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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494793

RESUMO

Inferring a person's smoking habit and history from blood is relevant for complementing or replacing self-reports in epidemiological and public health research, and for forensic applications. However, a finite DNA methylation marker set and a validated statistical model based on a large dataset are not yet available. Employing 14 epigenome-wide association studies for marker discovery, and using data from six population-based cohorts (N = 3764) for model building, we identified 13 CpGs most suitable for inferring smoking versus non-smoking status from blood with a cumulative Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.901. Internal fivefold cross-validation yielded an average AUC of 0.897 ± 0.137, while external model validation in an independent population-based cohort (N = 1608) achieved an AUC of 0.911. These 13 CpGs also provided accurate inference of current (average AUCcrossvalidation 0.925 ± 0.021, AUCexternalvalidation0.914), former (0.766 ± 0.023, 0.699) and never smoking (0.830 ± 0.019, 0.781) status, allowed inferring pack-years in current smokers (10 pack-years 0.800 ± 0.068, 0.796; 15 pack-years 0.767 ± 0.102, 0.752) and inferring smoking cessation time in former smokers (5 years 0.774 ± 0.024, 0.760; 10 years 0.766 ± 0.033, 0.764; 15 years 0.767 ± 0.020, 0.754). Model application to children revealed highly accurate inference of the true non-smoking status (6 years of age: accuracy 0.994, N = 355; 10 years: 0.994, N = 309), suggesting prenatal and passive smoking exposure having no impact on model applications in adults. The finite set of DNA methylation markers allow accurate inference of smoking habit, with comparable accuracy as plasma cotinine use, and smoking history from blood, which we envision becoming useful in epidemiology and public health research, and in medical and forensic applications.

2.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(31-32): 521-527, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554538

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Substantial efforts are required to limit global warming to under 2 °C, with 1.5 °C as the target (Paris Agreement goal). We set out to project future temperature-related myocardial infarction (MI) events in Augsburg, Germany, at increases in warming of 1.5 °C, 2 °C, and 3 °C. METHODS: Using daily time series of MI cases and temperature projections under two climate scenarios, we projected changes in temperature-related MIs at different increases in warming, assuming no changes in population structure or level of adaptation. RESULTS: In a low-emission scenario that limits warming to below 2 °C throughout the 21st century, temperature-related MI cases will decrease slightly by -6 (confidence interval -60; 50) per decade at 1.5 °C of warming. In a high-emission scenario going beyond the Paris Agreement goals, temperature-related MI cases will increase by 18 (-64; 117) and 63 (-83; 257) per decade with warming of 2 °C and 3 °C, respectively. CONCLUSION: The future burden of temperature-related MI events in Augsburg at 2 °C and 3 °C of warming will be greater than at 1.5 °C. Fulfilling the Paris Agreement goal of limiting global warming to no more than 1.5 °C is therefore essential to avoid additional MI events due to climate change.

3.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome and obesity are risk factors for chronic kidney disease. However, early kidney alterations may escape diagnosis in these conditions due to glomerular hyperfiltration. Uromodulin, a glycoprotein exclusively synthesized in tubular cells of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, is a novel tissue-specific biomarker for kidney function. In contrast to the commonly used markers creatinine and cystatin C, serum uromodulin does not primarily depend on glomerular filtration. We hypothesized that serum uromodulin is a marker for metabolic syndrome and related components. DESIGN: The analyses included 1088 participants of the population-based KORA F4 study aged 62-81 years. Metabolic syndrome was present in 554 participants. After a mean follow-up time of 6.5 years, 621 participants were reevaluated, of which 92 had developed incident metabolic syndrome. METHODS: The association of serum uromodulin with metabolic syndrome and its components were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. RESULTS: Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome after adjustment for sex, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.56-0.76 per standard deviation uromodulin; p<0.001). Serum uromodulin was inversely associated with all single components of metabolic syndrome. However, serum uromodulin was not associated with new-onset metabolic syndrome after the follow-up period of 6.5 ± 0.3 years (OR 1.18; 95% CI 0.86-1.60). CONCLUSIONS: Serum uromodulin is independently associated with prevalent, but not with incident metabolic syndrome. Low serum uromodulin may indicate a decreased renal reserve in the metabolic syndrome.

