Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 711
Filtrar
1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610649

RESUMO

AIMS: Although absolute (AID) and functional iron deficiency (FID) are known risk factors for patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease, their relevance for the general population is unknown. The aim was to assess the association between AID/FID with incident CV disease and mortality in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 12 164 individuals from three European population-based cohorts, AID was defined as ferritin < 100 µg/L or as ferritin < 30 µg/L (severe AID), and FID was defined as ferritin < 100 µg/L or ferritin 100-299 µg/L and transferrin saturation < 20%. The association between iron deficiency and incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CV mortality, and all-cause mortality was evaluated by Cox regression models. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated. Median age was 59 (45-68) years; 45.2% were male. AID, severe AID, and FID were prevalent in 60.0%, 16.4%, and 64.3% of individuals. AID was associated with CHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.39, P = 0.01], but not with mortality. Severe AID was associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.12-1.46, P < 0.01), but not with CV mortality/CHD. FID was associated with CHD (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43, P < 0.01), CV mortality (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.03-1.54, P = 0.03), and all-cause mortality (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24, P = 0.03). Overall, 5.4% of all deaths, 11.7% of all CV deaths, and 10.7% of CHD were attributable to FID. CONCLUSIONS: In the general population, FID was highly prevalent, was associated with incident CHD, CV death, and all-cause death, and had the highest PAF for these events, whereas AID was only associated with CHD and severe AID only with all-cause mortality. This indicates that FID is a relevant risk factor for CV diseases in the general population.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34612501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory processes have been implicated in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated the association of a large panel of inflammatory biomarkers reflecting aspects of immunity with kidney function and CKD incidence. METHODS: We used data from two independent population-based studies, KORA F4 (discovery, n = 1,110, mean age 70.3 years, 48.7% male) and ESTHER (replication, n = 1,672, mean age 61.9 years, 43.6% male). Serum levels of biomarkers were measured using proximity extension assay technology. The association of biomarkers with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at baseline and with incident CKD was investigated using linear and logistic regression models adjusted for cardiorenal risk factors. Independent results from prospective analyses of both studies were pooled. The significance level was corrected for multiple testing by false-discovery rate (PFDR < 0.05.). RESULTS: In the KORA F4 discovery study, 52 out of 71 inflammatory biomarkers were inversely associated with eGFR estimated based on serum creatinine. Top biomarkers included CD40, TNFRSF9 and IL10RB. Forty-two of these 52 biomarkers were replicated in the ESTHER study. Nine of the 42 biomarkers were associated with incident CKD independently of cardiorenal risk factors in the meta-analysis of the KORA (n = 142, mean follow-up of 6.5 years) and ESTHER (n = 103, mean follow-up of 8 years) studies. Pathway analysis revealed the involvement of inflammatory and immunomodulatory processes reflecting cross-communication of innate and adaptive immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: Novel and known biomarkers of inflammation were reproducibly associated with kidney function. Future studies should investigate their clinical utility and underlying molecular mechanisms in independent cohorts.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: It is still controversial if increased hepatic fat independently contributes to cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the association between hepatic fat quantified by MRI and various subclinical vascular disease parameters. DESIGN: We included two cross-sectional investigations embedded in two independent population-based studies (Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP): n=1341; Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA): n=386). The participants underwent a whole-body MRI examination. Hepatic fat content was quantified by proton-density fat fraction (PDFF). Aortic diameters in both studies and carotid plaque-related parameters in KORA were measured with MRI. In SHIP, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and plaque were assessed by ultrasound. We used (ordered) logistic or linear regression to assess associations between hepatic fat and subclinical vascular disease. RESULTS: The prevalence of fatty liver disease (FLD) (PDFF >5.6%) was 35% in SHIP and 43% in KORA. In SHIP, hepatic fat was positively associated with ascending (ß, 95% CI 0.06 (0.04 to 0.08)), descending (0.05 (0.04 to 0.07)) and infrarenal (0.02 (0.01 to 0.03)) aortic diameters, as well as with higher odds of plaque presence (OR, 95% CI 1.22 (1.05 to 1.42)) and greater cIMT (ß, 95% CI 0.01 (0.004 to 0.02)) in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model. However, further adjustment for additional cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly body mass index, attenuated these associations. In KORA, no significant associations were found. CONCLUSIONS: The relation between hepatic fat and subclinical vascular disease was not independent of overall adiposity. Given the close relation of FLD with cardiometabolic risk factors, people with FLD should still be prioritised for cardiovascular disease screening.

