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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243028, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33270701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Louisiana in the summer of 2020 had the highest per capita case count for COVID-19 in the United States and COVID-19 deaths disproportionately affects the African American population. Neighborhood deprivation has been observed to be associated with poorer health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and COVID-19 in Louisiana. METHODS: The Area Deprivation Index (ADI) was calculated and used to classify neighborhood deprivation at the census tract level. A total of 17 US census variables were used to calculate the ADI for each of the 1148 census tracts in Louisiana. The data were extracted from the American Community Survey (ACS) 2018. The neighborhoods were categorized into quintiles as well as low and high deprivation. The publicly available COVID-19 cumulative case counts by census tract were obtained from the Louisiana Department of Health website on July 31, 2020. Descriptive and Poisson regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: Neighborhoods in Louisiana were substantially different with respect to deprivation. The ADI ranged from 136.00 for the most deprived neighborhood and -33.87 in the least deprived neighborhood. We observed that individuals residing in the most deprived neighborhoods had almost a 40% higher risk of COVID-19 compared to those residing in the least deprived neighborhoods. CONCLUSION: While the majority of previous studies were focused on very limited socio-environmental factors such as crowding and income, this study used a composite area-based deprivation index to examine the role of neighborhood environment on COVID-19. We observed a positive relationship between neighborhood deprivation and COVID-19 risk in Louisiana. The study findings can be utilized to promote public health preventions measures besides social distancing, wearing a mask while in public and frequent handwashing in vulnerable neighborhoods with greater deprivation.

2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(6): e15943, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442147

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional mindfulness-based stress reduction programs are resource intensive for providers and time- and cost-intensive for participants, but the use of mobile technologies may be particularly convenient and cost-effective for populations that are busy, less affluent, or geographically distant from skilled providers. Women in southern Louisiana live in a vulnerable, disaster-prone region and are highly stressed, making a mobile program particularly suited to this population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) assess the feasibility and acceptability of a mobile mindfulness app in real-world conditions in a pilot study of a community sample of women residing in southern Louisiana, (2) describe predictors of app usage, and (3) assess the effect of the app on secondary health outcomes. METHODS: Women were recruited from an oil spill study on health. A total of 236 women completed a baseline survey, were offered the mobile mindfulness program, and completed a follow-up survey. Subjects were asked to download and use the app for at least 30 days for 10 min. All study procedures were completed on the web. Primary outcomes were feasibility and acceptability of the app and characteristics of app utilization. Secondary outcomes included mindfulness, depression, perceived stress, sleep quality, physical activity, BMI, and healthy eating. RESULTS: Overall, 74.2% (236/318) of subjects completed the follow-up survey, and 13.5% (43/318) used the app. The main barrier to app usage was lack of time, cited by 37% (16/43) of users and 48.7% (94/193) of nonusers of the app. Women who chose to use the app were more highly educated (16/43, 63% had a college education vs 65/193, 33.7% of nonparticipants; P<.001), had higher incomes (23/43, 58% had incomes >US $50,000 per year vs 77/193, 43.0% of nonparticipants), and were employed (34/43, 79% vs 122/193, 63.2% of nonparticipants; P=.047). Those who engaged with the app did so at high levels, with 72% (31/43) of participants self-reporting the completion of some or all sessions and 74% (32/43) reporting high levels of satisfaction with the app. Participation with the app had a beneficial impact on depression (odds ratio [OR] 0.3, 95% CI 0.11-0.81), sleep quality (OR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.96), sleep duration (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.07-0.86), sleep latency (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.11-0.81), and physical activity (2.8 95% CI 1.0-7.8), but mindfulness scores did not change from baseline to follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: The Headspace mobile mindfulness app was easy and cost-effective to implement and acceptable to those who participated, but few women elected to try it. The unique characteristics of this southern Louisiana population suggest that more intense promotion of the benefits of mindfulness training is needed, perhaps in conjunction with some therapist or researcher support. Several short-term benefits of the app were identified, particularly for depression and sleep.