4.
Circ Res ; 125(8): 773-782, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476962

RESUMO

Rationale: Proinflammatory cytokines have been identified as potential targets for lowering vascular risk. Experimental evidence and Mendelian randomization suggest a role of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) in atherosclerosis and stroke. However, data from large-scale observational studies are lacking. Objective: To determine whether circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with risk of incident stroke in the general population. Methods and Results: We used previously unpublished data on 17 180 stroke-free individuals (mean age, 56.7±8.1 years; 48.8% men) from 6 population-based prospective cohort studies and explored associations between baseline circulating MCP-1 levels and risk of any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke during a mean follow-up interval of 16.3 years (280 522 person-years at risk; 1435 incident stroke events). We applied Cox proportional-hazards models and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) using random-effects meta-analyses. After adjustments for age, sex, race, and vascular risk factors, higher MCP-1 levels were associated with increased risk of any stroke (HR per 1-SD increment in ln-transformed MCP-1, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.14). Focusing on stroke subtypes, we found a significant association between baseline MCP-1 levels and higher risk of ischemic stroke (HR, 1.11 [1.02-1.21]) but not hemorrhagic stroke (HR, 1.02 [0.82-1.29]). The results followed a dose-response pattern with a higher risk of ischemic stroke among individuals in the upper quartiles of MCP-1 levels as compared with the first quartile (HRs, second quartile: 1.19 [1.00-1.42]; third quartile: 1.35 [1.14-1.59]; fourth quartile: 1.38 [1.07-1.77]). There was no indication for heterogeneity across studies, and in a subsample of 4 studies (12 516 individuals), the risk estimates were stable after additional adjustments for circulating levels of IL (interleukin)-6 and high-sensitivity CRP (C-reactive protein). Conclusions: Higher circulating levels of MCP-1 are associated with increased long-term risk of stroke. Our findings along with genetic and experimental evidence suggest that MCP-1 signaling might represent a therapeutic target to lower stroke risk.Visual Overview: An online visual overview is available for this article.

5.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3346, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431621

RESUMO

Predicting longer-term mortality risk requires collection of clinical data, which is often cumbersome. Therefore, we use a well-standardized metabolomics platform to identify metabolic predictors of long-term mortality in the circulation of 44,168 individuals (age at baseline 18-109), of whom 5512 died during follow-up. We apply a stepwise (forward-backward) procedure based on meta-analysis results and identify 14 circulating biomarkers independently associating with all-cause mortality. Overall, these associations are similar in men and women and across different age strata. We subsequently show that the prediction accuracy of 5- and 10-year mortality based on a model containing the identified biomarkers and sex (C-statistic = 0.837 and 0.830, respectively) is better than that of a model containing conventional risk factors for mortality (C-statistic = 0.772 and 0.790, respectively). The use of the identified metabolic profile as a predictor of mortality or surrogate endpoint in clinical studies needs further investigation.

6.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-11, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31453792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The origin of malnutrition in older age is multifactorial and risk factors may vary according to health and living situation. The present study aimed to identify setting-specific risk profiles of malnutrition in older adults and to investigate the association of the number of individual risk factors with malnutrition. DESIGN: Data of four cross-sectional studies were harmonized and uniformly analysed. Malnutrition was defined as BMI < 20 kg/m2 and/or weight loss of >3 kg in the previous 3-6 months. Associations between factors of six domains (demographics, health, mental function, physical function, dietary intake-related problems, dietary behaviour), the number of individual risk factors and malnutrition were analysed using logistic regression. SETTING: Community (CD), geriatric day hospital (GDH), home care (HC), nursing home (NH). PARTICIPANTS: CD older adults (n 1073), GDH patients (n 180), HC receivers (n 335) and NH residents (n 197), all ≥65 years. RESULTS: Malnutrition prevalence was lower in CD (11 %) than in the other settings (16-19 %). In the CD sample, poor appetite, difficulties with eating, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases were associated with malnutrition; in GDH patients, poor appetite and respiratory diseases; in HC receivers, younger age, poor appetite and nausea; and in NH residents, older age and mobility limitations. In all settings the likelihood of malnutrition increased with the number of potential individual risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates a varying relevance of certain risk factors of malnutrition in different settings. However, the relationship of the number of individual risk factors with malnutrition in all settings implies comprehensive approaches to identify persons at risk of malnutrition early.

