Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 109
Filtrar
1.
Neuron ; 2020 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169171

RESUMO

ACOX1 (acyl-CoA oxidase 1) encodes the first and rate-limiting enzyme of the very-long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) ß-oxidation pathway in peroxisomes and leads to H2O2 production. Unexpectedly, Drosophila (d) ACOX1 is mostly expressed and required in glia, and loss of ACOX1 leads to developmental delay, pupal death, reduced lifespan, impaired synaptic transmission, and glial and axonal loss. Patients who carry a previously unidentified, de novo, dominant variant in ACOX1 (p.N237S) also exhibit glial loss. However, this mutation causes increased levels of ACOX1 protein and function resulting in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species in glia in flies and murine Schwann cells. ACOX1 (p.N237S) patients exhibit a severe loss of Schwann cells and neurons. However, treatment of flies and primary Schwann cells with an antioxidant suppressed the p.N237S-induced neurodegeneration. In summary, both loss and gain of ACOX1 lead to glial and neuronal loss, but different mechanisms are at play and require different treatments.

2.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(1): 102-112, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31803918

RESUMO

Myopathies during chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) are syndromes for which tissue targets and mechanisms of muscle damage remain incompletely defined. This study reviewed, and pathologically analyzed, 14 cGvHD myopathies, comparing myopathology to other immune myopathies. Clinical features in cGvHD myopathy included symmetric, proximal weakness, associated skin, gastrointestinal and lung disorders, a high serum aldolase (77%), and a 38% 2-year survival. Muscle showed noninflammatory pathology involving all 3 tissue components. Perimysial connective tissue had damaged structure and histiocytic cells. Vessel pathology included capillary loss, and reduced α-l-fucosyl and chondroitin sulfate moieties on endothelial cells. Muscle fibers often had surface pathology. Posttranslational glycosylation moieties on α-dystroglycan had reduced staining and abnormal distribution in 86%. Chondroitin-SO4 was reduced in 50%, a subgroup with 3-fold longer times from transplant to myopathy, and more distal weakness. cGvHD myopathies have noninflammatory pathology involving all 3 tissue components in muscle, connective tissue, small vessels, and myofibers. Abnormal cell surface glycosylation moieties are common in cGvHD myopathies, distinguishing them from other immune myopathies. This is the first report of molecular classes that may be immune targets in cGvHD. Disordered cell surface glycosylation moieties could produce disease-related tissue and cell damage, and be biomarkers for cGvHD features and activity.

3.
Muscle Nerve ; 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650561

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Causes of small-fiber peripheral neuropathies (SFN) are often undefined. In this study we investigated associations of serum autoantibodies, immunoglobulin G (IgG) vs fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR-3), and immunoglobulin M (IgM) vs trisulfated heparan disaccharide (TS-HDS) in cryptogenic SFN. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven SFN and no identified cause for their neuropathy were blindly tested for serum IgM vs TS-HDS and IgG vs FGFR-3. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of SFN patients had serum antibodies, 37% with IgM vs TS-HDS and 15% with IgG vs FGFR-3. TS-HDS antibodies were more frequent in SFN patients than in controls (P = .0012). Both antibodies were more common in females, and with non-length-dependent nerve pathology. Nintey-two percent of patients with acute-onset SFN had serum IgM vs TS-HDS. DISCUSSION: Autoantibodies directed against TS-HDS and FGFR-3 suggest an immune disorder in otherwise idiopathic SFN. Serum IgM vs TS-HDS may be a marker for SFN with an acute onset.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608711

RESUMO

Objective: To conduct a phase-II trial using a ranking and selection paradigm where multiple treatments are compared with limited sample size and the best is chosen for a subsequent efficacy trial versus placebo. This strategy can find an effective treatment faster than traditional strategy of conducting larger trials against placebo. Methods: Sixty amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) participants were randomized 1:1:1 to creatine 30 g/day (CRE), tamoxifen 40 mg/day (T40), or tamoxifen 80 mg/day (T80), with matching placebo. The primary outcome was 38-week change in ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R), analyzed in a repeated-measures ANOVA. Secondary outcomes included slow vital capacity (SVC), quantitative muscle strength, early drug discontinuation (EDD), adverse events (AEs), and survival. Results: CRE participants experienced higher rates of drug-related AEs (82% vs. 43% T40, 47% T80) and EDD (50% vs. 24% T40, 29% T80). T80 participants experienced slower adjusted mean decline in ALSFRS-R in points/month (-0.80 vs. -0.84 T40, -0.85 CRE) and quantitative muscle strength but not in SVC and higher rates of mortality. Conclusion: Efficacy of T80 ranked numerically superior to CRE and T40 with respect to ALSFRS-R decline. Following the selection paradigm, T80 would be chosen to test against placebo. The approach was not designed to distinguish among treatments that are nearly equally effective or ineffective. If treatments are equivalent, then under the paradigm, it does not matter which treatment is selected. Newer approaches for increasing trial efficiency, including an adaptive platform trial design, may mitigate limitations of the selection design.

