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1.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 12-19, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323190

RESUMO

Anticoagulant plasma concentrations and patient characteristics might affect the benefit-risk balance of therapy. The study objective was to assess the impact of model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis (VTE-P) after hip/knee replacement surgery. Post hoc exposure-response analyses were conducted using data from the phase 3 RECORD1-4 studies, in which 12,729 patients were randomized to rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily or enoxaparin for ≤ 39 days. Multivariate regression approaches were used to correlate model-predicted individual rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with outcomes. In the absence of measured rivaroxaban exposure, exposure estimates were predicted based on individual increases in prothrombin time (PT) and by making use of the known correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentration and dynamics of PT. No significant associations between rivaroxaban exposure and total VTE or major bleeding were identified. A significant association between exposure and a composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding from day 4 after surgery was observed. The relationship was shallow, with an approximate predicted absolute increase in a composite of major or NMCR bleeding from 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.54] to 2.18% (95% CI 1.51-3.17) at the 5th and 95th percentiles of trough plasma concentration, respectively. In conclusion, based on the underlying data and analysis, no reliable target window for exposure with improved benefit-risk could be identified within the investigated exposure range. Hence, monitoring rivaroxaban levels is unlikely to be beneficial in VTE-P.

2.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 1-11, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323191

RESUMO

Anticoagulant plasma concentrations and patient characteristics might affect the benefit-risk balance of therapy. This study assessed the impact of model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on outcomes in patients receiving rivaroxaban for venous thromboembolism treatment (VTE-T) using data from the phase 3 EINSTEIN-DVT and EINSTEIN-PE studies. In the absence of measured rivaroxaban exposure, exposure estimates were predicted based on individual increases in prothrombin time (PT) and the known correlation between rivaroxaban plasma concentrations and PT dynamics. The composite efficacy outcomes evaluated were recurrent deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and recurrent DVT, PE and all-cause death; safety outcomes were major bleeding and the composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding. Exposure-response relationships were evaluated using multivariate logistic and Cox regression for the twice-daily (BID) and once-daily (OD) dosing periods, respectively. Predicted rivaroxaban exposure and CrCl were significantly associated with both efficacy outcomes in the BID period. In the OD period, exposure was significantly associated with recurrent DVT and PE but not recurrent DVT, PE and all-cause death. The statistically significant exposure-efficacy relationships were shallow. Exposure-safety relationships were absent within the investigated exposure range. During both dosing periods, low baseline hemoglobin and prior bleeding were associated with the composite of major or NMCR bleeding. In conclusion, based on the underlying data and analysis, no reliable target window for exposure with improved benefit-risk could be identified within the investigated exposure range. Therefore, monitoring rivaroxaban levels is unlikely to be beneficial in VTE-T.

3.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(1): 20-29, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323192

RESUMO

Rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics may affect the rivaroxaban benefit-risk balance. This study aimed to quantify associations between model-predicted rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics and efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), using data from the phase 3 ROCKET AF trial (NCT00403767). In ROCKET AF, 14,264 patients with NVAF were randomized to rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily [OD], or 15 mg OD if creatinine clearance was 30-49 mL/min) or dose-adjusted warfarin (median follow-up: 707 days); rivaroxaban plasma concentration was measured in a subset of 161 patients. In this post hoc exposure-response analysis, a multivariate Cox model was used to correlate individual predicted rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with time-to-event efficacy and safety outcomes in 7061 and 7111 patients, respectively. There was no significant association between model-predicted rivaroxaban trough plasma concentration (Ctrough) and efficacy outcomes. Creatinine clearance and history of stroke were significantly associated with efficacy outcomes. Ctrough was significantly associated with the composite of major or non-major clinically relevant (NMCR) bleeding (hazard ratio [95th percentile vs. median]: 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.13-1.40]) but not with major bleeding alone. The exposure-response relationship for major or NMCR bleeding was shallow with no clear threshold for an acceleration in risk. History of gastrointestinal bleeding had a greater influence on safety outcomes than Ctrough. These results support fixed rivaroxaban 15 mg and 20 mg OD dosages in NVAF. Therapeutic drug monitoring is unlikely to offer clinical benefits in this indication beyond evaluation of patient characteristics.

