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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 128(16): 166401, 2022 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522498

RESUMO

We study the properties of the Dirac states in SiC-graphene and its hole-doped compositions employing angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory. The symmetry-selective measurements for the Dirac bands reveal their linearly dispersive behavior across the Dirac point which was termed as the anomalous region in earlier studies. No gap is observed even after boron substitution that reduced the carrier concentration significantly from 3.7×10^{13} cm^{-2} in SiC-graphene to 0.8×10^{13} cm^{-2} (5% doping). The anomalies at the Dirac point are attributed to the spectral width arising from the lifetime and momentum broadening in the experiments. The substitution of boron at the graphitic sites leads to a band renormalization and a shift of the Dirac point towards the Fermi level. The internal symmetries appear to be preserved in SiC-graphene even after significant boron substitutions. These results suggest that SiC-graphene is a good platform to realize exotic science as well as advanced technology where the carrier properties like concentration, mobility, etc., can be tuned keeping the Dirac fermionic properties protected.

3.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 125(44): 24477-24486, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795810

RESUMO

Semiconducting O-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons constitute a class of molecules whose optoelectronic properties can be tailored by acting on the π-extension of the carbon-based frameworks and on the oxygen linkages. Although much is known about their photophysical and electrochemical properties in solution, their self-assembly interfacial behavior on solid substrates has remained unexplored so far. In this paper, we have focused our attention on the on-surface self-assembly of O-doped bi-perylene derivatives. Their ability to assemble in ordered networks on Cu(111) single-crystalline surfaces allowed a combination of structural, morphological, and spectroscopic studies. In particular, the exploitation of the orbital mapping methodology based on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, with the support of scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction, allowed the identification of both the electronic structure of the adsorbates and their geometric arrangement. Our multi-technique experimental investigation includes the structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction data for a specific compound and demonstrates that the electronic structure of such large molecular self-assembled networks can be studied using the reconstruction methods of molecular orbitals from photoemission data even in the presence of segregated chiral domains.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(17): 20479-20488, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878265

RESUMO

Impurity doping in silicon (Si) ultra-large-scale integration is one of the key challenges which prevent further device miniaturization. Using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in the total fluorescence yield mode, we show that the lowest unoccupied and highest occupied electronic states of ≤3 nm thick SiO2-coated Si nanowells shift by up to 0.2 eV below the conduction band and ca. 0.7 eV below the valence band edge of bulk silicon, respectively. This nanoscale electronic structure shift induced by anions at surfaces (NESSIAS) provides the means for low-nanoscale intrinsic Si (i-Si) to be flooded by electrons from an external (bigger, metallic) reservoir, thereby getting highly electron- (n-) conductive. While our findings deviate from the behavior commonly believed to govern the properties of silicon nanowells, they are further confirmed by the fundamental energy gap as per nanowell thickness when compared against published experimental data. Supporting our findings further with hybrid density functional theory calculations, we show that other group IV semiconductors (diamond, Ge) do respond to the NESSIAS effect in accord with Si. We predict adequate nanowire cross-sections (X-sections) from experimental nanowell data with a recently established crystallographic analysis, paving the way to undoped ultrasmall silicon electronic devices with significantly reduced gate lengths, using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-compatible materials.

5.
ACS Nano ; 15(3): 5449-5458, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596385

RESUMO

We report the incorporation of substitutional Mn atoms in high-quality, epitaxial graphene on Cu(111), using ultralow-energy ion implantation. We characterize in detail the atomic structure of substitutional Mn in a single carbon vacancy and quantify its concentration. In particular, we are able to determine the position of substitutional Mn atoms with respect to the Moiré superstructure (i.e., local graphene-Cu stacking symmetry) and to the carbon sublattice; in the out-of-plane direction, substitutional Mn atoms are found to be slightly displaced toward the Cu surface, that is, effectively underneath the graphene layer. Regarding electronic properties, we show that graphene doped with substitutional Mn to a concentration of the order of 0.04%, with negligible structural disorder (other than the Mn substitution), retains the Dirac-like band structure of pristine graphene on Cu(111), making it an ideal system in which to study the interplay between local magnetic moments and Dirac electrons. Our work also establishes that ultralow-energy ion implantation is suited for substitutional magnetic doping of graphene. Given the flexibility, reproducibility, and scalability inherent to ion implantation, our work creates numerous opportunities for research on magnetic functionalization of graphene and other two-dimensional materials.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4114, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139839