7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9439, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263163

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects the health of millions of people worldwide. The identification of genetic determinants associated with changes in glycemia over time might illuminate biological features that precede the development of T2D. Here we conducted a genome-wide association study of longitudinal fasting glucose changes in up to 13,807 non-diabetic individuals of European descent from nine cohorts. Fasting glucose change over time was defined as the slope of the line defined by multiple fasting glucose measurements obtained over up to 14 years of observation. We tested for associations of genetic variants with inverse-normal transformed fasting glucose change over time adjusting for age at baseline, sex, and principal components of genetic variation. We found no genome-wide significant association (P < 5 × 10-8) with fasting glucose change over time. Seven loci previously associated with T2D, fasting glucose or HbA1c were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with fasting glucose change over time. Limited power influences unambiguous interpretation, but these data suggest that genetic effects on fasting glucose change over time are likely to be small. A public version of the data provides a genomic resource to combine with future studies to evaluate shared genetic links with T2D and other metabolic risk traits.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9693, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273286

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the ability of the visceral adiposity index (VAI), the lipid accumulation product (LAP), and product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG), three novel, insulin resistance-related markers, to discriminate prediabetes/diabetes in the general German population. Altogether 2,045 Germans (31-72 years, 53.3% women) without known diabetes and a history of Myocardial Infarction (MI)/stroke from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4 Study were eligible. The discriminatory accuracy of the markers for oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)-defined prediabetes/diabetes according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). The Youden Index (YI) was used to determine optimal cut-off values, and a non-parametric ROC regression was used to examine whether the discriminatory accuracy varied by sex and age. 365 men (38.2%) and 257 women (23.6%) were newly diagnosed with prediabetes/diabetes. AUCs for TyG, LAP and VAI were 0.762 (95% CI 0.740-0.784), 0.743 (95% CI 0.720-0.765), and 0.687 (95% CI 0.662-0.712), respectively. The optimal cut-off values for the LAP and TyG were 56.70 and 8.75 in men, and 30.40 and 8.53 in women. In conclusion, TyG and LAP provide good discrimination of persons with prediabetes/diabetes.

9.
Pharmacoeconomics ; 2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Accurate prediction of relevant outcomes is important for targeting therapies and to support health economic evaluations of healthcare interventions in patients with diabetes. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk equations are some of the most frequently used risk equations. This study aims to analyze the calibration and discrimination of the updated UKPDS risk equations as implemented in the UKPDS Outcomes Model 2 (UKPDS-OM2) for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events and death in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from population-based German samples. METHODS: Analyses are based on data of 456 individuals diagnosed with T2DM who participated in two population-based studies in southern Germany (KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg)-A: 1997/1998, n = 178; KORA-S4: 1999-2001, n = 278). We compared the participants' 10-year observed incidence of mortality, CV mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke with the predicted event rate of the UKPDS-OM2. The model's calibration was evaluated by Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino tests and discrimination was evaluated by C-statistics. RESULTS: Of the 456 participants with T2DM (mean age 65 years, mean diabetes duration 8 years, 56% male), over the 10-year follow-up time 129 died (61 due to CV events), 64 experienced an MI, and 46 a stroke. The UKPDS-OM2 significantly over-predicted mortality and CV mortality by 25% and 28%, respectively (Greenwood-Nam-D'Agostino tests: p < 0.01), but there was no significant difference between predicted and observed MI and stroke risk. The model poorly discriminated for death (C-statistic [95% confidence interval] = 0.64 [0.60-0.69]), CV death (0.64 [0.58-0.71]), and MI (0.58 [0.52-0.66]), and failed to discriminate for stroke (0.57 [0.47-0.66]). CONCLUSIONS: The study results demonstrate acceptable calibration and poor discrimination of the UKPDS-OM2 for predicting death and CV events in this population-based German sample. Those limitations should be considered when using the UKPDS-OM2 for economic evaluations of healthcare strategies or using the risk equations for clinical decision-making.