5.
Neurology ; 92(15): e1763-e1772, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the features of a new, pathologically distinctive, acquired myopathy with an unusual pattern of scattered necrotic muscle fibers that are neighbored, surrounded, or invaded, by large, often multinucleated, histiocytic cells. METHODS: Retrospective review of records and muscle pathology of 4 patients. RESULTS: Clinical features common to our patients included muscle pain and proximal, symmetric, moderate to severe, weakness in the arms and legs progressing over 1-4 weeks. Patients had other associated systemic disorders, including anemia in all, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, hepatic disease, Raynaud phenomenon, metastatic cancer, and cardiomyopathy, in 1 patient each. Serum creatine kinase (CK) levels at presentation were very high, ranging from 10,000 to 102,000 U/L. Three patients improved within 3 months after treatment. Muscle pathology included scattered necrotic muscle fibers with cytoplasm that stained for C5b-9 complement, especially around fiber peripheries, pale on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and often dark on hematoxylin & eosin. Large, often multinucleated, cells with features of histiocytes, including anatomical features on electron microscopy and immunostaining for major histocompatibility complex Class I and histiocyte markers (HAM56, CD68, CD163, and S100), were usually closely apposed to the surface of, or invaded, necrotic myofibers. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with large-histiocyte-associated myopathy (LHIM) had a subacute onset of proximal predominant weakness, associated systemic disorders, very high serum CK, and a pathologically distinctive pattern of large histiocyte-associated muscle fiber necrosis. LHIM may be caused by an autoimmune, histiocyte-mediated attack directed against muscle fibers.


Assuntos
Histiócitos/patologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/patologia , Doenças Musculares/imunologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Necrose , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 20(3): 103-110, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801480

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraepidermal nerve fiber density in patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia (FM) and to evaluate the role of IgM binding to trisulfated heparin disaccharide (TS-HDS) in these patients. METHODS: FM is a poorly understood pain disorder with several proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. It is characterized by widespread pain, fatigue, and sleep abnormalities. Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) has been proposed as an underlying mechanism, and patients with FM have been shown to have a reduction in the intraepidermal nerve fiber density. An underlying inflammatory process that could be a result of autoimmune phenomena has also been suggested. Non-length-dependent SFN (NLDSFN) has been shown to have a higher incidence of autoimmune disease. Twenty-two patients with established diagnosis of FM underwent skin biopsy at 2 sites; 10 cm above the lateral malleolus and 10 cm above the patella. Serum IgM binding to TS-HDS was assayed using an ELISA method. RESULTS: A total of 5/22 patients had positive TS-HDS antibodies; of these, 4 had NLDSFN (P = 0.0393). Comparison with a control group at Washington University showed no significant difference in percentage with TS-HDS antibodies (P = 0.41). When compared with Washington University database of skin biopsy, there was a trend for an increased percentage of NLDSFN in patients with FM (P = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: This study further supports the hypothesis that a subgroup of patients with FM has SFN. We suggest a correlation between the presence of NLDSFN and TS-HDS antibodies.


Assuntos
Dissacarídeos/metabolismo , Fibromialgia/complicações , Fibromialgia/epidemiologia , Heparina/análogos & derivados , Imunoglobulina M/farmacologia , Neuropatia de Pequenas Fibras/epidemiologia , Neuropatia de Pequenas Fibras/etiologia , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais/sangue , Dissacarídeos/imunologia , Feminino , Heparina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Ligação Proteica
7.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(3): 167-186, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770310