4.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2081-2088, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: JNJ-9375 is an antibody against exosite 1 on thrombin, inhibits substrate binding but not catalytic activity. OBJECTIVE: To examine the possibility that JNJ-9375 attenuates thrombosis without affecting hemostasis, we compared the efficacy and safety of JNJ-9375 and apixaban. METHODS: In this double-blind, double-dummy phase 2 trial, 308 patients undergoing knee arthroplasty were randomized to receive either a single postoperative intravenous infusion of JNJ-9375 in doses ranging from 0.3 to 1.8 mg/kg or apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily). The primary efficacy endpoint was the incidence of venous thromboembolism (assessed by mandatory unilateral venography or confirmed symptomatic events). The primary safety outcome was the composite of major, clinically relevant nonmajor, and minimal bleeding. Thrombin times were measured to assess JNJ-9375 activity. RESULTS: A total of 239 of the 308 patients (77.6%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. Of these, 238 had evaluable venograms and one had symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis confirmed by ultrasound. Despite dose-dependent thrombin time prolongation, the primary efficacy outcome occurred in 59 of 190 patients (31.1%) in the combined JNJ-9375 groups as compared with 6 of 49 patients (12.2%) given apixaban (odds ratio 3.2; two-sided 80% confidence interval 1.8-5.8; P = .011). The excess events with JNJ-9375 compared with apixaban were consistent across all JNJ-9375 dosing cohorts and there was no evidence of improved efficacy with higher JNJ-9375 doses. There were no major bleeds with JNJ-9375 or apixaban, and rates of any bleeding were similar with the highest and lowest JNJ-9375 doses. CONCLUSIONS: JNJ-9375 was safe but less effective than apixaban. This may reflect weak thrombin inhibition or inability of JNJ-9375 to attenuate the growth of thrombi that formed before drug administration.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Trombina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Trombina/imunologia , Trombina/metabolismo , Tempo de Trombina , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/sangue , Tromboembolia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Tromboembolia Venosa/etiologia , Trombose Venosa/sangue , Trombose Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Trombose Venosa/etiologia
5.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719863641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to determine whether therapeutic drug monitoring might provide additional information regarding rivaroxaban dose, beyond what patient characteristics provide. METHODS: A post hoc exposure-response analysis was conducted using data from the phase III ATLAS ACS 2 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 51 study, in which 15,526 randomized ACS patients received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg or 5 mg twice daily) or placebo for a mean of 13 months (maximum follow up: 31 months). A multivariate Cox model was used to correlate individual predicted rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with time-to-event clinical outcomes. RESULTS: For the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, or nonhemorrhagic cardiovascular death, hazard ratios (HRs) for steady-state maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) in the 5th and 95th percentiles versus the median were statistically significant but close to 1 for both rivaroxaban doses. For TIMI major bleeding events, a statistically significant association was observed with Cmax [HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11 (95th percentile versus median, 2.5 mg twice daily)], sex [HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.84 (female versus male)], and previous revascularization [HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87 (no versus yes)]. CONCLUSIONS: The shallow slopes of the exposure-response relationships and the lack of a clear therapeutic window render it unlikely that therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with ACS would provide additional information regarding rivaroxaban dose beyond that provided by patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2273-2279, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) identifies patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke presumed due to embolism from several unidentified sources. Among patients with recent ESUS, we sought to determine independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke during treatment with aspirin or rivaroxaban and to assess the relative effects of these treatments according to risk. METHODS: Exploratory analyses of 7213 participants in the NAVIGATE ESUS international trial who were randomized to aspirin 100 mg/day or rivaroxaban 15 mg/day and followed for a median of 11 months, during which time there were 309 first recurrent ischemic strokes (4.6% per year). Baseline features were correlated with recurrent stroke by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The 7 independent predictors of recurrent stroke were stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) prior to the qualifying stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% confidence internal [CI] 1.58-2.60), current tobacco user (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.12), age (HR 1.02 per year increase, 95%CI 1.01-1.03), diabetes (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.64), multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.02), aspirin use prior to qualifying stroke (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), and time from qualifying stroke to randomization (HR .98, 95% CI .97-.99). The rate of recurrent stroke rate was 2.6% per year for participants without any of these risk factors, and increased by an average of 45% for each independent predictor (P < .001). There were no significant interactions between treatment effects and independent stroke predictors or stroke risk status. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of ESUS patients, several features including prior stroke or TIA, advanced age, current tobacco user, multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging, and diabetes independently identified those with an increased risk of ischemic stroke recurrence. The relative effects of rivaroxaban and aspirin were similar across the spectrum of independent stroke predictors and recurrent stroke risk status.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Cardiovasc Res ; 115(3): 669-677, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184110