10.
Exp Gerontol ; 124: 110644, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260723

RESUMO

AIMS: This study examines exposure to anticholinergic and sedative (AS) medications in the general aging population using the Drug Burden Index (DBI) and to analyze the association of AS burden with vertigo, dizziness and balance problems (VDB, primary outcome) and falls (secondary outcome). METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from the second follow-up (FF4) in 2013/14 of the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA)-S4 study. AS burden was classified as DBI > 0. Self-reported data of VDB and falls during the previous 12 months were collected. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association of AS burden with VDB and falls. RESULTS: 883 participants were included in this study (mean age 73.8 years, 48.4% female). AS burden was present in 167 (18.9%) participants, with the highest prevalence in those aged ≥80 years old (26.3%). In the adjusted analysis, AS burden was independently and significantly associated with VDB (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.73 [95% CI: 1.16, 2.56]). CONCLUSION: This study provides reliable prevalence estimates of AS burden in older people using the DBI in Germany, also indicating a positive and significant association with VDB. As VDB are among the main reasons for falls, we do recommend including the AS burden calculation as routine risk assessment in ambulatory medical care.

11.
Atherosclerosis ; 288: 1-8, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. As a result, a full understanding of the factors influencing dyslipidemia is urgently necessary. Bile acids have been recognized as regulators of lipid metabolism, and neutral sterols may influence serum lipid levels. Therefore, this analysis was conducted to better understand the relationship between bile acids, neutral sterols, and dyslipidemia. METHODS: We examined cross-sectional associations between selected fecal metabolites and serum lipids or markers of dyslipidemia in 1387 participants of the KORA FF4 study using linear and logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found positive associations between fecal bile acids and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), total cholesterol, triglycerides and markers of dyslipidemia, though associations were seen most consistently with triglycerides and hypertriglyceridemia. We also found positive associations between fecal cholesterol and serum LDL-c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertriglyceridemia and high serum total cholesterol, though only associations with triglycerides or hypertriglyceridemia remained significant after applying the Bonferroni correction. Unexpectedly, several fecal plant sterols were positively associated with serum lipids and the associated markers of dyslipidemia. However, many of these associations were no longer statistically significant after adjusting for multiple testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide insight into the role that bile acids may play in the development or progression of dyslipidemia. However, further confirmation of these results is warranted. Longitudinal and experimental studies are necessary to clarify the mechanisms behind these associations and to determine causality.

12.
Eur Radiol ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior studies relating body mass index (BMI) to brain volumes suggest an overall inverse association. However, BMI might not be an ideal marker, as it disregards different fat compartments, which carry different metabolic risks. Therefore, we analyzed MR-based fat depots and their association with gray matter (GM) volumes of brain structures, which show volumetric changes in neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: Warp-based automated brain segmentation of 3D FLAIR sequences was obtained in a population-based study cohort. Associations of temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, and hippocampus GM volume with BMI and MR-based quantification of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), as well as hepatic and pancreatic proton density fat fraction (PDFFhepatic and PDFFpanc, respectively), were assessed by linear regression. RESULTS: In a sample of 152 women (age 56.2 ± 9.0 years) and 199 men (age 56.1 ± 9.1 years), we observed a significant inverse association of PDFFhepatic and cingulate gyrus volume (p < 0.05) as well as of PDFFhepatic and hippocampus volume (p < 0.05), when adjusting for age and sex. This inverse association was further enhanced for cingulate gyrus volume after additionally adjusting for hypertension, smoking, BMI, LDL, and total cholesterol (p < 0.01) and also alcohol (p < 0.01). No significant association was observed between PDFFhepatic and temporal lobe and between temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, or hippocampus volume and BMI, VAT, and PDFFpanc. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant inverse, independent association of cingulate gyrus and hippocampus GM volume with hepatic fat, but not with other obesity measures. Increased hepatic fat could therefore serve as a marker of high-risk fat distribution. KEY POINTS: • Obesity is associated with neurodegenerative processes. • In a population-based study cohort, hepatic fat was superior to BMI and visceral and pancreatic fat as a risk biomarker for decreased brain volume of cingulate gyrus and hippocampus. • Increased hepatic fat could serve as a marker of high-risk fat distribution.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
15.
Br J Nutr ; 122(3): 309-321, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182174

