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2.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
3.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 108, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and depression are bidirectionally interrelated. We recently identified long-term trajectories of depression symptom severity in individuals with coronary heart disease (CHD), which were associated with the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events (CVE). We now investigated the prognostic value of these trajectories of symptoms of depression with the risk of incident DM in patients with stable coronary heart disease. METHODS: The KAROLA cohort included CHD patients participating in an in-patient rehabilitation program (years 1999/2000) and followed for up to 15 years. We included 1048 patients (mean age 59.4 years, 15% female) with information on prevalent DM at baseline and follow-up data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to model the risk for incident DM during follow-up by depression trajectory class adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking status, body mass index, and physical activity. In addition, we modeled the excess risk for subsequent CVE due to incident DM during follow-up for each of the depression trajectories. RESULTS: DM was prevalent in 20.7% of patients at baseline. Over follow-up, 296 (28.2%) of patients had a subsequent CVE. During follow-up, 157 (15.0%) patients developed incident DM before experiencing a subsequent CVE. Patients following a high-stable depression symptom trajectory were at substantially higher risk of developing incident DM than patients following a low-stable depression symptom trajectory (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.35, 4.65)). A moderate-stable and an increasing depression trajectory were associated with HRs of 1.48 (95%-CI (1.10, 1.98)) and 1.77 (95%-CI (1.00, 3.15)) for incident DM. In addition, patients in the high-stable depression trajectory class who developed incident DM during follow-up were at 6.5-fold risk (HR = 6.51; 95%-CI (2.77, 15.3)) of experiencing a subsequent cardiovascular event. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CHD, following a trajectory of high stable symptoms of depression was associated with an increased risk of incident DM. Furthermore, incident DM in these patients was associated with a substantially increased risk of subsequent CVE. Identifying depressive symptoms and pertinent treatment offers might be an important and promising approach to enhance outcomes in patients with CHD, which should be followed up in further research and practice.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Doença das Coronárias/reabilitação , Depressão/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Eur J Health Econ ; 22(6): 873-885, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests benefits of orthogeriatric co-management (OGCM) for hip fracture patients. Yet, evidence on cost-effectiveness is limited and based on small datasets. The aim of our study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the German OGCM for geriatric hip fracture patients. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was based on German health and long-term care insurance data. Individuals were 80 years and older, sustained a hip fracture in 2014, and were treated in hospitals providing OGCM (OGCM group) or standard care (control group). Health care costs from payer and societal perspective, life years gained (LYG) and cost-effectiveness were investigated within 1 year. We applied weighted gamma and two-part models, and entropy balancing to account for the lack of randomisation. We calculated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) and employed the net-benefit approach to construct cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. RESULTS: 14,005 patients were treated in OGCM, and 10,512 in standard care hospitals. Total average health care costs per patient were higher in the OGCM group: €1181.53 (p < 0.001) from payer perspective, and €1408.21 (p < 0.001) from societal perspective. The ICER equalled €52,378.12/ LYG from payer and €75,703.44/ LYG from societal perspective. The probability for cost-effectiveness would be 95% if the willingness-to-pay was higher than €82,000/ LYG from payer, and €95,000/ LYG from societal perspective. CONCLUSION: Survival improved in hospitals providing OGCM. Costs were found to increase, driven by inpatient and long-term care. The cost-effectiveness depends on the willingness-to-pay. The ICER is likely to improve with a longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Quadril , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Fraturas do Quadril/terapia , Humanos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Int J Cancer ; 149(1): 66-74, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634882