RESUMO

AIMS: JNJ-64179375 (hereafter JNJ-9375) is a first-in-class, highly specific, large molecule, exosite 1 thrombin inhibitor. In preclinical studies, JNJ-9375 demonstrated robust antithrombotic protection with a wider therapeutic index when compared to apixaban. The purpose of the present study was to examine for the first time the antiplatelet, anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of JNJ-9375 in a translational model of ex vivo human thrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind randomized crossover study of JNJ-9375 (2.5, 25, and 250 µg/mL), bivalirudin (6 µg/mL; positive control), and matched placebo. Coagulation, platelet activation, and thrombus formation were determined using coagulation assays, flow cytometry, and an ex vivo perfusion chamber, respectively.JNJ-9375 caused concentration-dependent prolongation of all measures of blood coagulation (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and thrombin time; P < 0.001 for all) and agonist selective inhibition of thrombin (0.1 U/mL) stimulated platelet p-selectin expression (P < 0.001) and platelet-monocyte aggregates (P = 0.002). Compared to placebo, JNJ-9375 (250 µg/mL) reduced mean total thrombus area by 41.1% (95% confidence intervals 22.3 to 55.3%; P < 0.001) at low shear and 32.3% (4.9 to 51.8%; P = 0.025) at high shear. Under both shear conditions, there was a dose-dependent decrease in fibrin-rich thrombus (P < 0.001 for both) but not platelet-rich thrombus (P = ns for both). CONCLUSION: Exosite 1 inhibition with JNJ-9375 caused prolongation of blood coagulation, selective inhibition of thrombin-mediated platelet activation, and reductions in ex vivo thrombosis driven by a decrease in fibrin-rich thrombus formation. JNJ-9375 represents a novel class of anticoagulant with potential therapeutic applications.


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fibrina/metabolismo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Hirudinas/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Selectina-P/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Escócia , Trombose/sangue , Trombose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
9.
N Engl J Med ; 378(23): 2191-2201, 2018 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29766772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic strokes of undetermined source represent 20% of ischemic strokes and are associated with a high rate of recurrence. Anticoagulant treatment with rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, may result in a lower risk of recurrent stroke than aspirin. METHODS: We compared the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban (at a daily dose of 15 mg) with aspirin (at a daily dose of 100 mg) for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with recent ischemic stroke that was presumed to be from cerebral embolism but without arterial stenosis, lacune, or an identified cardioembolic source. The primary efficacy outcome was the first recurrence of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke or systemic embolism in a time-to-event analysis; the primary safety outcome was the rate of major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 7213 participants were enrolled at 459 sites; 3609 patients were randomly assigned to receive rivaroxaban and 3604 to receive aspirin. Patients had been followed for a median of 11 months when the trial was terminated early because of a lack of benefit with regard to stroke risk and because of bleeding associated with rivaroxaban. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 172 patients in the rivaroxaban group (annualized rate, 5.1%) and in 160 in the aspirin group (annualized rate, 4.8%) (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.33; P=0.52). Recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 158 patients in the rivaroxaban group (annualized rate, 4.7%) and in 156 in the aspirin group (annualized rate, 4.7%). Major bleeding occurred in 62 patients in the rivaroxaban group (annualized rate, 1.8%) and in 23 in the aspirin group (annualized rate, 0.7%) (hazard ratio, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.68 to 4.39; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rivaroxaban was not superior to aspirin with regard to the prevention of recurrent stroke after an initial embolic stroke of undetermined source and was associated with a higher risk of bleeding. (Funded by Bayer and Janssen Research and Development; NAVIGATE ESUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02313909 .).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 27(6): 1673-1682, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29525076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The New Approach Rivaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global Trial vs. ASA to Prevent Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source (NAVIGATE-ESUS) trial is a randomized phase-III trial comparing rivaroxaban versus aspirin in patients with recent ESUS. AIMS: We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics of this large ESUS cohort to explore relationships among key subgroups. METHODS: We enrolled 7213 patients at 459 sites in 31 countries. Prespecified subgroups for primary safety and efficacy analyses included age, sex, race, global region, stroke or transient ischemic attack prior to qualifying event, time to randomization, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Mean age was 66.9 ± 9.8 years; 24% were under 60 years. Older patients had more hypertension, coronary disease, and cancer. Strokes in older subjects were more frequently cortical and accompanied by radiographic evidence of prior infarction. Women comprised 38% of participants and were older than men. Patients from East Asia were oldest whereas those from Latin America were youngest. Patients in the Americas more frequently were on aspirin prior to the qualifying stroke. Acute cortical infarction was more common in the United States, Canada, and Western Europe, whereas prior radiographic infarctions were most common in East Asia. Approximately forty-five percent of subjects were enrolled within 30 days of the qualifying stroke, with earliest enrollments in Asia and Eastern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: NAVIGATE-ESUS is the largest randomized trial comparing antithrombotic strategies for secondary stroke prevention in patients with ESUS. The study population encompasses a broad array of patients across multiple continents and these subgroups provide ample opportunities for future research.