RESUMO

Chemical reaction with diazonium molecules has revealed to be a powerful method for the surface chemical modification of graphite, carbon nanotubes and recently also of graphene. Graphene electronic structure modification using diazonium molecules is strongly influenced by graphene growth and by the supporting materials. Here, carrying on a detailed study of core levels and valence band photoemission measurements, we are able to reconstruct the interface chemistry of trimethoxybenzenediazonium-based molecules electrochemically grafted on graphene on copper. The band energy alignment at the molecule-graphene interface has been traced revealing the energy position of the HOMO band with respect to the Fermi level.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1340, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32165617

RESUMO

We show that Cs intercalated bilayer graphene acts as a substrate for the growth of a strained Cs film hosting quantum well states with high electronic quality. The Cs film grows in an fcc phase with a substantially reduced lattice constant of 4.9 Å corresponding to a compressive strain of 11% compared to bulk Cs. We investigate its electronic structure using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and show the coexistence of massless Dirac and massive Schrödinger charge carriers in two dimensions. Analysis of the electronic self-energy of the massive charge carriers reveals the crystallographic direction in which a two-dimensional Fermi gas is realized. Our work introduces the growth of strained metal quantum wells on intercalated Dirac matter.

8.
ACS Nano ; 14(1): 1055-1069, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825586

RESUMO

A flat energy dispersion of electrons at the Fermi level of a material leads to instabilities in the electronic system and can drive phase transitions. Here we show that the flat band in graphene can be achieved by sandwiching a graphene monolayer by two cesium (Cs) layers. We investigate the flat band by a combination of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiment and the calculations. Our work highlights that charge transfer, zone folding of graphene bands, and the covalent bonding between C and Cs atoms are the origin of the flat energy band formation. Analysis of the Stoner criterion for the flat band suggests the presence of a ferromagnetic instability. The presented approach is an alternative route for obtaining flat band materials to twisting bilayer graphene which yields thermodynamically stable flat band materials in large areas.

9.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 9: 2255-2264, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202694

RESUMO

Impurity doping of ultrasmall nanoscale (usn) silicon (Si) currently used in ultralarge scale integration (ULSI) faces serious miniaturization challenges below the 14 nm technology node such as dopant out-diffusion and inactivation by clustering in Si-based field-effect transistors (FETs). Moreover, self-purification and massively increased ionization energy cause doping to fail for Si nano-crystals (NCs) showing quantum confinement. To introduce electron- (n-) or hole- (p-) type conductivity, usn-Si may not require doping, but an energy shift of electronic states with respect to the vacuum energy between different regions of usn-Si. We show in theory and experiment that usn-Si can experience a considerable energy offset of electronic states by embedding it in silicon dioxide (SiO2) or silicon nitride (Si3N4), whereby a few monolayers (MLs) of SiO2 or Si3N4 are enough to achieve these offsets. Our findings present an alternative to conventional impurity doping for ULSI, provide new opportunities for ultralow power electronics and open a whole new vista on the introduction of p- and n-type conductivity into usn-Si.

10.
Nano Lett ; 18(9): 6045-6056, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157652

RESUMO

We employ ultra-high vacuum (UHV) Raman spectroscopy in tandem with angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) to investigate the doping-dependent Raman spectrum of epitaxial graphene on Ir(111). The evolution of Raman spectra from pristine to heavily Cs doped graphene up to a carrier concentration of 4.4 × 1014 cm-2 is investigated. At this doping, graphene is at the onset of the Lifshitz transition and renormalization effects reduce the electronic bandwidth. The optical transition at the saddle point in the Brillouin zone then becomes experimentally accessible by ultraviolet (UV) light excitation, which achieves resonance Raman conditions in close vicinity to the van Hove singularity in the joint density of states. The position of the Raman G band of fully doped graphene/Ir(111) shifts down by ∼60 cm-1. The G band asymmetry of Cs doped epitaxial graphene assumes an unusual strong Fano asymmetry opposite to that of the G band of doped graphene on insulators. Our calculations can fully explain these observations by substrate dependent quantum interference effects in the scattering pathways for vibrational and electronic Raman scattering.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 47(9): 2986-2991, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215105

