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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
2.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 23(6): 276-291, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741292

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental pollutants may produce impairment of male reproductive health. The epidemiological literature evaluating potential consequences of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has grown in recent years with concerns for both pre- and postnatal influences. The aim of this systematic review was to assess available evidence on associations between PFAS exposures in different stages of life and semen quality, reproductive hormones, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. A systematic search of literature published prior to March 9th, 2020, was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase®. Predefined criteria for eligibility were applied by two authors screening study records independently. Among the 242 study records retrieved in the literature search, 26 studies were eligible for qualitative assessment. While several investigations suggested weak associations for single compounds and specific outcomes, a lack of consistency across studies limited conclusions of overall evidence. The current gap in knowledge is particularly obvious regarding exposures prior to adulthood, exposure to combinations of both PFAS and other types of environmental chemicals, and outcomes such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. Continued efforts to clarify associations between PFAS exposure and male reproductive health through high-quality epidemiological studies are needed.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Reprodutiva , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Testiculares/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 45(3): 248-255, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614505

RESUMO

Objective This study aimed to demonstrate the possibility of using history science methods in occupational studies by evaluating overall historical changes in Danish firefighting modifying chemical exposures from smoke and fire trucks. Methods Data on changes in Danish firefighting after World War II were searched for in both museums and the Danish library catalogue REX, accessing collections of literature from all institutes of the University of Copenhagen and the Danish Royal Library. Results Several historical changes were identified either increasing or reducing chemical exposures in Danish firefighting. New sources of chemical exposures included more toxic smoke combustion from plastic materials introduced in the 1950s, exhaust from new diesel engines introduced in the 1960s and new assignments relating to chemical cleanups in the 1970s and traffic accidents in the 1990s. Nevertheless, several improvements in the profession`s work environment may have reduced chemical exposures, for example, mandatory use of more effective respiratory protection equipment in the 1970s, incorporation of mechanical exhaust systems in the 2000s, and filters and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for diesel engines in the 2010s. Conclusion The data showed that the work environment in Danish firefighting has undergone several improvements during the last decades. At the same time, however, several new chemical hazards have also been introduced. Consequently, no strong conclusions as to whether Danish firefighting overall has become a less hazardous profession can be made.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/toxicidade , Bombeiros/história , Incêndios , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Dinamarca , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Veículos Automotores/normas , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça/análise
4.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 91(6): 759-766, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Occupational exposure of firefighters involves a complex range of potential health threats from toxic chemicals, shift work, extreme heat, physical and emotional strain. The aim of this study is to examine overall and disease-specific mortality among Danish firefighters. METHODS: Through systematic collection of personnel and membership records from employers and trade unions, past and present male Danish firefighters were identified (n = 11,775). Using the unique Danish personal identification number, information on additional employment, vital status and cause of death was linked to each member of the cohort from the Supplementary Pension Fund Register, the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish Register of Causes of Death. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for specific causes of death using rates for two reference groups, a random sample of the male working population (n = 262,168) and the military (n = 396,739), respectively. RESULTS: Overall mortality was significantly reduced among the firefighters compared to both the sample of the working population and the military (SMR 0.74, 95% CI 0.69-0.78 and SMR 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.93). Further, the SMRs for endocrine diseases, mental disorders, non-traffic related accidents and other external causes were significantly lower against both reference groups. Death from stomach cancer was significantly increased among the full time firefighters, while part time/volunteer workers shared a significant increase in prostate cancer death compared to both references. CONCLUSIONS: Despite potential exposure to several occupational hazards, male Danish firefighters have a lower mortality than both the Danish working population in general and Danish military employees.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Efeito do Trabalhador Sadio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco
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