RESUMO

To explore the largely unknown etiology of small intestine cancer, we examined metabolic factors and risk of small intestine cancer overall and by subtypes. Among 404 220 women and 403 265 men in six European cohorts, we applied Cox regression with adjustment for smoking and body mass index (BMI), to calculate sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) of small intestine cancer by levels of BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. We also calculated HRs for these factors combined (metabolic score; MetS) and used Wald test statistics to investigate pairwise interactions between metabolic factors on risk. We also performed analyses separately per subtype (neuroendocrine tumors [NETs] and adenocarcinomas). During a median follow-up of 16.9 years, 144 women and 195 men were diagnosed with small intestine cancer, including 184 NETs and 99 adenocarcinomas. Among men, no main associations or interactions between metabolic factors were observed in relation to the risk of small intestine cancer. Among women, triglycerides were positively and linearly associated with risk (HR per standard deviation [SD]: 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.46), and a positive association was also observed for the MetS (HR per SD: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.52). Positive interactions were observed among women between triglycerides and cholesterol (P = .0005), and between MAP and glucose (P = .009), on risk. Glucose was positively associated with adenocarcinomas among women. This large, prospective study suggests that elevated triglycerides, and metabolic factors in interaction, confer an increased risk of small intestine cancer among women, but not among men.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Neoplasias Intestinais/patologia , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Intestinais/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(8): 784-792, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression seem to be under-recognized in their importance and are often not incorporated in subsequent prevention strategies in routine clinical care of coronary heart disease. METHODS: The KAROLA cohort included coronary heart disease patients participating in an in-patient rehabilitation program (years 1999/2000) and followed after 1, 3, 6, 8, 10, 13, and 15 years. We identified anxiety and depression trajectories based on the hospital anxiety and depression scale subdomains using joint latent class mixture time-to-event models. We included cardiovascular (CV) events and non-CV mortality as competing endpoints. RESULTS: We included 1,109 patients (15.4% female; mean age, 59.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 8.0) years) with baseline covariate data. Over a median follow-up of 14.8 years, participants experienced 324 subsequent CV events. We identified four anxiety and depression trajectory classes, a low-stable class (52.2% and 69.6% of patients for anxiety and depression, respectively), moderate-stable class (37.6% and 23.8%), increasing class (2.3% and 3.3%), and high-stable/high-decreasing class (7.9% and 3.3%). The hazard ratio (HR) for subsequent CV events for the increasing anxiety class was 2.13 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61; 7.45) compared with the low-stable class after covariate adjustment. Patients following the high-decreasing anxiety trajectory showed an HR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.11; 2.68) and patients following the high-stable depression trajectory an HR of 2.47 (95% CI, 1.35; 4.54). CONCLUSIONS: Chronic high anxiety and depression trajectory classes were associated with increased risk of subsequent CV events. Assessments of both symptoms of anxiety and depression during long-term routine medical care are recommended to identify patients who would benefit from appropriate interventions.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Depressão , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Estudos de Coortes , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 736, 2020 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959864

RESUMO

We investigated the associations of serum concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) with risk and prognosis of ALS in the ALS registry (October 2010-June 2014, median follow-up 67.6 months) in a case-control and cohort study, respectively. Serum samples were measured for IGF-1. Information on covariates was collected by standardized questionnaire. We applied conditional logistic regression to appraise the risk and Cox proportional hazards models to appraise the prognostic value of IGF-1. Data of 294 ALS patients (mean age 65.4 (SD 11.0) years, 60.2% men) and 504 controls were included in the case-control study. Median serum IGF-1 concentrations were slightly higher in ALS cases than in controls (101 vs. 99.5 ng/ml). IGF-1 concentrations were not associated with ALS risk in the fully adjusted model (top vs. bottom quartile: OR 1.16; 95%-CI 0.73-1.84, p for trend = 0.44). Among 293 ALS cases (mean age 65.5 (SD 10.5) years, 56.8% men) 243 died during follow-up. We found a statistically significant inverse association between continuous IGF-1 concentrations and survival (p = 0.01). Very high values IGF-1 were associated with a better prognosis of ALS suggesting that functions related to IGF-1 could be involved in survival.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 7729, 2018 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769597

RESUMO

Knowledge of metabolic risk factors for end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the general population is limited when considering the competing event death in risk analysis. The aim of our prospective observational study was to investigate how blood pressure and metabolic factors might influence the risks for ESKD and death before ESKD in a large Austrian population-based cohort with long-term follow-up. 177,255 participants (53.8% women; mean age 42.5 years) were recruited between 1988 and 2005 and linked to the Austrian Dialysis and Transplant Registry and the National Mortality Registry. Over a mean follow-up of 16 years 358 participants reached ESKD and 19,512 participants died. Applying fully adjusted cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models elevated fasting blood glucose, hypertension, hypertrigylceridemia and hypercholesterolemia were associated with a higher relative risk for ESKD than for death before ESKD, whereas elevated γ-glutamyltransferase was associated with an increased relative risk of death but not ESKD. Results were similar using continuous or categorical exposure variable measures in the general cohort but differed in selected high-risk populations. These findings might help improve the design of renal risk factor modification trials and kidney disease awareness and prevention programs in the general population, which may ultimately decrease the burden of ESKD.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/mortalidade , Diálise Renal/mortalidade , Adulto , Áustria/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
J Neurol ; 265(4): 774-782, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29392461