3.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(1): 123-129, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies that have examined the association between cardiovascular comorbidities and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have yielded inconsistent results. It remains unknown whether cardiometabolic disease is associated with EOC in African American (AA) women, who have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease and lower risk of EOC than White women. Here, we estimate the effect of cardiovascular comorbid conditions and EOC risk among AA women. METHODS: Data were available from 593 ovarian carcinoma patients and 752 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). Participants were asked to self-report a history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes and any current medication use. The relationship between hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and medications taken for these conditions was determined using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Hypertension was associated with an increased risk (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01, 1.73), whereas diabetes and hyperlipidemia were associated with a decreased risk (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.49, 0.91 and aOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.47, 0.80, respectively) of EOC. Use of anti-diabetic medication was inversely associated with EOC risk, as was use of lipid lowering medications (in the overall study population), which were predominantly statins. Among women with hypertension, use of anti-hypertensive medications was inversely associated with EOC risk, with associations that were most pronounced for diuretics, ARBs and ACE inhibitors. CONCLUSION: Hypertension was associated with an increased EOC risk in this patient population, whereas an inverse association was observed for diabetes and hyperlipidemia. The decreased risk of EOC identified with use of anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetes or lipid-lowering medications could have implications for risk reduction strategies.

4.
JCO Oncol Pract ; 16(10): e1169-e1180, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469686

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Multiple myeloma (MM) treatment has changed tremendously, with significant improvement in patient out-comes. One group with a suboptimal benefit is patients with high-risk cytogenetics, as tested by conventional karyotyping or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Methodology for these tests has been published, but not necessarily standardized. METHODS: We address variability in the testing and reporting methodology for MM cytogenetics in the United States using the ongoing African American Multiple Myeloma Study (AAMMS). We evaluated clinical and cytogenetic data from 1,221 patients (1,161 with conventional karyotyping and 976 with FISH) tested between 1998 and 2016 across 58 laboratories nationwide. RESULTS: Interlab and intralab variability was noted for the number of cells analyzed for karyotyping, with a significantly higher number of cells analyzed in patients in whom cytogenetics were normal (P 5.0025). For FISH testing, CD138-positive cell enrichment was used in 29.7% of patients and no enrichment in 50% of patients, whereas the remainder had unknown status. A significantly smaller number of cells was analyzed for patients in which CD138 cell enrichment was used compared with those without such enrichment (median, 50 v 200; P, .0001). A median of 7 loci probes (range, 1-16) were used for FISH testing across all laboratories, with variability in the loci probed even within a given laboratory. Chromosome 13-related abnormalities were the most frequently tested abnormality (n5956; 97.9%), and t(14;16) was the least frequently tested abnormality (n 5 119; 12.2%). CONCLUSIONS: We report significant variability in cytogenetic testing across the United States for MM, potentially leading to variability in risk stratification, with possible clinical implications and personalized treatment approaches.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