4.
BMJ ; 374: n1904, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470785

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations between air pollution and mortality, focusing on associations below current European Union, United States, and World Health Organization standards and guidelines. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of eight cohorts. SETTING: Multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE) in six European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 325 367 adults from the general population recruited mostly in the 1990s or 2000s with detailed lifestyle data. Stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyse the associations between air pollution and mortality. Western Europe-wide land use regression models were used to characterise residential air pollution concentrations of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and black carbon. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Deaths due to natural causes and cause specific mortality. RESULTS: Of 325 367 adults followed-up for an average of 19.5 years, 47 131 deaths were observed. Higher exposure to PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon was associated with significantly increased risk of almost all outcomes. An increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 13% (95% confidence interval 10.6% to 15.5%) increase in natural deaths; the corresponding figure for a 10 µg/m3 increase in nitrogen dioxide was 8.6% (7% to 10.2%). Associations with PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon remained significant at low concentrations. For participants with exposures below the US standard of 12 µg/m3 an increase of 5 µg/m3 in PM2.5 was associated with 29.6% (14% to 47.4%) increase in natural deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Our study contributes to the evidence that outdoor air pollution is associated with mortality even at low pollution levels below the current European and North American standards and WHO guideline values. These findings are therefore an important contribution to the debate about revision of air quality limits, guidelines, and standards, and future assessments by the Global Burden of Disease.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
5.
Lancet Planet Health ; 5(9): e620-e632, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508683

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence is unclear on the health effects of exposure to pollutant concentrations lower than current EU and US standards and WHO guideline limits. Within the multicentre study Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we investigated the associations of long-term exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2·5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon, and warm-season ozone (O3) with the incidence of stroke and acute coronary heart disease. METHODS: We did a pooled analysis of individual data from six population-based cohort studies within ELAPSE, from Sweden, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Germany (recruited 1992-2004), and harmonised individual and area-level variables between cohorts. Participants (all adults) were followed up until migration from the study area, death, or incident stroke or coronary heart disease, or end of follow-up (2011-15). Mean 2010 air pollution concentrations from centrally developed European-wide land use regression models were assigned to participants' baseline residential addresses. We used Cox proportional hazards models with increasing levels of covariate adjustment to investigate the association of air pollution exposure with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease. We assessed the shape of the concentration-response function and did subset analyses of participants living at pollutant concentrations lower than predefined values. FINDINGS: From the pooled ELAPSE cohorts, data on 137 148 participants were analysed in our fully adjusted model. During a median follow-up of 17·2 years (IQR 13·8-19·5), we observed 6950 incident events of stroke and 10 071 incident events of coronary heart disease. Incidence of stroke was associated with PM2·5 (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 1·01-1·21] per 5 µg/m3 increase), NO2 (1·08 [1·04-1·12] per 10 µg/m3 increase), and black carbon (1·06 [1·02-1·10] per 0·5 10-5/m increase), whereas coronary heart disease incidence was only associated with NO2 (1·04 [1·01-1·07]). Warm-season O3 was not associated with an increase in either outcome. Concentration-response curves indicated no evidence of a threshold below which air pollutant concentrations are not harmful for cardiovascular health. Effect estimates for PM2·5 and NO2 remained elevated even when restricting analyses to participants exposed to pollutant concentrations lower than the EU limit values of 25 µg/m3 for PM2·5 and 40 µg/m3 for NO2. INTERPRETATION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with incidence of stroke and coronary heart disease, even at pollutant concentrations lower than current limit values. FUNDING: Health Effects Institute.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521639

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Natriuretic peptide (NP) concentrations are increased in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) but are associated with a lower diabetes risk. We investigated associations of N-terminal pro-B-type NP (NT-proBNP) and midregional proatrial NP (MR-proANP) with incident type 2 diabetes stratified by the presence of CVD. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Based on the Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe (BiomarCaRE) Consortium, we included 45,477 participants with NT-proBNP measurements (1,707 developed type 2 diabetes over 6.5 years of median follow-up; among these, 209 had CVD at baseline) and 11,537 participants with MR-proANP measurements (857 developed type 2 diabetes over 13.8 years of median follow-up; among these, 106 had CVD at baseline). The associations were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models. RESULTS: Both NPs were inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes (hazard ratios [95% CI] per 1-SD increase of log NP: 0.84 [0.79; 0.89] for NT-proBNP and 0.77 [0.71; 0.83] for MR-proANP). The inverse association between NT-proBNP and type 2 diabetes was significant in individuals without CVD but not in individuals with CVD (0.81 [0.76; 0.86] vs. 1.04 [0.90; 1.19]; P multiplicative interaction = 0.001). There was no significant difference in the association of MR-proANP with type 2 diabetes between individuals without and with CVD (0.75 [0.69; 0.82] vs. 0.81 [0.66; 0.99]; P multiplicative interaction = 0.236). CONCLUSIONS: NT-proBNP and MR-proANP are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes. However, the inverse association of NT-proBNP seems to be modified by the presence of CVD. Further investigations are warranted to confirm our findings and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19365, 2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588469

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV1. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.