RESUMO

We report on the synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of alkali metal intercalated ZrSe2 single crystals. ZrSe2 is produced by chemical vapour transport and then Li is intercalated. Intercalation is performed from the liquid phase (via butyllithium) and from the vapour phase. Raman spectroscopy of intercalated ZrSe2 reveals phonon energy shifts of the Raman active A1g and Eg phonon modes, the disappearance of two-phonon modes and new low wavenumber Raman modes. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy is used to perform a mapping of the Fermi surface revealing an electron concentration of 4.7 × 1014 cm-2. We also perform vapour phase intercalation of K and Cs into ZrSe2 and observe similar changes in the Raman modes as for the Li case.

13.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 7960, 2017 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28801640

RESUMO

Carbon nanomaterials' reactivity towards oxygen is very poor, limiting their potential applications. However, nitrogen doping is an established way to introduce active sites that facilitate interaction with gases. This boosts the materials' reactivity for bio-/gas sensing and enhances their catalytic performance for the oxygen reduction reaction. Despite this interest, the role of differently bonded nitrogen dopants in the interaction with oxygen is obscured by experimental challenges and has so far resisted clear conclusions. We study the interaction of molecular oxygen with graphene doped via nitrogen plasma by in situ high-resolution synchrotron techniques, supported by density functional theory core level simulations. The interaction leads to oxygen dissociation and the formation of carbon-oxygen single bonds on graphene, along with a band gap opening and a rounding of the Dirac cone. The change of the N 1 s core level signal indicates that graphitic nitrogen is involved in the observed mechanism: the adsorbed oxygen molecule is dissociated and the two O atoms chemisorb with epoxy bonds to the nearest carbon neighbours of the graphitic nitrogen. Our findings help resolve existing controversies and offer compelling new evidence of the ORR pathway.

14.
ACS Nano ; 11(1): 368-374, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28005333

RESUMO

Graphene is one of the most promising materials for nanoelectronics owing to its unique Dirac cone-like dispersion of the electronic state and high mobility of the charge carriers. However, to facilitate the implementation of the graphene-based devices, an essential change of its electronic structure, a creation of the band gap should controllably be done. Brought about by two fundamentally different mechanisms, a sublattice symmetry breaking or an induced strong spin-orbit interaction, the band gap appearance can drive graphene into a narrow-gap semiconductor or a 2D topological insulator phase, respectively, with both cases being technologically relevant. The later case, characterized by a spin-orbit gap between the valence and conduction bands, can give rise to the spin-polarized topologically protected edge states. Here, we study the effect of the spin-orbit interaction enhancement in graphene placed in contact with a lead monolayer. By means of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we show that intercalation of the Pb interlayer between the graphene sheet and the Pt(111) surface leads to formation of a gap of ∼200 meV at the Dirac point of graphene. Spin-resolved measurements confirm the splitting to be of a spin-orbit nature, and the measured near-gap spin structure resembles that of the quantum spin Hall state in graphene, proposed by Kane and Mele [ Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005 , 95 , 226801 ]. With a bandstructure tuned in this way, graphene acquires a functionality going beyond its intrinsic properties and becomes more attractive for possible spintronic applications.

15.
ACS Nano ; 11(1): 975-982, 2017 01 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28032977

RESUMO

Silicene, a honeycomb lattice of silicon, presents a particular case of allotropism on Ag(111). Silicene forms multiple structures with alike in-plane geometry but different out-of-plane atomic buckling and registry to the substrate. Angle-resolved photoemission and first-principles calculations show that these silicene structures, with (4×4), (√13×√13)R13.9°, and (2√3×2√3)R30° lattice periodicity, display similar electronic bands despite the structural differences. In all cases the interaction with the substrate modifies the electronic states, which significantly differ from those of free-standing silicene. Complex photoemission patterns arise from surface umklapp processes, varying according to the periodicity of the silicene allotropes.