6.
Front Public Health ; 8: 617976, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33553098

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and COVID-19 incidence among Louisiana census tracts. Methods: An ecological study comparing the CDC SVI and census tract-level COVID-19 case counts was conducted. Choropleth maps were used to identify census tracts with high levels of both social vulnerability and COVID-19 incidence. Negative binomial regression with random intercepts was used to compare the relationship between overall CDC SVI percentile and its four sub-themes and COVID-19 incidence, adjusting for population density. Results: In a crude stratified analysis, all four CDC SVI sub-themes were significantly associated with COVID-19 incidence. Census tracts with higher levels of social vulnerability were associated with higher COVID-19 incidence after adjusting for population density (adjusted RR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.41-1.65). Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that increased social vulnerability is linked with COVID-19 incidence. Additional resources should be allocated to areas of increased social disadvantage to reduce the incidence of COVID-19 in vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Censos , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Cancer ; 125(24): 4442-4451, 2019 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discrimination and trust are known barriers to accessing health care. Despite well-documented racial disparities in the ovarian cancer care continuum, the role of these barriers has not been examined. This study evaluated the association of everyday discrimination and trust in physicians with a prolonged interval between symptom onset and ovarian cancer diagnosis (hereafter referred to as prolonged symptom duration). METHODS: Subjects included cases enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, a multisite case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer among black women. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations of everyday discrimination and trust in physicians with a prolonged symptom duration (1 or more symptoms lasting longer than the median symptom-specific duration), and it controlled for access-to-care covariates and potential confounders. RESULTS: Among the 486 cases in this analysis, 302 women had prolonged symptom duration. In the fully adjusted model, a 1-unit increase in the frequency of everyday discrimination increased the odds of prolonged symptom duration 74% (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.22-2.49), but trust in physicians was not associated with prolonged symptom duration (OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.66-1.11). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived everyday discrimination was associated with prolonged symptom duration, whereas more commonly evaluated determinants of access to care and trust in physicians were not. These results suggest that more research on the effects of interpersonal barriers affecting ovarian cancer care is warranted.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Relações Médico-Paciente , Racismo , Confiança , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Am J Public Health ; 109(8): 1079-1083, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219714

RESUMO

Increasing in frequency and impact in the United States and worldwide, disasters can lead to serious mental health consequences. Although US census data are essential for disaster preparedness and the identification of community-level risk factors for adverse postdisaster mental health outcomes, the US Census Bureau faces many challenges as we approach 2020 Decennial Census data collection. Despite the utility of the information provided by the Census and American Community Survey (ACS), the 2020 US Census and subsequent ACS data face threats to validity. As a result, public health funding could be misallocated, and disaster preparedness and response efforts misinformed; this can also contribute to the worsening of mental health inequities, particularly in the context of disaster. Undercutting the Census and the ACS, rich data sources that allow representation of all people in the United States, is a step backward in our effort to mitigate the population mental health consequences of disasters.


Assuntos
Censos , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Saúde Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde da População/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Humanos , Estados Unidos
9.
Cancer ; 125(19): 3418-3427, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early diagnosis and treatment of depression are cancer care priorities. These priorities are critical for prostate cancer survivors because men rarely seek mental health care. However, little is known about the epidemiology of depression in this patient population. The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence and predictors of probable depression in prostate cancer survivors. METHODS: The data were from a population-based cohort of North Carolinian prostate cancer survivors who were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 in the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (n = 1031) and were prospectively followed annually from 2008 to 2011 in the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina study (n = 805). Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate an indicator of probable depression (Short Form 12 mental composite score ≤48.9; measured at enrollment and during the annual follow-up) as a function of individual-level characteristics within the longitudinal data set. RESULTS: The prevalence of probable depression fell from 38% in the year of the cancer diagnosis to 20% 6 to 7 years later. Risk factors for probable depression throughout the study were African American race, unemployment, low annual income, younger age, recency of cancer diagnosis, past depression, comorbidities, treatment decisional regret, and nonadherence to exercise recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Depression is a major challenge for prostate cancer survivors, particularly in the first 5 years after the cancer diagnosis. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate an association between treatment decisional regret and probable depression.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sobreviventes de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Emoções , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Prevalência , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Próstata , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Nutr ; 149(9): 1606-1616, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is associated with ovarian carcinogenesis; yet, the impact of inflammatory-related exposures on outcomes has been understudied. OBJECTIVE: Given the poor survival of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer, especially African-Americans, we examined whether diet-associated inflammation, a modifiable source of chronic systemic inflammation measured by the dietary inflammatory index (DII), was associated with all-cause mortality among African-American women with ovarian carcinoma. METHODS: Data were available from 490 ovarian carcinoma patients enrolled in a population-based case-control study of African-American women with ovarian cancer, the African-American Cancer Epidemiology Study. Energy-adjusted DII (E-DII) scores were calculated based on prediagnostic dietary intake of foods alone or foods and supplements, which was self-reported using the 2005 Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate risk of mortality overall and for the most common histotype, high-grade serous carcinoma. Additionally, we assessed interaction by age at diagnosis and smoking status. RESULTS: Women included in this study had a median age of 57 y, and the majority of women were obese (58%), had late-stage disease (Stage III or IV, 66%), and had high-grade serous carcinoma (64%). Greater E-DII scores including supplements (indicating greater inflammatory potential) were associated with an increased risk of mortality among women with high-grade serous carcinoma (HR1-unit change: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.17). Similar associations were observed for the E-DII excluding supplements, although not statistically significant (HR1-unit change: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.17). There was an interaction by smoking status, where the positive association with mortality was present only among ever smokers (HRQuartile 4/Quartile 1: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.21, 4.60) but not among never smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Greater inflammatory potential of prediagnostic diet may adversely impact prognosis among African-American women with high-grade serous carcinoma, and specifically among ever smokers.