RESUMO

This multicenter/multinational, open-label, ascending-dose study (NCT01898364) evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and exploratory efficacy of repeat-dose avalglucosidase alfa (neoGAA), a second-generation, recombinant acid α-glucosidase replacement therapy, in late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD). Patients ≥18 years, alglucosidase alfa naïve (Naïve) or previously receiving alglucosidase alfa for ≥9 months (Switch), with baseline FVC ≥50% predicted and independently ambulatory, received every-other-week avalglucosidase alfa 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg over 24 weeks. 9/10 Naïve and 12/14 Switch patients completed the study. Avalglucosidase alfa was well-tolerated; no deaths/life-threatening serious adverse events (SAEs). One Naïve patient withdrew for study drug-related SAEs (respiratory distress/chest discomfort). Infusion-associated reactions (IARs) affected 8 patients. Most treatment-emergent AEs/IARs were non-serious with mild-to-moderate intensity. At screening, 5 Switch patients tested positive for anti-avalglucosidase alfa antibodies; on-treatment, 2 Switch and 9 Naïve patients seroconverted. Post-infusion, avalglucosidase alfa plasma concentrations declined monoexponentially (t1/2z∼1.0 h). AUC was 5-6 × higher in the 20 vs 5 mg/kg group. Pharmacokinetics were similar between Switch and Naïve groups and over time. Baseline quadriceps muscle glycogen was low (∼6%) in most patients, generally remaining unchanged thereafter. Exploratory efficacy parameters (pulmonary function/functional capacity) generally remained stable or improved. Avalglucosidase alfa's well-tolerated safety profile and exploratory efficacy results support further avalglucosidase alfa development.

8.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 28(8): 675-679, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29934118

RESUMO

Mutations in MYH2 that encodes myosin heavy chain IIa cause both dominant and recessively inherited myopathies. Patients with dominantly inherited MYH2 missense mutations present with ophthalmoplegia and progressive proximal limb weakness. Muscle biopsy reveals rimmed vacuoles and inclusions, prompting this entity to initially be described as hereditary inclusion body myopathy 3. In contrast, patients with recessive MYH2 mutations have early onset, non-progressive, diffuse weakness and ophthalmoplegia. Muscle biopsy reveals near or complete absence of type 2A fibers with no vacuole or inclusion pathology. We describe a patient with childhood onset ophthalmoplegia, progressive proximal muscle weakness beginning in adolescence, and muscle biopsy with myopathic changes and rimmed vacuoles. Although this patient's disease course and histopathology is consistent with dominant MYH2 mutations, whole exome sequencing revealed a c.737 G>A p.Arg246His homozygous MYH2 variant. These findings expand the clinical and pathologic phenotype of recessive MYH2 myopathies.


Assuntos
Debilidade Muscular/genética , Doenças Musculares/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Doenças Musculares/patologia
9.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 89(10): 1071-1081, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29735511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Dysferlinopathies are a group of muscle disorders caused by mutations in the DYSF gene. Previous muscle imaging studies describe a selective pattern of muscle involvement in smaller patient cohorts, but a large imaging study across the entire spectrum of the dysferlinopathies had not been performed and previous imaging findings were not correlated with functional tests. METHODS: We present cross-sectional T1-weighted muscle MRI data from 182 patients with genetically confirmed dysferlinopathies. We have analysed the pattern of muscles involved in the disease using hierarchical analysis and presented it as heatmaps. Results of the MRI scans have been correlated with relevant functional tests for each region of the body analysed. RESULTS: In 181 of the 182 patients scanned, we observed muscle pathology on T1-weighted images, with the gastrocnemius medialis and the soleus being the most commonly affected muscles. A similar pattern of involvement was identified in most patients regardless of their clinical presentation. Increased muscle pathology on MRI correlated positively with disease duration and functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The information generated by this study is of high diagnostic value and important for clinical trial development. We have been able to describe a pattern that can be considered as characteristic of dysferlinopathy. We have defined the natural history of the disease from a radiological point of view. These results enabled the identification of the most relevant regions of interest for quantitative MRI in longitudinal studies, such as clinical trials. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01676077.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Distrofia Muscular do Cíngulo dos Membros/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Ann Neurol ; 83(6): 1105-1124, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Comprehensive clinical characterization of congenital titinopathy to facilitate diagnosis and management of this important emerging disorder. METHODS: Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 30 patients from 27 families with 2 pathogenic nonsense, frameshift and/or splice site TTN mutations in trans. We then undertook a detailed analysis of the clinical, histopathological and imaging features of these patients. RESULTS: All patients had prenatal or early onset hypotonia and/or congenital contractures. None had ophthalmoplegia. Scoliosis and respiratory insufficiency typically developed early and progressed rapidly, whereas limb weakness was often slowly progressive, and usually did not prevent independent walking. Cardiac involvement was present in 46% of patients. Relatives of 2 patients had dilated cardiomyopathy. Creatine kinase levels were normal to moderately elevated. Increased fiber size variation, internalized nuclei and cores were common histopathological abnormalities. Cap-like regions, whorled or ring fibers, and mitochondrial accumulations were also observed. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging showed gluteal, hamstring and calf muscle involvement. Western blot analysis showed a near-normal sized titin protein in all samples. The presence of 2 mutations predicted to impact both N2BA and N2B cardiac isoforms appeared to be associated with greatest risk of cardiac involvement. One-third of patients had 1 mutation predicted to impact exons present in fetal skeletal muscle, but not included within the mature skeletal muscle isoform transcript. This strongly suggests developmental isoforms are involved in the pathogenesis of this congenital/early onset disorder. INTERPRETATION: This detailed clinical reference dataset will greatly facilitate diagnostic confirmation and management of patients, and has provided important insights into disease pathogenesis. Ann Neurol 2018;83:1105-1124.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/congênito , Conectina/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética
11.
J Neurol ; 265(6): 1402-1409, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29633012