Assuntos
Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 57(12): 1607-1615, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28679020

RESUMO

US prescribing guidelines recommend that 15- and 20-mg doses of rivaroxaban be administered with food for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) and for reduction in the risk of recurrence of DVT and PE. In addition, the US prescribing guidelines recommend these doses be administered with an evening meal to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF). The purpose of this model-based cross-study comparison was to examine the impact of food, with regard to both meal timing and content, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of rivaroxaban, using data collected during its clinical development. Results of this analysis showed that a PK model built from pooled data in the AF population (for whom rivaroxaban was administered with an evening meal) and in the DVT population (for whom rivaroxaban was administered with a morning meal) can describe both data sets well. Furthermore, the PK model built from data in the AF population alone can adequately predict the PK profile of the DVT population and vice versa. This cross-study analysis also confirmed the findings from previous clinical pharmacology studies, which showed that meal content does not have a clinically relevant impact on the PK of rivaroxaban at 20 mg. Therefore, although the administration of rivaroxaban with food is necessary for maintaining high bioavailability, neither meal timing nor meal content appears to affect the PK of rivaroxaban.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Interações Alimento-Droga , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Simulação por Computador , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos
12.
J Nurs Educ ; 55(8): 433-40, 2016 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recruiting and retaining faculty to teach courses is crucial for online nursing programs to succeed. The purpose of this study was to gain a fuller understanding of the benefits and challenges of teaching nursing courses online by exploring the perspectives of faculty, administrators, and instructional designers at three schools of nursing in the southeastern United States. METHOD: This qualitative multiple case study explored perspectives of 21 participants from different stakeholder groups. Researchers used cross-case analysis and determined emerging themes in data collected from interviews, course demonstrations, and course documents. RESULTS: Data analysis revealed themes regarding benefits and challenges for nursing instructors in (a) teaching strategies, (b) instructor availability, (c) training and support, and (d) institutional issues. CONCLUSION: This study found gaps in perspectives between participant groups that indicated a need for institutions to address communication issues, training program objectives, and institutional policies and procedures regarding online course design and delivery to promote faculty success and satisfaction. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(8):433-440.].


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Currículo , Educação a Distância , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Docentes de Enfermagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
13.
Thromb Haemost ; 115(6): 1240-8, 2016 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26842902