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore phenotypical differences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) between two cohorts from Germany and China. METHODS: Registry-based studies of ALS were conducted in South-West Germany from 2010 to 2014 and an ALS clinic in Beijing from 2013 to 2016, respectively. Demographic and clinical features of 663 German and 276 Chinese ALS patients were collected and compared. RESULTS: Mean age-at-onset was higher in German than in Chinese ALS patients [66.6 years (95% CI 65.7, 67.5) vs. 53.2 years (95% CI 52.0, 54.5)]. Age distribution of ALS patients peaked around 70-74 years in Germany and 50-54 years in China. Bulbar onset was more prevalent among German than among Chinese patients (35.9 vs. 22.8%). Diagnostic delay was higher in the Chinese than in the German study sample (12 vs. 5 months). Cognitive deficits were more pronounced in the Chinese cohort. Both cohorts differed in smoking habits, prevalence of diabetes and in body mass index (BMI). CONCLUSIONS: The apparent discrepancies between German and Chinese ALS patients (age at onset, gender distribution, bulbar forms, cognitive dysfunction, risk factors) reveal a quite different clinical phenotype in China, maybe due to socioeconomic status, environmental factors or genetic background. The observed differences in phenotype need to be pursued by further epidemiological studies on environmental and genetic risk factors.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Fenótipo , Distribuição por Idade , Idade de Início , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/genética , China/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
JAMA Neurol ; 75(5): 600-607, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29482216

RESUMO

Importance: Knowledge about the metabolic states of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) may provide a therapeutic approach. Objective: To investigate the association between the onset and prognosis of ALS and serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) concentration as a biomarker for insulin resistance and vitamin A metabolism. Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control design for risk factors of ALS; cohort design for prognostic factors within ALS cases. Between October 1, 2010, and June 30, 2014, a population-based case-control study with randomly selected controls was established based on the ALS Registry Swabia in southern Germany, with a target population of 8.4 million inhabitants. Response rates were 64.8% among the cases and 18.7% among the controls. The dates of analysis were April 2016 to May 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Serum samples were measured for RBP4. Information on covariates was assessed by an interview-based standardized questionnaire. Main outcomes and measures were adjusted odds ratios for risk of ALS associated with serum RBP4 concentration, as well as time to death associated with RBP4 concentration at baseline in ALS cases only. Conditional logistic regression was applied to calculate multivariable odds ratios for risk of ALS. Survival models were used in cases only to appraise their prognostic value. Results: Data from 289 patients with ALS (mean [SD] age, 65.7 [10.5] years; 172 [59.5%] male) and 504 controls (mean [SD] age, 66.3 [9.8] years; 299 [59.3%] male) were included in the case-control study. Compared with controls, ALS cases were characterized by lower body mass index, less educational attainment, smoking, light occupational work intensity, and self-reported diabetes. The median serum RBP4 concentration was lower in ALS cases than in controls (54.0 vs 59.5 mg/L). In the multivariable model, increasing RBP4 concentration was associated with reduced odds for ALS (top vs bottom quartile odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.22-0.59; P for trend <.001), which persisted after further adjustment for renal function and for leptin and adiponectin. Among 279 ALS cases during a median follow-up of 14.5 months, 104 died (mean [SD] age, 68.9 [10.3] years; 56 [53.9%] male). In this ALS cohort, an inverse association was found between serum RBP4 concentration as a continuous measure and survival. Conclusions and Relevance: RBP4 was inversely related to risk for and prognosis of ALS, suggesting that vitamin A metabolism or impaired insulin signaling could be involved. Further research, including a prospective design and other biological markers, is necessary to clarify the role of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of ALS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/sangue , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Proteínas Plasmáticas de Ligação ao Retinol/metabolismo , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Gorduras/metabolismo , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina A/sangue
11.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 4374, 2017 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663573

