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1.
Psychol Trauma ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211517

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Web-based treatments address many of the logistical and stigma-related barriers to in-person behavioral health care. Prior studies of web-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) did not employ gold-standard treatments and have not compared to in-person therapy. METHOD: We compared a web version of Prolonged Exposure Therapy, "Web-PE," to in-person Present-Centered Therapy (PCT) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 40 military personnel with PTSD seeking treatment at Fort Hood, Texas. Due to recruitment challenges, we terminated the RCT and subsequently examined the effects of Web-PE in an uncontrolled open trial with 34 service members and veterans recruited nationwide. Both studies assessed PTSD, depressive symptoms, and health functioning at baseline and 1 and 3 months posttreatment; the RCT also included a 6-month assessment. RESULTS: Results of the RCT showed no differential impact for Web-PE and PCT, although more PCT participants achieved clinically significant change at one of the follow-up assessments. Both treatment conditions significantly reduced self-reported and blind independent interviewer-assessed symptoms of PTSD. Results of the open trial showed that Web-PE was associated with significant reductions in self-reported PTSD symptoms, with a much larger effect size than in the RCT. CONCLUSIONS: Web-PE significantly reduced PTSD symptoms in both studies, although the reductions in PTSD symptoms were greater among open trial participants, who were specifically seeking a web-based treatment. Future research should evaluate Web-PE relative to another web-based treatment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Mil Med Res ; 7(1): 46, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective serotonergic reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are first-line pharmacologic treatments for patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but must be given over extended period of time before the onset of action. The use of SSRIs in PTSD patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is problematic since SSRIs could exacerbate post-concussion syndrome (PCS) symptoms. VA/DOD guidelines identify trauma-focused psychotherapy as the best evidence-based treatment for PTSD, but overall effectiveness is limited by reduced levels of patient engagement and retention. A previous study from this research group suggested that quetiapine monotherapy, but not risperidone or valproate, could increase engagement in trauma-focused psychotherapy. METHODS: We report the study protocol of a pilot study funded under the South-Central Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center pilot study program from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. This randomized, open-label study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of completing a randomized trial of quetiapine vs. treatment as usual to promote patient engagement in PTSD patients with a history of mTBI. DISCUSSION: We expect that the success of this ongoing study should provide us with the preliminary data necessary to design a full-scale randomized trial. Positive efficacy results in a full- scale trial should inform new VA guidelines for clinical practice by showing that quetiapine-related improvements in patient engagement and retention may be the most effective approach to assure that VA resources achieve the best possible outcome for veterans. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04280965 .

3.
J Trauma Stress ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084109

RESUMO

The current study evaluated the factor structure, reliability estimates, correlates, and predictive utility of the Perceived Military Healthcare Stressor Scale (PMHSS) in a sample of active duty military medical personnel (N = 1,131) deployed to Joint Base Balad in Iraq. The sample was composed of an approximately even split of male (51.2%) and female (48.8%) participants who ranged in age from 18 to 60 years. The PMHSS is a 21-item measure that was designed to assess the impact of specific medical stressors that military healthcare providers may encounter while deployed. An exploratory factor analysis of the PMHSS revealed the presence of two distinct factors: trainable and futility stressors. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a bifactor model best represented the data, with all items loading higher on the general factor relative to their specific subscale factors. Evidence of partial scalar invariance by gender was found. The PMHSS was significantly correlated with several convergent measures, including assessments of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression severity, distress due to both combat exposure and general deployment-related concerns, and positive affect, rs = .30-.59. PMHSS scores were more strongly correlated with PTSD and depression in women than in men, and they provided incremental validity in predicting convergent measures over and above other related constructs. Healthcare-specific stressors are an understudied area, and this study provides new insights into how deployment-related caregiving stress may impact deployed military medical personnel independently of the impact of combat experiences.

4.
J Trauma Stress ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078467

RESUMO

This study was a secondary data analysis of clinical trial data collected from 268 active duty U.S. military service members seeking cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at Fort Hood, Texas, related to combat operations following September 11, 2001. Our primary aim was to evaluate changes in PTSD symptom severity and alcohol misuse as a function of baseline hazardous drinking and treatment format (i.e., group or individual). At baseline and posttreatment, PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview Version and PTSD Checklist for DSM-5. Hazardous drinking was categorically defined as an Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test total score of 8 or higher. Employing intent-to-treat, mixed-effects regression analysis, all groups reported reduced PTSD symptom severity, Hedges' gs = -0.33 to -1.01, except, unexpectedly, nonhazardous drinkers who were randomized to group CPT, Hedges' g = -0.12. Hazardous drinkers who were randomized to individual therapy had larger reductions in PTSD symptoms than nonhazardous drinkers who were randomized to group CPT, Hedges' g = -0.25. Hazardous drinkers also reported significant reductions in alcohol misuse, regardless of treatment format, Hedges' gs = -0.78 to -0.86. This study builds upon an emerging literature suggesting that individuals with PTSD and co-occurring alcohol use disorder can engage successfully in CPT, which appears to be an appropriate treatment for these individuals whether it is delivered individually or in a group format. However, as a portion of participants remained classified as hazardous drinkers at posttreatment, some individuals may benefit from integrated treatment.