RESUMO

Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of premature death and disability worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines recommend that anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis be given to hospitalised medical patients at risk of VTE, but suggest against routine use of thromboprophylaxis beyond the hospital stay. The MARINER study is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of thromboprophylaxis using rivaroxaban, begun at hospital discharge and continued for 45 days, for preventing symptomatic VTE in high-risk medical patients. Eligible patients are identified using the International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism (IMPROVE VTE) risk score, combined with a laboratory test, D-dimer. The rivaroxaban regimen is 10 mg once daily for patients with CrCl ≥ 50 ml/min, or 7.5 mg once daily for patients with CrCl ≥ 30 ml/min and < 50 ml/min. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of symptomatic VTE (lower extremity deep-vein thrombosis and non-fatal pulmonary embolism) and VTE-related death. The principal safety outcome is major bleeding. A blinded clinical events committee adjudicates all suspected outcome events. The sample size is event-driven with an estimated total of 8,000 patients to acquire 161 primary outcome events. Study design features that distinguish MARINER from previous and ongoing thromboprophylaxis trials in medically ill patients are: (i) use of a validated risk assessment model (IMPROVE VTE) and D-dimer determination for identifying eligible patients at high risk of VTE, (ii) randomisation at the time of hospital discharge, (iii) a 45-day treatment period and (iv) restriction of the primary efficacy outcome to symptomatic VTE events.


Assuntos
Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 55(2): 225-36, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26242382

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of single intravenous doses of JNJ-54452840 infused over 1 minute in healthy male Japanese and Caucasian participants. JNJ-54452840 is a novel peptide for the treatment of chronic heart failure, with a proposed mechanism of action of binding interference and decreased production of anti-ß1-adrenergic receptor (anti-ß1-AR) antibodies, which stimulate the cardiac ß1-AR. METHODS: In this randomized, single-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, four-way crossover study, 32 male Japanese and Caucasian participants (16 in each group) received single intravenous doses of JNJ-54452840 20, 80 and 240 mg, and placebo, each separated by a ≥7-day washout period. Pharmacokinetics and safety were assessed predose and at specified timepoints for 24 h. Anti-ß1-AR antibodies were monitored. RESULTS: The mean JNJ-54452840 maximum observed plasma concentration (C max) and area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity with extrapolation of the terminal phase (AUCinf) values increased linearly with dose, with rapid elimination in both groups. Dose proportionality criteria were not met between the 20 and 240 mg doses for both study cohorts. The median time to reach C max (T max) ranged from 1 to 5 minutes. The mean total systemic clearance after intravenous administration (CL), volume of distribution at steady state (V ss), mean residence time (MRT) and terminal half-life (T ½) values were similar for both groups. The mean T ½ values ranged from 5.9 to 26.1 min in a dose-dependent manner. The overall prevalence of antibodies was 9.4 % at baseline; antibodies not present at baseline developed in five Caucasians (15.6 %) but not in Japanese participants. One participant in each group experienced a serious thromboembolic event (pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke). CONCLUSION: JNJ-54452840 demonstrated similar pharmacokinetics in both groups. JNJ-54452840 was possibly immunogenic, and two participants reported thromboembolic serious adverse events. The relationship between these events and antibody formation is not known.


Assuntos
Peptídeos Cíclicos/farmacocinética , Administração Intravenosa , Adulto , Anticorpos/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos Cíclicos/efeitos adversos , Peptídeos Cíclicos/sangue , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur Stroke J ; 1(3): 146-154, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008276

RESUMO

Background: Embolic strokes of undetermined source comprise up to 20% of ischemic strokes. The stroke recurrence rate is substantial with aspirin, widely used for secondary prevention. The New Approach riVaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global trial versus ASA to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source international trial will compare the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, versus aspirin for secondary prevention in patients with recent embolic strokes of undetermined source. Main hypothesis: In patients with recent embolic strokes of undetermined source, rivaroxaban 15 mg once daily will reduce the risk of recurrent stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic) and systemic embolism (primary efficacy outcome) compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily. Design: Double-blind, randomized trial in patients with embolic strokes of undetermined source, defined as nonlacunar cryptogenic ischemic stroke, enrolled between seven days and six months from the qualifying stroke. The planned sample size of 7000 participants will be recruited from approximately 480 sites in 31 countries between 2014 and 2017 and followed for a mean of about two years until at least 450 primary efficacy outcome events have occurred. The primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Two substudies assess (1) the relative effect of treatments on MRI-determined covert brain infarcts and (2) the biological underpinnings of embolic strokes of undetermined source using genomic and biomarker approaches. Summary: The New Approach riVaroxaban Inhibition of Factor Xa in a Global trial versus ASA to prevenT Embolism in Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source trial is evaluating the benefits and risks of rivaroxaban for secondary stroke prevention in embolic strokes of undetermined source patients. Main results are anticipated in 2018.