16.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11258, 2016 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089869

RESUMO

There has been increasing interest in materials where relativistic effects induce non-trivial electronic states with promise for spintronics applications. One example is the splitting of bands with opposite spin chirality produced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling in asymmetric potentials. Sizable splittings have been hitherto obtained using either heavy elements, where this coupling is intrinsically strong, or large surface electric fields. Here by means of angular resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, we give evidence of a large Rashba coupling of 0.25 eV Å, leading to a remarkable band splitting up to 0.15 eV with hidden spin-chiral polarization in centrosymmetric BaNiS2. This is explained by a huge staggered crystal field of 1.4 V Å(-1), produced by a gliding plane symmetry, that breaks inversion symmetry at the Ni site. This unexpected result in the absence of heavy elements demonstrates an effective mechanism of Rashba coupling amplification that may foster spin-orbit band engineering.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(10): 3395-402, 2016 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26829531

RESUMO

The atomistic understanding of the dissociation mechanisms for large molecules adsorbed on surfaces is still a challenge in heterogeneous catalysis. This is especially true for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which represent an important class of organic compounds used to produce novel graphene-based architectures. Here, we show that coronene molecules adsorbed on Ir(111) undergo major conformational changes during dissociation. They first tilt upward with respect to the surface, still keeping their planar configuration, and subsequently experience a rotation, which changes the molecular axis orientation. Upon lifting, the internal C-C strain is initially relieved; as the dehydrogenation proceeds, the molecules experience a progressive increase in the average interatomic distance and gradually settle to form dome-shaped nanographene flakes. Our results provide important insight into the complex mechanism of molecular breakup, which could have implications in the synthesis of new carbon-based nanostructured materials.

18.
Beilstein J Nanotechnol ; 6: 2263-71, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26734518

RESUMO

Grafting of fluorine species on carbon nanostructures has attracted interest due to the effective modification of physical and chemical properties of the starting materials. Various techniques have been employed to achieve a controlled fluorination yield; however, the effect of contaminants is rarely discussed, although they are often present. In the present work, the fluorination of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes was performed using plasma treatment in a magnetron sputtering chamber with fluorine diluted in an argon atmosphere with an Ar/F2 ratio of 95:5. The effect of heavily diluted fluorine in the precursor gas mixture is investigated by evaluating the modifications in the nanotube structure and the electronic properties upon plasma treatment. The existence of oxygen-based grafted species is associated with background oxygen species present in the plasma chamber in addition to fluorine. The thermal stability and desorption process of the fluorine species grafted on the carbon nanotubes during the fluorine plasma treatment were evaluated by combining different spectroscopic techniques.

19.
ACS Nano ; 6(12): 10590-7, 2012 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23157662

RESUMO

We report high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy of hydrogenated, quasi-free-standing graphene. For this material, theory has predicted the appearance of a midgap state at the Fermi level, and first angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies have provided evidence for the existence of this state in the long-range electronic structure. However, the spatial extension of H defects, their preferential adsorption patterns on graphene, or local electronic structure are experimentally still largely unexplored. Here, we investigate the shapes and local electronic structure of H impurities that go with the aforementioned midgap state observed in ARPES. Our measurements of the local density of states at hydrogenated patches of graphene reveal a hydrogen impurity state near the Fermi level whose shape depends on the tip position with respect to the center of a patch. In the low H concentration regime, we further observe predominantly single hydrogenation sites as well as extended multiple C-H sites in parallel orientation to the lattice vectors, indicating an adsorption at the same graphene sublattice. This is corroborated by ARPES measurements showing the formation of a dispersionless hydrogen impurity state which is extended over the whole Brillouin zone.

20.
J Chem Phys ; 132(23): 234710, 2010 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20572737

RESUMO

The electronic structure of single and multiple layers of C(60) molecules deposited on a Rh(100) surface is investigated by means of valence photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. The binding of the fullerene monolayer to the metal surface yields the appearance of a new state in the valence band spectrum crossing the Fermi level. Insight into the metallization of the metal/fullerene interface is provided by the calculated electronic structure that allows us to correlate the measured interface state with a strong hybridization between the Rh metal states and the highest and lowest molecular orbitals. This results in a net charge transfer of approximately 0.5e-0.6e from the metal to the p states of the interfacial C atoms. The charge transfer is shown to be very short range, involving only the C atoms bound to the metal. The electronic structure of the second C(60) layer is already insulating and resembles the one measured for C(60) multilayers supported by the same substrate or calculated for fullerenes isolated in vacuum. The discussion of the results in the context of other C(60)/metal systems highlights the distinctive electronic properties of the molecule/metal interface determined by the Rh support.

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