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: CANOMAD/CANDA are syndromes characterized by ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, monoclonal gammopathy, cold agglutinins and disialosyl antibodies. METHODS: A retrospective review of our neuromuscular autoantibody panel database was performed. Anti-GD1b seropositive patients with ataxia were included. RESULTS: Eleven patients were identified. Median age at onset was 56 years. Median disease duration was 6 years. All patients had gait disorders. Nine had ocular motility abnormalities. Most had a monoclonal protein and all had elevated serum IgM. Electrodiagnostic studies showed a mixed axonal/demyelinating pattern (6), an axonal pattern (4), or a pure demyelinating pattern (1). Ultrasounds showed nerve enlargement patterns consistent with acquired demyelination. A nerve biopsy showed near complete loss of myelinated axons with preservation of smaller axons. Rituximab was the most effective immunotherapy. CONCLUSION: CANOMAD/CANDA are rare and debilitating disorders with characteristic clinical and diagnostic findings. In our cohort, nerve ultrasound showed regional nerve enlargement and rituximab was the most effective immunomodulatory therapy.


Assuntos
Ataxia/imunologia , Ataxia/terapia , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Gangliosídeos/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ataxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Ataxia/patologia , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Condução Nervosa , Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico por imagem , Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Nervos Periféricos/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia
13.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 5(2): e434, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359173

RESUMO

Objective: Immune myopathies with perimysial pathology (IMPP) have a combination of damage to perimysial connective tissue and muscle fiber necrosis, more prominent near the perimysium. We studied the clinical and laboratory correlates of patients with pathologically defined IMPP. Methods: This is a retrospective chart and pathology review of 57 consecutive patients with IMPP myopathology and, for comparison, 20 patients with dermatomyositis with vascular pathology (DM-VP). Results: Compared with DM-VP, IMPP patients more commonly had interstitial lung disease (ILD) (p < 0.01), Raynaud phenomenon (p < 0.05), mechanic's hands (p < 0.05), arthralgias (p < 0.001), and a sustained response to immunomodulatory therapy (p < 0.05), and less frequently had a concurrent malignancy (p < 0.01). IMPP patients had higher serum creatine kinase values (p < 0.05), more frequent serum Jo-1 (p < 0.03) or SSA/SSA52 autoantibodies (p < 0.05), and less frequent antinuclear antibodies (p < 0.01). IMPP patients with serum Jo-1/antisynthetase antibodies were more likely to have ILD (p < 0.05) and inflammatory arthritis (p < 0.05) than IMPP patients without these antibodies. Conclusions: IMPP myopathology is associated with an increased risk of ILD, Raynaud phenomenon, mechanic's hands, and inflammatory arthritis when compared with another immune myopathy (DM-VP). IMPP patients require regular screening for ILD, particularly those with antisynthetase antibodies. The absence of myositis-specific autoantibodies in a large percentage of IMPP patients emphasizes the important role for myopathology in identifying patients at higher risk of severe comorbid conditions such as ILD.