RESUMO

Animal sterols, plant sterols and bile acids in stool samples have been suggested as biomarkers of dietary intake. It is still unknown whether they also reflect long-term habitual dietary intake and can be used in aetiological research. In a subgroup of the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA FF4) study, habitual dietary intake was estimated based on repeated 24-h food list and a FFQ. Stool samples were collected according to a standard operating procedure and those meeting the quality criteria were extracted and analysed by means of a metabolomics technique. The present study is based on data from 513 men and 495 women with a mean age of 60 and 58 years, respectively, for which faecal animal and plant sterols and bile acids concentrations and dietary intake data were available. In adjusted regression models, the associations between food intake and log-normalised metabolite concentrations were analysed. Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple testing. In this population-based sample, associations between habitual dietary intake and faecal concentrations of animal sterols were identified, while the impact of usual diet on bile acids was limited. A habitual diet high in 'fruits' and 'nuts and seeds' is associated with lower animal faecal sterols concentrations, whereas a diet high in 'meat and meat products' is positively related to faecal concentrations of animal sterols. A positive association between glycocholate and fruit consumption was found. Further studies are necessary for evaluation of faecal animal sterols as biomarkers of diet. The findings need to be confirmed in other populations with diverse dietary habits.

16.
Environ Int ; 132: 104723, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) may contribute to processes that underlie associations between air pollution and poor health. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate associations between DNAm and ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 µm in diameter (PM2.5; PM10; PM2.5-10). METHODS: We conducted a methylome-wide association study among twelve cohort- and race/ethnicity-stratified subpopulations from the Women's Health Initiative and the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 8397; mean age: 61.5 years; 83% female; 45% African American; 9% Hispanic/Latino American). We averaged geocoded address-specific estimates of daily and monthly mean PM concentrations over 2, 7, 28, and 365 days and 1 and 12 months before exams at which we measured leukocyte DNAm in whole blood. We estimated subpopulation-specific, DNAm-PM associations at approximately 485,000 Cytosine-phosphate-Guanine (CpG) sites in multi-level, linear, mixed-effects models. We combined subpopulation- and site-specific estimates in fixed-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses, then for associations that exceeded methylome-wide significance and were not heterogeneous across subpopulations (P < 1.0 × 10-7; PCochran's Q > 0.10), we characterized associations using publicly accessible genomic databases and attempted replication in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) study. RESULTS: Analyses identified significant DNAm-PM associations at three CpG sites. Twenty-eight-day mean PM10 was positively associated with DNAm at cg19004594 (chromosome 20; MATN4; P = 3.33 × 10-8). One-month mean PM10 and PM2.5-10 were positively associated with DNAm at cg24102420 (chromosome 10; ARPP21; P = 5.84 × 10-8) and inversely associated with DNAm at cg12124767 (chromosome 7; CFTR; P = 9.86 × 10-8). The PM-sensitive CpG sites mapped to neurological, pulmonary, endocrine, and cardiovascular disease-related genes, but DNAm at those sites was not associated with gene expression in blood cells and did not replicate in KORA. CONCLUSIONS: Ambient PM concentrations were associated with DNAm at genomic regions potentially related to poor health among racially, ethnically and environmentally diverse populations of U.S. women and men. Further investigation is warranted to uncover mechanisms through which PM-induced epigenomic changes may cause disease.