Assuntos
Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/mortalidade , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
11.
Cancer Med ; 8(8): 3648-3658, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Appropriate depression care is a cancer-care priority. However, many cancer survivors live with undiagnosed and untreated depression. Prostate cancer survivors may be particularly vulnerable, but little is known about their access to depression care. The goal of this study was to describe patterns and predictors of clinical diagnosis and treatment of depression in prostate cancer survivors. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate indicators of self-reported clinical diagnosis and treatment depression as a function of individual-level characteristics within a longitudinal dataset. The data were from a population-based cohort of North Carolinian prostate cancer survivors who were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 on the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (N = 1,031), and prospectively followed annually from 2008 to 2011 on the Health Care Access and Prostate Cancer Treatment in North Carolina (N = 805). RESULTS: The average rate of self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression was 44% (95% CI: 39%-49%), which declined from 60% to 40% between prostate cancer diagnosis and 5-7 years later. Factors associated with lower odds of self-reported clinical diagnosis of depression include African-American race, employment, age at enrollment, low education, infrequent primary care visits, and living with a prostate cancer diagnosis for more than 2 years. The average rate of self-reported depression treatment was 62% (95% CI: 55%-69%). Factors associated with lower odds of self-reported depression treatment included employment and living with a prostate cancer diagnosis for 2 or more years. CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer survivors experience barriers when in need of depression care.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Prognóstico , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Cancer Med ; 8(5): 2503-2513, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001917

RESUMO

An association between genetic variants in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was previously reported in women of African ancestry (AA). We sought to examine associations between genetic variants in VDR and additional genes from vitamin D biosynthesis and pathway targets (EGFR, UGT1A, UGT2A1/2, UGT2B, CYP3A4/5, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP11A1, and GC). Genotyping was performed using the custom-designed 533,631 SNP Illumina OncoArray with imputation to the 1,000 Genomes Phase 3 v5 reference set in 755 EOC cases, including 537 high-grade serous (HGSOC), and 1,235 controls. All subjects are of African ancestry (AA). Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We further evaluated statistical significance of selected SNPs using the Bayesian False Discovery Probability (BFDP). A significant association with EOC was identified in the UGT2A1/2 region for the SNP rs10017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 1.2 × 10-6 , BFDP = 0.02); and an association with HGSOC was identified in the EGFR region for the SNP rs114972508 (per allele OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4, P = 1.6 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.29) and in the UGT2A1/2 region again for rs1017134 (per allele OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7, P = 2.3 × 10-5 , BFDP = 0.23). Genetic variants in the EGFR and UGT2A1/2 may increase susceptibility of EOC in AA women. Future studies to validate these findings are warranted. Alterations in EGFR and UGT2A1/2 could perturb enzyme efficacy, proliferation in ovaries, impact and mark susceptibility to EOC.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Receptores de Calcitriol/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/metabolismo , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Receptores ErbB/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/biossíntese
13.
Ann Epidemiol ; 34: 1-5, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005553

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Members of the American College of Epidemiology (ACE) Ethics Committee identified current ethics and epidemiology topic areas to consider for further discussion, consultation, teaching opportunities, and conference presentation. This article reflects on the activities of the Committee at the ACE Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 24-26, 2017. METHODS: The overall aim for the Ethics Committee was to engage members of the College and other audiences and highlight the evolution of ethics and epidemiology since the inception of the original Ethics Guidelines published by the ACE Ethics and Standards of Practice Committee in 2000. The Ethics Committee organized a symposium session at the 2017 Annual Meeting of ACE on the ethics of human subjects research as it relates to specialized areas of epidemiology and the intersecting role of public health. This article presents a summary and further discussion of that symposium session. RESULTS: Three topic areas were presented: an overview of ethics and epidemiology (E.S.P.), very high biomarker levels in environmental epidemiology research (S.M.P.), and the interface of epidemiology, human subjects research, and public health interventions (S.M.). This article begins by reviewing the foundations of epidemiology and public health and the well-known ethical principles of human subjects research. Then, it considers the ethical considerations in the use of population registry data in epidemiological research, environmental epidemiology, and epidemic surveillance and response. This article may form the basis of teaching of ethics principles related to epidemiology and public health and may serve as a companion piece to the original ACE Ethics Guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: Researchers are increasingly faced with ethical considerations in diverse, nontraditional, and specialized areas of epidemiology and public health. This article illustrates these challenges with real-world examples of clinical and population registry data, the study of environmental biomarkers, and Zika virus epidemic; it also reviews relevant ethical principles underpinning these examples and identifies where gaps in knowledge may exist.


Assuntos
Epidemiologia/ética , Comissão de Ética , Saúde Pública/ética , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Epidemiologia/normas , Ética Médica , Humanos , Zika virus , Infecção por Zika virus
14.
J Affect Disord ; 250: 289-297, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few prior studies have investigated the latent class structure of PTSD using DSM-5 symptoms. METHODS: To describe latent PTSD profiles among women who resided in Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DHOS)-affected coastal Louisiana communities, we used data from women enrolled in The Women and Their Children's Health (WaTCH) Study. Latent profile analysis was performed on the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) and model fit statistics for 2-class through 6-class solutions were compared. The pseudo-class draws method was employed on the best class solution to compare key covariates (including demographics, mental health indicators, DHOS exposure indicators, and trauma exposures) across classes. RESULTS: Among 1997 women (mean age 46.63 ± 12.14 years, 56.8% white, mean trauma categories 6.09 ± 2.98, 9.55% previously diagnosed with PTSD), model fit statistics supported a five-class solution: low symptoms (mean PCL-5 = 4.10), moderate without mood alterations (mean = 19.73), moderate with mood alterations (mean = 34.24), severe without risk-taking (mean = 55.75), and severe with risk-taking (mean = 53.80). Women in the low-symptom class were significantly more likely to be white, have finished high school, have an income of at least $40,001 per year, be married or living with a partner, and endorse fewer trauma categories than women in the four symptomatic classes. Women with moderate to severe symptoms often had co-morbid depressive symptoms and no prior PTSD diagnosis. LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by use of self-reported data and one-time assessment of PTSD symptoms. DISCUSSION: Five distinct latent profiles of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms consisted of notably different individuals. Most affected women did not report prior PTSD diagnosis. Future research and practice identifying and addressing barriers to care for trauma-affected women in these communities is warranted.


Assuntos
Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Comorbidade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Louisiana , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Avaliação de Sintomas
15.
Int J Gynecol Pathol ; 38(2): 157-170, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29485423

RESUMO

African American women with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma have worse outcomes compared with women of European descent. Although the discrepancy is partially attributed to differences in access to care, the tumor immune microenvironment may also contribute. Expression of targetable immune regulatory molecules such as programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) is of particular interest as it may help guide therapy in this population. Using cases from the largest study of African American women with ovarian cancer, the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study, we characterized PD-L1 and IDO expression in 112 high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, IDO, CD8, FOX3p, and CD68 was performed. PD-L1 and IDO were scored as the percentage of positive tumor cells and tumor-associated immune cells. CD8 and FOX3p counts were averaged across 10 high-power fields. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association between PD-L1 and IDO expression and survival. Tumor cells were positive for PD-L1 and IDO in 29% and 58% of cases, respectively. The majority showed <10% staining, and no cases exceeded 25% positivity. The majority of PD-L1-positive cases coexpressed IDO. PD-L1 and IDO expression was associated with higher CD8 and FOX3p counts (P<0.05). No association was observed between PD-L1 and IDO and survival. In summary, expression of PD-L1 and IDO is seen in a subset of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma from African American women and is correlated with elevated lymphocyte infiltration. While PD-L1 and IDO co-expression suggests a role for dual immunotherapy, diffuse expression of PD-L1 and IDO is rare, invoking caution regarding the potential for immunotherapeutic response.


Assuntos
Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Imunoterapia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Prognóstico , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(2): 284-293, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307782

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While the incidence of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is lower among African American (AA) women compared with European American (EA) women, AA women have markedly worse outcomes. In this study, we describe individual, social, and societal factors in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in AA women diagnosed with EOC in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES) that we hypothesize may influence a patient's capacity to psychosocially adjust to a diagnosis of cancer. METHODS: There were 215 invasive EOC cases included in the analysis. HRQL was measured using the SF-8 component scores for physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health. We used least squares regression to test the effects of individual dispositional factors (optimism and trait anxiety); social level (perceived social support); and societal-level factors (SES defined as low family income and low educational attainment, and perceived discrimination) on HRQL, while adjusting for patient age, tumor stage, body mass index, and comorbidity. Mediation analysis was applied to test whether social support and physical activity buffer impacts of EOC on HRQL. RESULTS: Optimism, trait anxiety, social support, poverty, and past perceived discrimination were significantly associated with HRQL following diagnosis of EOC. Specifically, higher family income, lower phobic anxiety, and higher social support were associated with better wellbeing on the MCS and PCS (p < 0.01). Higher perceived discrimination was associated with both lower MCS and PCS, whereas higher optimism was associated with higher MCS. Physical activity (MET-min/week) and social support displayed significant overall mediation for effects of SES on MCS and PCS, but not for trait anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Both pre- and postdiagnosis characteristics of AA women with EOC are important predictors of HRQL after cancer diagnosis. Individual, social, and societal-level factors each contribute to HRQL status with EOC and should be assessed.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Pobreza , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
17.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 13(2): 183-190, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444728

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to describe changes in mental health among women following an oil spill and to examine their association with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DHOS). METHODS: The Women and Their Children's Health study followed 2038 women in Louisiana after the DHOS. Subjects were interviewed in 2012-2014 and 2014-2016. Oil spill exposure was characterized using survey items about economic and physical exposures. Outcomes were depressive symptoms and mental distress. RESULTS: After adjustment for relevant demographics, depressive symptoms increased over 2 time points following the DHOS, whereas symptoms of mental distress decreased. For every year increase in time since the DHOS, the rate ratio for depressive symptoms increased by a factor of 1.08. In contrast, the rate ratio for mental distress decreased by a factor of 0.97. In addition, initial associations between economic and physical exposure to the DHOS persisted up to 6 years after the spill; women who were more highly exposed experienced higher levels of depressive symptoms (rate ratios ranged from 1.08 to 1.11) and mental distress (rate ratios from 1.05 to 1.11) at each time point than women who were less exposed. CONCLUSION: A better understanding of recovery patterns following an oil spill can help direct critical mental health response efforts. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:183-190).