RESUMO

To investigate the associations of leptin, adiponectin and high-sensitive (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP) with risk and prognosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Data from a population-based case-control study in Southern Germany (10/2010-6/2014) of 289 ALS patients (mean age of 65.7 (SD 10.5) years, 59.5% men) and 506 controls were included. During median follow-up of 14.5 months of 279 ALS patients 104 (53.9% men, 68.9 (10.3) years) died. Serum samples were measured for leptin, adiponectin and hs-CRP. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate ALS risk. Survival models were used to appraise the prognostic value. ALS patients were characterized by lower levels of school education, BMI and smoking prevalence. Adjusted for covariates, leptin was inversely associated with ALS risk (top vs. bottom quartile: OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.29-0.80), while for adiponectin a positive association was found (OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.78-4.68). Among ALS patients increasing leptin concentrations were associated with longer survival (p for trend 0.002), while for adiponectin no association was found (p for trend 0.55). For hs-CRP no association was found. Leptin and adiponectin, two key hormones regulating energy metabolism, were strongly and independently related with ALS risk. Leptin levels were further negatively related with overall survival of ALS patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Adipocinas/metabolismo , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/etiologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Sobrevida
12.
J Neurol ; 264(4): 749-757, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28220290

RESUMO

The objective of this study is to determine the current distribution of clinical phenotypes and to estimate future trends of ALS incidence in Western societies. We report on a clinical-epidemiological registry with a capture-recapture rate of >80% and population-based case-control study in ALS patients in South Western Germany. 1163 incidents of ALS were registered. Clinical and neuropsychological data were prospectively collected from 699 cases. The mean age at onset was 66.6 (SD = 11.6) years in prospective cases (N = 699). The site of onset was more frequently bulbar (34.1%) than lumbosacral (30.7%), cervical (27.0%), or thoracic (3.1%). Cognitive deficits (ranging from 27.5 to 42.1%, depending on the screening instrument) and behavioral changes (29%) were frequently detected. The incidence rate dropped markedly after 79 years of age, and bulbar onset as well as cognitive impairment were more frequent in ALS cases >75 years. The mean survival time of ALS cases from first paresis was 31 months. The age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of ALS in 2012/2013 was found to be 2.4 (95% CI 2.2-2.7) per 100,000 person-years (resulting in an ASR of 3.1/100,000 with 100% coverage). Based on the predicted age distribution of the German population, the incidence of ALS was estimated to be 4.5/100,000 for men and 3.3/100,000 for women in the year 2050. ALS prevalence will rise to about 9.2-9.8/100,000 person-years in Germany in 2050. An increased proportion of patients with bulbar onset and/or cognitive deficits can be used as basic epidemiologic data on ALS for future health care decisions.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fenótipo , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 31(4): 427-35, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26130126

RESUMO

Falls are related to a complex interaction of risk factors. We examined if cardiac biomarkers for hemodynamic stress (N-terminal pro Brain Natriuretic Peptide-NT-proBNP), and for necrosis [high sensitive (hs) cardiac troponins T (cTnT) and I (cTnI)] are associated with falls in older people. Biomarkers were measured at baseline in a cohort of 1506 community-dwelling adults ≥65 years. Falls were assessed prospectively in a falls calendar (median 370 days). Cox-proportional hazards models evaluated the association of each biomarker with the incidence of the first fall accounting for established confounders. We observed 430 incident falls among 1327 participants and an effect modification by sex for all biomarkers. In multivariable analyses among men a one unit increment of log-transformed hs-cTnI was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.26 (95 % CI 1.04, 1.53). Men with hs-cTnT ≥ 14 ng/L had a HR of 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15, 2.61) compared to those with undetectable hs-cTnT levels. In women cTn were not associated with falls. We did not detect an association between NT-proBNP and the risk of fall. Our results suggest that cardiac troponins may not only identify subjects at risk for cardiovascular diseases, but also help to understand the underlying complex pathophysiology of falls.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Troponina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Vigilância da População , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 39(6): 812-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26651439