17.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126078

RESUMO

The present study investigated the association of carbohydrate intake and isocaloric substitution with different types of fat with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and hepatic fat content as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Data from 283 participants (mean age 56.1 ± 9.0 years) from the MRI sub study of the KORA FF4 study were included. VAT, SAT and total body fat were quantified by a volume-interpolated VIBE-T1w-Dixon MR sequence. Hepatic fat content was determined as the proton density fat-fraction (PDFF) derived from multiecho-T1w MR sequence. Dietary intake was estimated using information provided by two different instruments, that is, repeated 24-h food lists and a food frequency questionnaire. Replacing total carbohydrates with an isoenergetic amount of total fat was significantly positively associated with VAT and hepatic fat, while there was no significant association with SAT. The multivariable adjusted ß-coefficient for replacing 5% of total energy (5E%) carbohydrates with total fat was 0.42 L (95% CI: 0.04, 0.79) for VAT. A substitution in total fat intake by 5E% was associated with a significant increase in liver fat content by 23% (p-value 0.004). If reproduced in prospective studies, such findings would strongly argue for limiting dietary fat intake.

18.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089867

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Inter-individual metabolic differences may be a reason for previously inconsistent results in diet-diabetes associations. We aimed to investigate associations between dietary intake and diabetes for metabolically homogeneous subgroups ('metabotypes') in a large cross-sectional study. METHODS: We used data of 1517 adults aged 38-87 years from the German population-based KORA FF4 study (2013/2014). Dietary intake was estimated based on the combination of a food frequency questionnaire and multiple 24-h food lists. Glucose tolerance status was classified based on an oral glucose tolerance test in participants without a previous diabetes diagnosis using American Diabetes Association criteria. Logistic regression was applied to examine the associations between dietary intake and diabetes for two distinct metabotypes, which were identified based on 16 biochemical and anthropometric parameters. RESULTS: A low intake of fruits and a high intake of total meat, processed meat and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) were significantly associated with diabetes in the total study population. Stratified by metabotype, associations with diabetes remained significant for intake of total meat (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.04-2.67) and processed meat (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.24-4.04) in the metabotypes with rather favorable metabolic characteristics, and for intake of fruits (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68-0.99) and SSB (OR:1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.35) in the more unfavorable metabotype. However, only the association between SSB intake and diabetes differed significantly by metabotype (p value for interaction = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest an influence of metabolic characteristics on diet-diabetes associations, which may help to explain inconsistent previous results. The causality of the observed associations needs to be confirmed in prospective and intervention studies.

19.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies of common diseases or metabolite quantitative traits often identify common variants of small effect size, which may contribute to phenotypes by modulation of gene expression. Thus, there is growing demand for cellular models enabling to assess the impact of gene regulatory variants with moderate effects on gene expression. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation is an important energy metabolism pathway. Common noncoding acyl-CoA dehydrogenase short chain (ACADS) gene variants are associated with plasma C4-acylcarnitine levels and allele-specific modulation of ACADS expression may contribute to the observed phenotype. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed ACADS expression and intracellular acylcarnitine levels in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) genotyped for a common ACADS variant associated with plasma C4-acylcarnitine and found a significant genotype-dependent decrease of ACADS mRNA and protein. Next, we modelled gradual decrease of ACADS expression using a tetracycline-regulated shRNA-knockdown of ACADS in Huh7 hepatocytes, a cell line with high fatty acid oxidation-(FAO)-capacity. Assessing acylcarnitine flux in both models, we found increased C4-acylcarnitine levels with decreased ACADS expression levels. Moreover, assessing time-dependent changes of acylcarnitine levels in shRNA-hepatocytes with altered ACADS expression levels revealed an unexpected effect on long- and medium-chain fatty acid intermediates. CONCLUSIONS: Both, genotyped LCL and regulated shRNA-knockdown are valuable tools to model moderate, gradual gene-regulatory effects of common variants on cellular phenotypes. Decreasing ACADS expression levels modulate short and surprisingly also long/medium chain acylcarnitines, and may contribute to increased plasma acylcarnitine levels.

20.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.

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