Infectious diseases and endoparasitism were most common in recently captured animals and included chytridiomycosis and Rhabdias sp. lungworms. Applied research efforts to improve sustainability of survival assurance populations should focus on elucidating optimal husbandry practices for diverse species, improving methods for nutritional supplementation of cultured insects and examination of the role of water composition in disease development.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico , Anuros , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/veterinária , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Metaplasia/veterinária , Mortalidade , Doenças Renais Policísticas/veterinária , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Ósseas Metabólicas/patologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Metaplasia/epidemiologia , Metaplasia/patologia , Panamá/epidemiologia , Doenças Renais Policísticas/epidemiologia , Doenças Renais Policísticas/patologia , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Zoo Biol ; 33(6): 508-15, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25138440

RESUMO

Vitamin A deficiency is a recently recognized nutritional disease in amphibians fed insect-based diets. The classic pathologic lesion that has been associated with hypovitaminosis A in amphibians is squamous metaplasia of the lingual and oral mucosa. In an attempt to further characterize the range of lesions that may be associated with vitamin A deficiency, we reviewed archived amphibian necropsy reports from three facilities. As previously reported, the tongue was the most commonly affected site in animals presenting with squamous metaplasia. However, metaplastic changes were also observed in a variety of locations that included the oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, cloaca, skin, urinary bladder, ureter, and reproductive tract. In addition, species and age-specific differences were noted in the development of squamous metaplasia. This review highlights the need to establish standardized guidelines for optimal postmortem tissue sampling of amphibians in order to maximize the accurate diagnosis of pathologic lesions that may be associated with hypovitaminosis A. Zoo Biol. 33:508-515, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals Inc.


Assuntos
Anfíbios , Animais de Zoológico , Metaplasia/patologia , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Manejo de Espécimes/veterinária , Língua/patologia , Deficiência de Vitamina A/diagnóstico , Deficiência de Vitamina A/patologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Metaplasia/etiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Deficiência de Vitamina A/complicações
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