16.
PLoS One ; 9(5): e97803, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24841795

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The neurite outgrowth inhibitor, Nogo-A, has been shown to be overexpressed in skeletal muscle in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); it is both a potential biomarker and therapeutic target. We performed a double-blind, two-part, dose-escalation study, in subjects with ALS, assessing safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and functional effects of ozanezumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against Nogo-A. In Part 1, 40 subjects were randomized (3∶1) to receive single dose intravenous ozanezumab (0.01, 0.1, 1, 5, or 15 mg/kg) or placebo. In Part 2, 36 subjects were randomized (3∶1) to receive two repeat doses of intravenous ozanezumab (0.5, 2.5, or 15 mg/kg) or placebo, approximately 4 weeks apart. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability (adverse events [AEs], vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG), and clinical laboratory tests). Secondary endpoints included PK, immunogenicity, functional endpoints (clinical and electrophysiological), and biomarker parameters. Overall, ozanezumab treatment (0.01-15 mg/kg) was well tolerated. The overall incidence of AEs in the repeat dose 2.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg ozanezumab groups was higher than in the repeat dose placebo group and repeat dose 0.5 mg/kg ozanezumab group. The majority were considered not related to study drug by the investigators. Six serious AEs were reported in three subjects receiving ozanezumab; none were considered related to study drug. No study drug-related patterns were identified for ECG, laboratory, or vital signs parameters. One subject (repeat dose 15 mg/kg ozanezumab) showed a weak, positive anti-ozanezumab-antibody result. PK results were generally consistent with monoclonal antibody treatments. No apparent treatment effects were observed for functional endpoints or muscle biomarkers. Immunohistochemical staining showed dose-dependent co-localization of ozanezumab with Nogo-A in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, single and repeat dose ozanezumab treatment was well tolerated and demonstrated co-localization at the site of action. These findings support future studies with ozanezumab in ALS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00875446 GSK-ClinicalStudyRegister.com GSK ID 111330.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/metabolismo , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Proteínas da Mielina/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Nogo
17.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1291: 42-55, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23701516

RESUMO

The development of rivaroxaban (XARELTO®) is an important new medical advance in the field of oral anticoagulation. Thrombosis-mediated conditions constitute a major burden for patients, healthcare systems, and society. For more than 60 years, the prevention and treatment of these conditions have been dominated by oral vitamin K antagonists (such as warfarin) and the injectable heparins. Thrombosis can lead to several conditions, including deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke, and/or death. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis with an effective, convenient-to-use oral anticoagulant with a favorable safety profile is critical, especially in an aging society in which the risk of thrombosis, and the potential for bleeding complications, is increasing. Rivaroxaban acts to prevent and treat thrombosis by potently inhibiting coagulation Factor Xa in the blood. Factor Xa converts prothrombin to thrombin, which initiates the formation of blood clots by converting fibrinogen to clot-forming fibrin and leads to platelet activation. After a large and novel clinical development program in over 75,000 patients to date, rivaroxaban has received approval for multiple indications in the United States, European Union, and other countries worldwide to prevent and treat several thrombosis-mediated conditions. This review will highlight some of the unique aspects of the rivaroxaban development program.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa , Morfolinas/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacocinética , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/metabolismo , Fator Xa/metabolismo , Humanos , Morfolinas/farmacocinética , Rivaroxabana , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(2): 164-72, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23438102

RESUMO

Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been studied in healthy volunteers in phase 1, but few data have been published on the safety of that practice. We aimed to review the available data, and thereby to estimate the risks of participation in phase 1trials of MAbs. We searched PubMed, the ClinicalTrials.gov database and Google, using the search terms 'monoclonal antibody', 'phase 1' and 'healthy volunteers'. We identified 70 completed trials of MAbs in healthy volunteers, but the published data were too sparse to allow confident assessment of the risks of MAbs in healthy volunteers. Our best estimate of risk of a life-threatening adverse event was between 1: 425 and 1: 1700 volunteer-trials, but all such events occurred in a single trial (of TGN1412). In a phase 1trial of a small molecule, the risk of death or a life-threatening adverse event appears to be 1: 100,000-1,000,000 volunteer-trials, which is similar to the risk of many ordinary daily activities. Most people would consider that level of risk to be 'minimal' or 'negligible' and, therefore, acceptable. On that basis, the safety record of MAbs in healthy volunteers has been ruined by the TGN1412 disaster. However, that experience is unlikely to be repeated, because of improvements in governance and practice of phase 1trials. If the experience of TGN1412 is disregarded, it seems reasonable to continue using healthy volunteers in phase 1trials of MAbs, provided that there are scientific and medical reasons to conclude that the risk is truly minimal.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Neuropsychopharmacol ; 16(4): 721-31, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22932339