8.
Brain ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590685

RESUMO

Dystonia is a prevalent, heterogeneous movement disorder characterized by involuntarily abnormal postures. Biomarkers of dystonia are notoriously lacking. Here, a biomarker is reported for histone lysine methyltransferase (KMT2B)-deficient dystonia, a leading subtype among the individually rare monogenic dystonias. It was derived by applying a support vector machine to an episignature of 113 DNA CpG sites which, in blood cells, showed significant epigenome-wide association with KMT2B deficiency and at least 1x log-fold change of methylation. This classifier was accurate both when tested on the general population and on samples with various other deficiencies of the epigenetic machinery, thus allowing for definitive evaluation of variants of uncertain significance and identifying patients who may profit from deep brain stimulation, a highly successful treatment in KMT2B-deficient dystonia. Methylation was increased in KMT2B deficiency at all 113 CpG sites. The coefficients of variation of the normalized methylation levels at these sites also perfectly classified the samples with KMT2B-deficient dystonia. Moreover, the mean of the normalized methylation levels correlated well with the age at onset of dystonia (p = 0.003) - being lower in samples with late or incomplete penetrance-thus serving as a predictor of disease onset and severity. Similarly, it may also function in monitoring the recently envisioned treatment of KMT2B deficiency by inhibition of DNA methylation.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34574779

RESUMO

Previous studies have demonstrated cardiovascular health effects of environmental noise exposure, partly showing different effect estimates for males and females. This cannot be explained by biological differences between males and females alone. It is assumed that health outcomes and exposure patterns also depend on gender, determined by social, economic, and cultural factors in society. This systematic review evaluated the current state of how sex/gender is integrated in studies on environmental noise associated with hypertension, blood pressure, and ischemic heart diseases. A systematic literature search was conducted in three different databases, identifying thirty studies published between 1 January 2000 and 2 February 2020. Effects varied, with no consistent findings for both males and females. All studies used a binary operationalization of sex/gender, assuming static differences between males and females. The differentiation between biological and social dimensions of sex/gender was not present in any of the studies and the terms "sex" and "gender" were used interchangeably. However, biological and social dimensions of sex/gender were unconsciously taken up in the discussion of the results. Integrating sex/gender-theoretical concepts into future studies offers great potential to increase the validity of research findings, thus making them more useful for prevention efforts, health promotion, and health care.

10.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 168, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Compared to individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, the relative increase in cardiovascular mortality is much higher in women than in men in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: We evaluated data from 7443 individuals (3792 women, 50.9%), aged 20 to 81 years, from two independent population-based investigations, SHIP-0 and MONICA/KORA S3. We analyzed the longitudinal sex-specific associations of lipoprotein(a) with cardiovascular mortality in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus using Cox regression. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 20.5 years (136,802 person-years), 657 participants (404 men and 253 women) died of cardiovascular causes. Among individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus, men had a significantly higher risk for cardiovascular mortality compared to women in unadjusted model and after adjustment. On the other hand, in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the risk for cardiovascular mortality was not different between men and women in the unadjusted model and after adjustment for age, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting status and study sample (SHIP-0, MONICA/KORA S3). Further adjustment for lipoprotein(a) concentrations had no impact on the hazard ratio (HR) for cardiovascular mortality comparing men versus women in individuals without type 2 diabetes mellitus [HR: 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.63 to 2.32; p < 0.001]. In individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, however, further adjustment for lipoprotein(a) led to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality in men and a decreased risk in women resulting in a statistically significant difference between men and women (HR: 1.53; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.24; p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: Women are described to have a stronger relative increase in cardiovascular mortality than men when comparing individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus. Higher lipoprotein(a) concentrations in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus than in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus might partially explain this finding.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16173, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373570

RESUMO

To evaluate the relationship of cardiac function, including time-volume-curves, with lung volumes derived from pulmonary function tests (PFT) and MRI in subjects without cardiovascular diseases. 216 subjects underwent whole-body MRI and spirometry as part of the KORA-FF4 cohort study. Lung volumes derived semi-automatically using an in-house algorithm. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and residual volume were measured. Cardiac parameters derived from Cine-SSFP-sequence using cvi42, while left ventricle (LV) time-volume-curves were evaluated using pyHeart. Linear regression analyses assessed the relationships of cardiac parameters with PFT and MRI-based lung volumes. Mean age was 56.3 ± 9.2 years (57% males). LV and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic-, end-systolic-, stroke volume, LV peak ejection- and early/late diastolic filling rate were associated with FEV1, FVC, and residual volume (excluding late diastolic filling rate with FEV1, LV end-systolic/stroke volume and RV end-diastolic/end-systolic volumes with residual volume). In contrast, LV end-diastolic volume (ß = - 0.14, p = 0.01), early diastolic filling rate (ß = - 0.11, p = 0.04), and LV/RV stroke volume (ß = - 0.14, p = 0.01; ß = - 0.11, p = 0.01) were inversely associated with MRI-based lung volume. Subclinical cardiac impairment was associated with reduced FEV1, FVC, and residual volume. Cardiac parameters decreased with increasing MRI-based lung volume contrasting the results of PFT.

12.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34285147

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is an important regulator of the immune system and has been implicated in prevalent hypertension.The aim of this study is to investigate whether the IgG glycome begins to change prior to hypertension diagnosis by analysing the IgG glycome composition in a large population-based female cohort with two independent replication samples. METHODS: We included 989 unrelated cases with incident hypertension and 1628 controls from the TwinsUK cohort (mean follow-up time of 6.3 years) with IgG measured at baseline by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and longitudinal BP measurement available. We replicated our findings in 106 individuals from the 10 001 Dalmatians and 729 from KORA S4. Cox regression mixed models were applied to identify changes in glycan traits preincident hypertension, after adjusting for age, mean arterial pressure, BMI, family relatedness and multiple testing (FDR < 0.1). Significant IgG-incident hypertension associations were replicated in the two independent cohorts by leveraging Cox regression mixed models in the 10 001 Dalmatians and logistic regression models in the KORA cohort. RESULTS: We identified and replicated four glycan traits, incidence of bisecting GlcNAc, GP4, GP9 and GP21, that are predictive of incident hypertension after adjusting for confoundes and multiple testing [hazard ratio (95% CI) ranging from 0.45 (0.24-0.84) for GP21 to 2.9 (1.5-5.68) for GP4]. We then linearly combined the four replicated glycans and found that the glycan score correlated with incident hypertension, SBP and DBP. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the IgG glycome changes prior to the development of hypertension.

13.
Exp Gerontol ; 153: 111500, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people using long-term care (LTC) is increasing steadily, hence, demand for adequate services is rising. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify relevant gender-linked determinants for utilization of LTC in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We examined 4077 females (52.7%) and males ≥ 65 years old (range: 65-97 years) between 2011/12 (t1) and 2016 (t2). Data originated from the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA)-Age study in southern Germany. A descriptive analysis assessed the amount of LTC used. Cross-sectional generalized estimating equation logistic models identified determinants for utilization of (in)formal LTC. Determinants for transition to LTC between t1 and t2 were examined using a longitudinal logistic regression model. Potential determinants were chosen according to Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use. RESULTS: At t2, 820 (20.1%) were LTC users with 527 (64.3%) being female. The average amount of informal LTC was higher in males, whereas the amount of formal LTC was higher in females. In both genders, higher age, multimorbidity, and disability were associated with utilization of and transition to LTC. Living alone was significantly associated with utilization of LTC in both genders, but its effect was two times stronger in males. Thus, it is considered the essential gender-linked determinant. CONCLUSIONS: Gender-linked determinants must be considered when establishing demand-oriented policies. Future health programs should specifically target older individuals, especially males, living alone to improve their capabilities in activities of daily living to allow them to remain living longer and independently within community settings.


Assuntos
Vida Independente , Assistência de Longa Duração , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201265

RESUMO

Resettlers are a large migrant group of more than 2 million people in Germany who migrated mainly from the former Soviet Union to Germany after 1989. We sought to compare the distribution of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to investigate the overall genetic differences in a study population which consisted of resettlers and native (autochthone) Germans. This was a joint analysis of two cohort studies which were performed in the region of Augsburg, Bavaria, Germany, with 3363 native Germans and 363 resettlers. Data from questionnaires and physical examinations were used to compare the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases between the resettlers and native Germans. A population-based genome-wide association analysis was performed in order to identify the genetic differences between the two groups. The distribution of the major risk factors for CVD differed between the two groups. The resettlers lead a less active lifestyle. While female resettlers smoked less than their German counterparts, the men showed similar smoking behavior. SNPs from three genes (BTNL2, DGKB, TGFBR3) indicated a difference in the two populations. In other studies, these genes have been shown to be associated with CVD, rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis, respectively.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Migrantes , Butirofilinas , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , U.R.S.S.
15.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 18(1): 73, 2021 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide burden of diverticular disease, the connections between diverticular disease and dietary habits remain poorly understood, particularly in an asymptomatic representative sample. We investigated the association between asymptomatic diverticular disease as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dietary habits in a Western study cohort. METHODS: Participants from a cross-sectional sample of a population-based cohort study underwent whole-body 3T-MRI including an isotropic VIBE-Dixon sequence. The presence and extent of diverticular disease was assessed in blinded fashion. Habitual dietary intake was recorded using a blended approach, applying 24-h food lists and a food-frequency questionnaire. Traditional cardiometabolic risk factors were obtained by interviews and medical examination. Univariate and multivariate associations were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 308 subjects were included in this analysis (56% male, 56.4 ± 9.1 years). 39.9% had any form of diverticular disease and 15.3% had advanced asymptomatic diverticular disease. After adjustment for age, sex and total energy intake a higher intake of fiber and vegetables was associated with a lower odds for asymptomatic diverticular disease (fiber: OR 0.68 95% CI [0.48, 0.95]; vegetables: OR 0.72 95% CI [0.53, 0.97]) and an increased intake of meat was associated with an approximately two-fold higher odds for advanced asymptomatic diverticular disease (OR 1.84 95% CI [1.13, 2.99]). However, after additional adjustment for body-mass-index (BMI), alcohol consumption, smoking behavior and physical activity only a high fiber and vegetables intake remained significantly associated with lower odds of asymptomatic diverticular disease. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a high-fiber diet and increased intake of vegetables is associated with lower odds of having asymptomatic diverticular disease, independent of age, sex, total energy intake, BMI and other life-style factors.

16.
Int J Cancer ; 149(11): 1887-1897, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278567

RESUMO

Particulate matter air pollution and diesel engine exhaust have been classified as carcinogenic for lung cancer, yet few studies have explored associations with liver cancer. We used six European adult cohorts which were recruited between 1985 and 2005, pooled within the "Effects of low-level air pollution: A study in Europe" (ELAPSE) project, and followed for the incidence of liver cancer until 2011 to 2015. The annual average exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), particulate matter with diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5 ), black carbon (BC), warm-season ozone (O3 ), and eight elemental components of PM2.5 (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, nickel, vanadium, silicon, and potassium) were estimated by European-wide hybrid land-use regression models at participants' residential addresses. We analyzed the association between air pollution and liver cancer incidence by Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for potential confounders. Of 330 064 cancer-free adults at baseline, 512 developed liver cancer during a mean follow-up of 18.1 years. We observed positive linear associations between NO2 (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.02-1.35 per 10 µg/m3 ), PM2.5 (1.12, 0.92-1.36 per 5 µg/m3 ), and BC (1.15, 1.00-1.33 per 0.5 10-5 /m) and liver cancer incidence. Associations with NO2 and BC persisted in two-pollutant models with PM2.5 . Most components of PM2.5 were associated with the risk of liver cancer, with the strongest associations for sulfur and vanadium, which were robust to adjustment for PM2.5 or NO2 . Our study suggests that ambient air pollution may increase the risk of liver cancer, even at concentrations below current EU standards.

17.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 143, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34294131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNA 886 (nc886) is coded from a maternally inherited metastable epiallele. We set out to investigate the determinants and dynamics of the methylation pattern at the nc886 epiallele and how this methylation status associates with nc886 RNA expression. Furthermore, we investigated the associations between the nc886 methylation status or the levels of nc886 RNAs and metabolic traits in the YFS and KORA cohorts. The association between nc886 epiallele methylation and RNA expression was also validated in induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. RESULTS: We confirm that the methylation status of the nc886 epiallele is mostly binomial, with individuals displaying either a non- or hemi-methylated status, but we also describe intermediately and close to fully methylated individuals. We show that an individual's methylation status is associated with the mother's age and socioeconomic status, but not with the individual's own genetics. Once established, the methylation status of the nc886 epiallele remains stable for at least 25 years. This methylation status is strongly associated with the levels of nc886 non-coding RNAs in serum, blood, and iPSC lines. In addition, nc886 methylation status associates with glucose and insulin levels during adolescence but not with the indicators of glucose metabolism or the incidence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. However, the nc886-3p RNA levels also associate with glucose metabolism in adulthood. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that nc886 metastable epiallele methylation is tuned by the periconceptional conditions and it associates with glucose metabolism through the expression of the ncRNAs coded in the epiallele region.

18.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3987, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183656

RESUMO

Here we examine the association between DNA methylation in circulating leukocytes and blood lipids in a multi-ethnic sample of 16,265 subjects. We identify 148, 35, and 4 novel associations among Europeans, African Americans, and Hispanics, respectively, and an additional 186 novel associations through a trans-ethnic meta-analysis. We observe a high concordance in the direction of effects across racial/ethnic groups, a high correlation of effect sizes between high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides, a modest overlap of associations with epigenome-wide association studies of other cardio-metabolic traits, and a largely non-overlap with lipid loci identified to date through genome-wide association studies. Thirty CpGs reached significance in at least 2 racial/ethnic groups including 7 that showed association with the expression of an annotated gene. CpGs annotated to CPT1A showed evidence of being influenced by triglycerides levels. DNA methylation levels of circulating leukocytes show robust and consistent association with blood lipid levels across multiple racial/ethnic groups.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Leucócitos/citologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Carnitina O-Palmitoiltransferase/genética , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenoma/genética , Epigenômica , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
19.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been linked to childhood-onset asthma, although evidence is still insufficient. Within the multicentre project Effects of Low-Level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe (ELAPSE), we examined the associations of long-term exposures to particulate matter with a diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and black carbon (BC) with asthma incidence in adults. METHODS: We pooled data from three cohorts in Denmark and Sweden with information on asthma hospital diagnoses. The average concentrations of air pollutants in 2010 were modelled by hybrid land-use regression models at participants' baseline residential addresses. Associations of air pollution exposures with asthma incidence were explored with Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of 98 326 participants, 1965 developed asthma during a mean follow-up of 16.6 years. We observed associations in fully adjusted models with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.43) per 5 µg·m-3 for PM2.5, 1.17 (95% CI 1.10-1.25) per 10 µg·m-3 for NO2 and 1.15 (95% CI 1.08-1.23) per 0.5×10-5 m-1 for BC. Hazard ratios were larger in cohort subsets with exposure levels below the European Union and US limit values and possibly World Health Organization guidelines for PM2.5 and NO2. NO2 and BC estimates remained unchanged in two-pollutant models with PM2.5, whereas PM2.5 estimates were attenuated to unity. The concentration-response curves showed no evidence of a threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to air pollution, especially from fossil fuel combustion sources such as motorised traffic, was associated with adult-onset asthma, even at levels below the current limit values.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Asma , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Incidência , Material Particulado/análise , Suécia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: As white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of the brain are associated with an increased risk of stroke, cognitive decline, and depression, elucidating the associated risk factors is important. In addition to age and hypertension, pre-diabetes and diabetes may play important roles in the development of WMHs. Previous studies have, however, shown conflicting results. We aimed to investigate the effect of diabetes status and quantitative markers of glucose metabolism on WMH volume in a population-based cohort without prior cardiovascular disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 400 participants underwent 3 T MRI. WMHs were manually segmented on 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered to all participants not previously diagnosed with diabetes to assess 2-hour serum glucose concentrations. Fasting glucose concentrations and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression analyses of WMH volume and measures of glycemic status were performed while controlling for cardiovascular risk factors and multiple testing. RESULTS: The final study population comprised 388 participants (57% male; age 56.3±9.2 years; n=98 with pre-diabetes, n=51 with diabetes). Higher WMH volume was associated with pre-diabetes (p=0.001) and diabetes (p=0.026) compared with normoglycemic control participants after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. 2-hour serum glucose (p<0.001), but not fasting glucose (p=0.389) or HbA1c (p=0.050), showed a significant positive association with WMH volume after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that high 2-hour serum glucose concentration in OGTT, but not fasting glucose levels, may be an independent risk factor for the development of WMHs, with the potential to inform intensified prevention strategies in individuals at risk of WMH-associated morbidity.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Diabetes Mellitus , Estado Pré-Diabético , Substância Branca , Idoso , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...