14.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 19(1): 19-26, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827485

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pattern and extent of muscle weakness and impact on physical functioning in adults with GNEM. METHODS: Strength and function were assessed in GNEM subjects (n = 47) using hand-held dynamometry, manual muscle testing, upper and lower extremity functional capacity tests, and the GNEM-Functional Activity Scale (GNEM-FAS). RESULTS: Profound upper and lower muscle weakness was measured using hand-held dynamometry in a characteristic pattern, previously described. Functional tests and clinician-reported outcomes demonstrated the consequence of muscle weakness on physical functioning. CONCLUSIONS: The characteristic pattern of upper and lower muscle weakness associated with GNEM and the resulting functional limitations can be reliably measured using these clinical outcome assessments of muscle strength and function.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/genética , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/congênito , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/genética , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/complicações , Miosite de Corpos de Inclusão/genética , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Neuromuscul Dis ; 19(1): 31-37, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827487

RESUMO

The role of autoimmune mechanisms in idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is not completely understood. Serum IgM binding to trisulfated disaccharide IdoA2S-GlcNS-6S (TS-HDS) and IgG to fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 were associated with sensory motor polyneuropathies and sensory neuronopathy among others. In this retrospective case review, we describe the clinical and laboratory findings of idiopathic SFN in a small cohort of pediatric patients. Eight children were diagnosed with SFN clinically and confirmed by reduced epidermal nerve fiber density. No involvement of large fibers was confirmed by clinical examination and electrophysiological tests. Possible triggering factors were infectious mononucleosis in 4 patients and human papilloma virus vaccination in 1 patient. Tilt table test was positive in 1 patient, and clinical autonomic dysfunctions were noted in 6 patients. Five patients had positive IgM against TS-HDS, 3 of whom had lower extremity predominant paresthesia. In conclusion, a high proportion of patients with idiopathic SFN in our cohort had a positive IgM TS-HDS antibody.


Assuntos
Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Neuropatia de Pequenas Fibras/diagnóstico , Neuropatia de Pequenas Fibras/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia
16.
Hum Mutat ; 38(11): 1477-1484, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28726266

RESUMO

Biallelic GLDN mutations have recently been identified among infants with lethal congenital contracture syndrome 11 (LCCS11). GLDN encodes gliomedin, a protein required for the formation of the nodes of Ranvier and development of the human peripheral nervous system. We report six infants and children from four unrelated families with biallelic GLDN mutations, four of whom survived beyond the neonatal period into infancy, childhood, and late adolescence with intensive care and chronic respiratory and nutritional support. Our findings expand the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of LCCS11 and demonstrate that the condition may not necessarily be lethal in the neonatal period.


Assuntos
Artrogripose/diagnóstico , Artrogripose/genética , Genes Letais , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Artrogripose/mortalidade , Biópsia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Evolução Fatal , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Raízes Nervosas Espinhais/ultraestrutura , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 27(9): 873-878, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629674

RESUMO

Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disease in which cystine cannot exit the lysosome to complete its degradation in the cytoplasm, thus accumulating in tissues. Some patients develop a distal myopathy involving mainly hand muscles. Myopathology descriptions from only 5 patients are available in the literature. We present a comprehensive clinical, pathological and genetic description of 3 patients from 2 families with nephropathic cystinosis. Intrafamiliar variability was detected in one family in which one sibling developed a severe distal myopathy while the other sibling did not show any signs of skeletal muscle involvement. One of the patients was on treatment with Cysteamine for over 12 years but still developed the usual complications of nephropathic cystinosis in his twenties. Novel pathological findings consisting in sarcoplasmic deposits reactive for slow myosin were identified. Three previously known and one novel mutation are reported. Nephropathic cystinosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of distal myopathies in those with early renal failure. Novel clinical and pathological features are reported here contributing to the characterization of the muscle involvement in nephropathic cystinosis.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos Neutros/genética , Cistinose , Miopatias Distais , Miosinas Cardíacas/genética , Cistina/metabolismo , Cistinose/complicações , Cistinose/genética , Cistinose/patologia , Miopatias Distais/etiologia , Miopatias Distais/genética , Miopatias Distais/patologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/ultraestrutura , Mutação/genética , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Miosinas/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 88(2): 99-105, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261500