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the mammography screening program from 1989 to 2005 within a population-based prevention program in Austria and to appraise it according to recommended quality indicators. MATERIAL AND METHOD: From 01.01.1989 all women aged 40 years or older participating in the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Prevention Program (VHM&PP) was offered to undergo additionally a "screening mammography". Passive follow-up has been performed by record linkages with the Vorarlberg cancer registry and mortality statistics for information on outcome variables. Interval cancer rates have been estimated and the survival after breast cancer has been calculated by life table technique by examination period and age groups (40-49 years, 50-69 years). RESULTS: Between 1989 and 2005 50,100 women aged 40 to 69 years participated in the program, of which 123,652 mammogram results have been collected. In the target population the participation rate was 65.1%. During median follow-up time 13.5 years and 633,342 person-years overall 665 invasive cancer and 87 ductal carcinoma in situ (11.6%) cases have been identified. Between 1996 and 2004 the detection rates were 239.9 per 100.000 among women aged 40-49 years and 543.2 per 100,000 among women aged 50-69 years. The rates for interval cancers were 160.4 and 277.4 per 100 000 negative screens, respectively. During median follow-up of 13.5 years 165 deaths occurred with no difference in survival between patients with interval and screen detected cancers. CONCLUSION: A mammography screening program has been performed between 1989 and 2005 in Vorarlberg. Till 2005 most quality indicators improved and met the EU-recommendations suggesting that alternative approaches to organized mammography screening based on routine data should be explored.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Mamografia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Carcinoma Intraductal não Infiltrante/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Cancer Causes Control ; 26(11): 1643-52, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26341905

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for several cancers, its role on cancer survival is poorly understood. METHODS: Within the VHM&PP cohort, 8,673 cancer patients (42.2% women) were followed over a median time of 11.9 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the association of pre-diagnostic overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2)) with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. Cubic restricted splines were additionally modeled. RESULTS: During 71,126 person-years, 4,571 deaths were observed. Compared to normal weight, overweight was associated with statistically significantly decreased all-cause mortality (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87-0.997) and cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.91; 95% CI 0.84-0.99). Underweight was statistically significantly associated with 28% increased overall mortality, in particular in men [HR 2.02 (95% CI 1.43-2.83) vs. HR 0.96 (95% CI 0.71-1.30) in women]. J-shaped associations were found between BMI and mortality with the nadir around a BMI of 25 kg/m(2). Analysis by cancer site showed though not statistically significantly that overweight was associated with reduced mortality, while obesity was associated with increased cancer-specific mortality except cancers of the upper digestive tract. In patients with local stage colorectal cancers, obesity was associated with increased all-cause (vs. normal weight HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.03-3.52) and cancer-specific mortality (HR 3.17; 95% CI 1.29-7.81). CONCLUSION: Overweight patients have a better overall prognosis, while for obesity no association and for underweight worse prognosis were found. Our results on common cancers indicate that there are tumor- and stage-specific differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Magreza/complicações , Idoso , Áustria/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
16.
PLoS One ; 10(5): e0127186, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26024372

RESUMO

Little is known about the associations between long-term weight change and the natural history of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in young adults. We investigated the association between long-term body mass index (BMI) change and the risk of IFG using data of 24,930 20- to 40-year-old participants from the Vorarlberg Health Monitoring and Promotion Program (VHM&PP) cohort. Poisson models were applied to estimate the 10-year risk for new development of IFG (≥ 5.6 mmol/L), and persistence of IFG. Over 10 years, most men (68.2%) and women (70.0%) stayed within their initial BMI category. The risk for incident IFG was highest for men and women with persisting obesity (37.4% and 24.1%) and lowest with persisting normal weight (15.7% and 9.3%). Men transitioning from normal to overweight increased their risk of incident IFG by factor 1.45 (95%-CI: 1.31, 1.62), women by 1.70 (95%-CI: 1.50, 1.93), whereas transitioning from overweight to normal weight decreased the risk in men by 0.69 (95%-CI: 0.53, 0.90) and 0.94 (95%-CI: 0.66, 1.33) in women. Relative risks for men and women transitioning from obesity to overweight were 0.58 and 0.44, respectively. In conclusion, 10 year weight increase was associated with an increased IFG risk, weight decrease with a decreased risk of IFG in young adults.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Áustria/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Distribuição de Poisson , Estado Pré-Diabético/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
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