Assuntos
Depressão/etnologia , Poluição por Petróleo/efeitos adversos , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Tempo , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poluição por Petróleo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
18.
J Registry Manag ; 46(4): 128-132, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Rectal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a rare malignancy, and the causal role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in these cancers is thought to be similar to anal cancer. We compared type-specific prevalence of HPV in rectal SCC to anal cancer. In rectal SCC, we evaluated the agreement between HPV prevalence and positivity for p16, a marker of oncogenic activity. METHODS: A stratified random sample of rectal SCCs and anal cancers diagnosed between 2014 and 2015 were identified from 3 statewide cancer registries in Iowa, Kentucky, and Louisiana. HPV testing was performed at the HPV laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV types were described using hierarchical attribution to HPV16 and other oncogenic types, weighted for sampling design. In rectal SCC, we computed concordance and Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) between HPV status and p16 positivity. RESULTS: A total of 39 rectal and 72 anal cancers were analyzed. HPV16 was the most common type in both rectal and anal cancer and did not differ significantly between sites (71.4% vs 82.1%; P = .32). Concordance between the presence of any HPV type and p16 positivity in rectal SCC was 92% with κ = 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: Rectal SCC and anal cancer have similar type-specific HPV prevalence, with HPV16 found most frequently. Substantial agreement between p16 and HPV status in rectal SCC lends additional support for the etiologic role of HPV in both anal and rectal cancer. Larger studies could be conducted to replicate these findings.

19.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(11): 1081-1091, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between common benign gynecologic conditions and ovarian cancer remains under-studied in African Americans. Therefore, we examine the association between self-reported history of benign gynecologic conditions and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. METHODS: Data from a large population-based, multi-center case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer in African-American women were analyzed to estimate the association between self-reported history of endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), fibroid, and ovarian cyst with epithelial ovarian cancer. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between individual and composite gynecologic conditions and ovarian cancer. RESULTS: 600 cases and 752 controls enrolled in the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study between 1 December 2010 and 31 December 2015 comprised the study population. After adjusting for potential confounders, a history of endometriosis was associated with ovarian cancer (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.09-2.90). A non-significant association of similar magnitude was observed with PID (OR 1.33; 95% CI 0.82-2.16), while no association was observed in women with a history of fibroid or ovarian cyst. A positive trend was observed for an increasing number of reported gynecologic conditions (p = 0.006) with consistency across histologic subtypes and among both oral contraceptive users and non-users. CONCLUSION: A self-reported history of endometriosis among African-American women was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Having multiple benign gynecologic conditions also increased ovarian cancer risk.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/etnologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Genitais Femininos/etnologia , Humanos , Leiomioma/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Cistos Ovarianos/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Doença Inflamatória Pélvica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 18(1): 60, 2018 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attrition occurs when a participant fails to respond to one or more study waves. The accumulation of attrition over several waves can lower the sample size and power and create a final sample that could differ in characteristics than those who drop out. The main reason to conduct a longitudinal study is to analyze repeated measures; research subjects who drop out cannot be replaced easily. Our group recently investigated factors affecting nonparticipation (refusal) in the first wave of a population-based study of prostate cancer. In this study we assess factors affecting attrition in the second wave of the same study. We compare factors affecting nonparticipation in the second wave to the ones affecting nonparticipation in the first wave. METHODS: Information available on participants in the first wave was used to model attrition. Different sources of attrition were investigated separately. The overall and race-stratified factors affecting attrition were assessed. Kaplan-Meier survival curve estimates were calculated to assess the impact of follow-up time on participation. RESULTS: High cancer aggressiveness was the main predictor of attrition due to death or frailty. Higher Charlson Comorbidity Index increased the odds of attrition due to death or frailty only in African Americans (AAs). Young age at diagnosis for AAs and low income for European Americans (EAs) were predictors for attrition due to lost to follow-up. High cancer aggressiveness for AAs, low income for EAs, and lower patient provider communication scores for EAs were predictors for attrition due to refusal. These predictors of nonparticipation were not the same as those in wave 1. For short follow-up time, the participation probability of EAs was higher than that of AAs. CONCLUSIONS: Predictors of attrition can vary depending on the attrition source. Examining overall attrition (combining all sources of attrition under one category) instead of distinguishing among its different sources should be avoided. The factors affecting attrition in one wave can be different in a later wave and should be studied separately.


Assuntos
Modelos Logísticos , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
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