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Understanding the natural history of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by SOD1 mutations (ALSSOD1) will provide key information for optimising clinical trials in this patient population. OBJECTIVE: To establish an updated natural history of ALSSOD1. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study from 15 medical centres in North America evaluated records from 175 patients with ALS with genetically confirmed SOD1 mutations, cared for after the year 2000. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Age of onset, survival, ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) scores and respiratory function were analysed. Patients with the A4V (Ala-Val) SOD1 mutation (SOD1A4V), the largest mutation population in North America with an aggressive disease progression, were distinguished from other SOD1 mutation patients (SOD1non-A4V) for analysis. RESULTS: Mean age of disease onset was 49.7±12.3 years (mean±SD) for all SOD1 patients, with no statistical significance between SOD1A4V and SOD1non-A4V (p=0.72, Kruskal-Wallis). Total SOD1 patient median survival was 2.7 years. Mean disease duration for all SOD1 was 4.6±6.0 and 1.4±0.7 years for SOD1A4V. SOD1A4V survival probability (median survival 1.2 years) was significantly decreased compared with SOD1non-A4V (median survival 6.8 years; p<0.0001, log-rank). A statistically significant increase in ALS-FRS decline in SOD1A4V compared with SOD1non-A4V participants (p=0.02) was observed, as well as a statistically significant increase in ALS-forced vital capacity decline in SOD1A4V compared with SOD1non-A4V (p=0.02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: SOD1A4V is an aggressive, but relatively homogeneous form of ALS. These SOD1-specific ALS natural history data will be important for the design and implementation of clinical trials in the ALSSOD1 patient population.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Capacidade Vital/fisiologia
19.
Muscle Nerve ; 56(1): 122-128, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759889

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We studied mitochondrial impairment as a factor in the pathologic equivalent of sarcopenia, muscle fiber atrophy associated with increased age. METHODS: Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities and coenzyme Q10 levels were measured in frozen human proximal limb muscles with combined age and atrophy, age alone, atrophy alone, denervation, immune myopathies, and mitochondrial disorders with ophthalmoplegia. RESULTS: Sarcopenia (age and atrophy) had reduced mean activities of mitochondrial Complexes I, II, and II+III, with severe reduction of Complex I activity in 54% of patients. Atrophy, and specific denervation atrophy, had similar patterns of changes. Age alone had moderately reduced Complex I activity. Mitochondrial myopathies had mildly lower Complex IV activity. Immune myopathies had unchanged enzyme activities. CONCLUSIONS: Mitochondrial oxidative enzyme activities, especially Complex I, but also Complexes II and II+III, are reduced in muscles with the pathologic equivalent of sarcopenia. Individually, atrophy and age have different patterns of oxidative enzyme changes. Muscle Nerve 56: 122-128, 2017.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Complexo I de Transporte de Elétrons/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias Musculares/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/patologia , Sarcopenia/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia
20.
J Neuromuscul Dis ; 3(1): 49-66, 2016 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27854209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: GNE Myopathy (GNEM) is a progressive adult-onset myopathy likely caused by deficiency of sialic acid (SA) biosynthesis. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the safety and efficacy of SA (delivered by aceneuramic acid extended-release [Ace-ER]) as treatment for GNEM. METHODS: A Phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating Ace-ER 3 g/day or 6 g/day versus placebo was conducted in GNEM subjects (n = 47). After the first 24 weeks, placebo subjects crossed over to 3 g/day or 6 g/day for 24 additional weeks (dose pre-assigned during initial randomization). Assessments included serum SA, muscle strength by dynamometry, functional assessments, clinician- and patient-reported outcomes, and safety. RESULTS: Dose-dependent increases in serum SA levels were observed. Supplementation with Ace-ER resulted in maintenance of muscle strength in an upper extremity composite (UEC) score at 6 g/day compared with placebo at Week 24 (LS mean difference +2.33 kg, p = 0.040), and larger in a pre-specified subgroup able to walk ≥200 m at Screening (+3.10 kg, p = 0.040). After cross-over, a combined 6 g/day group showed significantly better UEC strength than a combined 3 g/day group (+3.46 kg, p = 0.0031). A similar dose-dependent response was demonstrated within the lower extremity composite score, but was not significant (+1.06 kg, p = 0.61). The GNEM-Functional Activity Scale demonstrated a trend improvement in UE function and mobility in a combined 6 g/day group compared with a combined 3 g/day group. Patients receiving Ace-ER tablets had predominantly mild-to-moderate AEs and no serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first clinical study to provide evidence that supplementation with SA delivered by Ace-ER may stabilize muscle strength in individuals with GNEM and initiating treatment earlier in the disease course may lead to better outcomes.


Assuntos
Miopatias Distais/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/administração & dosagem , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA