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1.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 435-448, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012324

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: Prostate cancer is the most common and fatal cancer amongst Brazilian males. The quality of prostate cancer care in Brazil was systematically reviewed and compared to United Kingdom (UK) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, which are considered an international benchmark in care, to deter- mine any treatment gaps in Brazilian practice. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of Brazilian and UK literature was under- taken. Additionally, quality of life scores was measured using a FACT-P questionnaire of 36 prostate cancer patients attending the Farmácia Universitária da Universidade de São Paulo (FARMUSP). These scores were compared against NICE care measures for patient safety, clinical efficacy and quality of life indicators determined by either quantitative or qualitative methods. Key findings: The quality of prostate cancer care in Brazil was considered good when compared to NICE guidelines. However, FACT-P data strongly indicated a poor under- standing of treatment received by Brazilian patients and that their mental health needs were not being met. Conclusions: NICE quality statements that address the holistic needs of patients should be implemented into Brazilian outpatient care plans. Addressing the non-medical concerns of patients may improve quality of life and can be easily rolled-out through existing Brazilian pharmacy services at no financial cost to the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).

2.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-11, 2018 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995576

RESUMO

The efficacy of a simple laboratory method for cell disruption based on the glass bead stirring, sonication, osmotic shock, freezing and grinding, or use of solvents and detergents was assessed in this study, via measurements of the release of total protein and L-asparaginase activity. Three different microbial sources of L-asparaginase were used: Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), Leucosporidium muscorum, and Aspergillus terreus (CCT 7693). This study adjusted and identified the best procedure for each kind of microorganism. Sonication and glass bead stirring led to obtaining filamentous fungus cell-free extracts containing high concentrations of soluble proteins and specific activity; however, sonication was the best since it obtained 4.61 ± 0.12 IU mg-1 after 3 min of operation time. Mechanical methods were also the most effective for yeast cell disruption, but sonication was the technique which yielded a higher efficiency releasing 7.3 IUtotal compared to glass bead stirring releasing 2.7 IUtotal at the same operation time. For bacterium, sonication proved to be the best procedure due to getting the highest specific activity (9.01 IU mg-1) and total enzyme activity (61.7 IU). The data presented lead to conclude that the mechanical methods appeared to be the most effective for the disintegration of the all microbial cells studies. This is the first report related to the experimental comparison of L-ASNase extraction procedures from different microorganisms, which can also be used for extracting periplasm located enzymes from other organisms.

3.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 119-127, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-974317

RESUMO

Abstract Nowadays, it is necessary to search for different high-scale production strategies to produce recombinant proteins of economic interest. Only a few microorganisms are industrially relevant for recombinant protein production: methylotrophic yeasts are known to use methanol efficiently as the sole carbon and energy source. Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast characterized as being an economical, fast and effective system for heterologous protein expression. Many factors can affect both the product and the production, including the promoter, carbon source, pH, production volume, temperature, and many others; but to control all of them most of the time is difficult and this depends on the initial selection of each variable. Therefore, this review focuses on the selection of the best promoter in the recombination process, considering different inductors, and the temperature as a culture medium variable in methylotrophic Pichia pastoris yeast. The goal is to understand the effects associated with different factors that influence its cell metabolism and to reach the construction of an expression system that fulfills the requirements of the yeast, presenting an optimal growth and development in batch, fed-batch or continuous cultures, and at the same time improve its yield in heterologous protein production.

4.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(supl.1): 51-63, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839328

RESUMO

ABSTRACT The use of biopharmaceuticals dates from the 19th century and within 5-10 years, up to 50% of all drugs in development will be biopharmaceuticals. In the 1980s, the biopharmaceutical industry experienced a significant growth in the production and approval of recombinant proteins such as interferons (IFN α, β, and γ) and growth hormones. The production of biopharmaceuticals, known as bioprocess, involves a wide range of techniques. In this review, we discuss the technology involved in the bioprocess and describe the available strategies and main advances in microbial fermentation and purification process to obtain biopharmaceuticals.

5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 475-483, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723102

RESUMO

Pichia pastoris is methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production. In order to evaluate the effects of temperature (10 and 30 °C) and methanol (1 and 3% (v/v)) on genetically-modified Pichia pastoris, different biomarkers were evaluated: Heat stress (HSF-1 and Hsp70), oxidative stress (OGG1 and TBARS) and antioxidant (GLR). Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol-10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol-30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol-10°C. The expression level of HIF-1α, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. Ours results show that at 3% methanol -30 °C there is an increase of mitochondrial OGG1 (mtOGG1), Glutathione Reductase (GLR) and TBARS. In addition, there was a cytosolic expression of HSF-1 and HSP-70, which indicates a deprotection against nucleolar fragmentation (apoptosis). On the other hand, at 3% methanol -10 °C and 1% and at methanol -10 °C conditions there was nuclear expression of OGG1, lower levels of TBARS and lower expression of GLR, cytosolic expression of HSF-1 and nuclear expression HSP-70. In conclusion, our results suggest that 3% methanol-30 °C is a condition that induces a strong oxidative stress and risk factors of apoptosis in modified-genetically P. pastoris.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Metanol/metabolismo , Pichia/efeitos dos fármacos , Pichia/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/análise , Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Temperatura Alta , Estresse Oxidativo , Pichia/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 485-490, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723103

RESUMO

Pichia pastoris is a methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production as compared to other expression systems. Considering that every cell must respond to environmental changes to survive and differentiate, determination of endogenous protein related to heat stress responses and hypoxia, it would necessary to establish the temperature and methanol concentration conditions for optimal growth. The aim of this study is characterize the culture conditions through the putative biomarkers in different conditions of temperature and methanol concentration. Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol -10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol -30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol -10 °C. The expression level of HIF-1α, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. The western blot results of HIF-1α and HSP-90 did not indicate statistically significant in the culture conditions studied. Respect to biomarkers location, HIF-1α and HSP-90 presented differences between cultures. In conclusion, the results suggest the cultures in a hypoxic condition produce a high density and yeast cells smaller. Beside the high density would not necessary related with a high production of recombinant proteins in modified-genetically P. pastoris.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/análise , Pichia/química , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anaerobiose , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Western Blotting , Fermentação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Metanol/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 545-550, Apr.-June 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723119

RESUMO

Fungal infections have become a major problem of worldwide concern. Yeasts belonging to the Candida genus and the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans are responsible for different clinical manifestations, especially in immunocompromised patients. Antifungal therapies are currently based on a few chemotherapeutic agents that have problems related to effectiveness and resistance profiles. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent systems of oil, water and surfactant that can improve the solubilization of lipophilic drugs. Taking into account the need for more effective and less toxic drugs along with the potential of thiophene derivatives as inhibitors of pathogenic fungi growth, this study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of a thiophene derivative (5CN05) embedded in a microemulsion (ME). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the microdilution method using amphotericin B as a control. The formulations tested (ME- blank and ME-5CN05) showed physico-chemical properties that would allow their use by the topical route. 5CN05 as such exhibited moderate or weak antifungal activity against Candida species (MIC = 270-540 µg.mL-1) and good activity against C. neoformans (MIC = 17 µg.mL-1). Candida species were susceptible to ME-5CN05 (70-140 µg.mL-1), but C. neoformans was much more, presenting a MIC value of 2.2 µg.mL-1. The results of this work proved promising for the pharmaceutical industry, because they suggest an alternative therapy against C. neoformans.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Emulsões/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
8.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 45(2): 731-742, Apr.-June 2014. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-723140

RESUMO

Safety issues related to the employment of synthetic colorants in different industrial segments have increased the interest in the production of colorants from natural sources, such as microorganisms. Improved cultivation technologies have allowed the use of microorganisms as an alternative source of natural colorants. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of some factors on natural colorants production by a recently isolated from Amazon Forest, Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 employing statistical tools. To this purpose the following variables: orbital stirring speed, pH, temperature, sucrose and yeast extract concentrations and incubation time were studied through two fractional factorial, one full factorial and a central composite factorial designs. The regression analysis pointed out that sucrose and yeast extract concentrations were the variables that influenced more in colorants production. Under the best conditions (yeast extract concentration around 10 g/L and sucrose concentration of 50 g/L) an increase of 10, 33 and 23% respectively to yellow, orange and red colorants absorbance was achieved. These results show that P. purpurogenum is an alternative colorants producer and the production of these biocompounds can be improved employing statistical tool.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Penicillium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Penicillium/metabolismo , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Meios de Cultura/química , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 44(2): 351-356, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-688566

RESUMO

The innovation in industrial process with impact in the efficient production is the major challenge for actual industry. A high numerous of enzymes are utilized in at different level of process; the search for new alternatives with better characteristic has become a field of study of great interest, the recombinant protein achievement in a different host system is an alternative widely assessed for production of this. The microorganism Pichia pastoris has been used like a successful expression system in diverse areas, improved the yield and extraction-recovery of the product expressed. The reported of diverse authors in the production of enzymes with different application in industry is varied, in this review the different industry areas and the characteristic of the enzymes produced are detailed.


Assuntos
Vetores Genéticos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Pichia/genética , Pichia/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo
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