RESUMO

Episodic memory deficits are a core feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Muscarinic M(1) receptors play a critical role in modulating learning and memory and are highly expressed in the hippocampus. We examined the effect of GSK1034702, a potent M(1) receptor allosteric agonist, on cognitive function, and in particular episodic memory, in healthy smokers using the nicotine abstinence model of cognitive dysfunction. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design in which 20 male nicotine abstained smokers were tested following single doses of placebo, 4 and 8 mg GSK1034702. Compared to the baseline (nicotine on-state), nicotine abstinence showed statistical significance in reducing immediate (p=0.019) and delayed (p=0.02) recall. GSK1034702 (8 mg) significantly attenuated (i.e. improved) immediate recall (p=0.014) but not delayed recall. None of the other cognitive domains was modulated by either nicotine abstinence or GSK1034702. These findings suggest that stimulating M(1) receptor mediated neurotransmission in humans with GSK1034702 improves memory encoding potentially by modulating hippocampal function. Hence, selective M(1) receptor allosteric agonists may have therapeutic benefits in disorders of impaired learning including Alzheimer's disease.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Receptor Muscarínico M1/agonistas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Regulação Alostérica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Alostérica/fisiologia , Comportamento Aditivo/tratamento farmacológico , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina , Receptor Muscarínico M1/fisiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Drug Saf ; 34(3): 243-52, 2011 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21332248

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most specific indicator of a drug-induced liver injury signal in a clinical trial database is believed to be the occurrence of subjects experiencing drug-associated elevations in both serum ALT and serum total bilirubin (TB) without a significant elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). eDISH (evaluation of Drug-Induced Serious Hepatotoxicity) is a recently described tool that organizes liver laboratory data by graphically displaying peak serum ALT and TB levels for each subject, and can also provide direct links to the pertinent clinical and laboratory data for each subject. OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the usefulness of the eDISH approach in the presentation of liver safety data by using phase III clinical trial data for rivaroxaban. METHODS: Four randomized, active-controlled studies were conducted worldwide in subjects undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery to compare the efficacy and safety of the anticoagulant rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor, with the low-molecular-weight heparin, enoxaparin. Liver laboratory assessments, including ALT, AST, TB and ALP, were performed frequently during the studies. Data were incorporated into eDISH and linked data for selected subjects were analysed. RESULTS: In the pooled analysis of the four studies, a total of 12 262 subjects (6131 rivaroxaban, 6131 enoxaparin) received at least one dose of study drug and had at least one central and/or local laboratory assessment during the study. A total of 143 (2.33%) rivaroxaban subjects and 223 (3.64%) enoxaparin subjects experienced a peak ALT >3 × upper limit of normal (ULN) but did not experience an elevation of TB >2 × ULN; these subjects are displayed in the right lower quadrant of the eDISH plot, termed the 'Temple's Corollary quadrant'. There were ten rivaroxaban and ten enoxaparin subjects with a peak ALT >3 × ULN and a peak TB >2 × ULN; these subjects were displayed in the right upper quadrant of the eDISH plot, termed the 'Hy's Law quadrant'. eDISH allowed efficient examination of the relevant data for each of these subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The eDISH approach is an efficient and effective way to organize and examine large liver safety databases for randomized controlled clinical trials. It greatly facilitates a systematic and transparent examination of the relevant liver safety laboratory data. We believe eDISH should become a standard approach for assessing and studying liver safety issues in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Morfolinas/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Sistemas de Notificação de Reações Adversas a Medicamentos , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Fosfatase Alcalina/sangue , Artroplastia de Quadril/métodos , Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Bilirrubina/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/epidemiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morfolinas/uso terapêutico , Rivaroxabana , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico
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