5.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 99: 106186, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091589

RESUMO

Many individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also suffer from insomnia and nightmares, which may be symptoms of PTSD or constitute partially independent comorbid disorders. Sleep disturbances are resistant to current treatments for PTSD, and those suffering from PTSD, insomnia, and nightmares have worse PTSD treatment outcomes. In addition, insomnia and nightmares are risk factors for depression, substance abuse, anxiety, and suicide. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia and Nightmares (CBT-I&N) and Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for PTSD are first line treatments of these conditions. CPT does not typically address insomnia or nightmares, and CBT-I&N does not typically address other symptoms of PTSD. There are limited scientific data on how best to provide these therapies to individuals suffering with all three disorders. This project aims to inform the most effective way to treat individuals suffering from PTSD, insomnia, and nightmares, potentially changing the standard of care. U.S. military personnel and recently discharged Veterans who served in support of combat operations following 9/11 aged 18-65 with PTSD, insomnia, and nightmares (N = 222) will be randomly assigned to one of the following 18-session individual treatment conditions delivered over 12-weeks: (1) 6 sessions of CBT-I&N followed by 12 sessions of CPT; (2) 12 sessions of CPT followed by 6 sessions of CBT-I&N; or (3) 12 sessions of CPT followed by an additional 6 sessions of CPT. All participants will be assessed at baseline, during treatment, and at 1-week, 1-month, 3-months, and 6-months posttreatment. The primary outcome will be PTSD symptom severity.

6.
Behav Ther ; 51(6): 882-894, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051031

RESUMO

For many decades, the U.S. military's general operational guideline has been to limit the use of trauma-focused treatments for combat and operational stress reactions in military service members until they have returned from deployment. Recently, published clinical trials have documented that active-duty military personnel with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be treated effectively in garrison. However, there are limited data on the treatment of combat and operational stress reactions or combat-related PTSD during military deployments. This prospective, nonrandomized trial evaluated the treatment of active-duty service members (N = 12) with combat and operational stress reactions or combat-related PTSD while deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq. Service members were treated by deployed military behavioral health providers using modified Prolonged Exposure (PE; n = 6) or modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT; n = 6), with protocol modifications tailored to individual mission requirements. The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) total score was the primary outcome measure. Results indicated that both groups demonstrated clinically significant change in PTSD symptoms as indicated by a reduction of 10 points or greater on the PCL-M. Participants treated with modified PE had significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, t = -3.83, p = .01; g = -1.32, with a mean reduction of 18.17 points on the PCL-M. Participants treated with modified CPT had a mean PCL-M reduction of 10.00 points, but these reductions were not statistically significant, t = -1.49, p = .12; g = -0.51. These findings provide preliminary evidence that modified forms of PE and CPT can be implemented in deployed settings for the treatment of combat and operational stress reactions and combat-related PTSD.

7.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(11): 897-903, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947454

RESUMO

Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report more aggression than civilians with PTSD. Because emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and impulsive aggression in veterans, we developed an intervention to increase emotion regulation skills. This pilot study tested the feasibility and acceptability of a three-session treatment, Manage Emotions to Reduce Aggression (MERA), and examined its effectiveness at reducing aggression and emotion dysregulation. Male combat veterans with PTSD and impulsive aggression completed assessments before and 4 weeks after MERA. Overt Aggression Scale measured frequency of aggression; Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale assessed emotion dysregulation. Most veterans (95%) who completed MERA and the posttreatment assessment (n = 20) reported MERA was helpful. Veterans in the intent-to-treat sample demonstrated a significant decrease in their frequency of aggression (Cohen's d = -0.55) and emotion dysregulation (Cohen's d = -0.55). MERA may be an innovative treatment that helps veterans reduce aggression.

8.
Cephalalgia ; 40(11): 1155-1167, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic headache is difficult to define and there is debate about the specificity of the 7-day headache onset criterion in the current definition. There is limited evidence available to guide decision making about this criterion. METHOD: A nested cohort study of 193 treatment-seeking veterans who met criteria for persistent headache attributed to mild traumatic injury to the head, including some veterans with delayed headache onset up to 90 days post-injury, was undertaken. Survival analysis examined the proportion of participants reporting headache over time and differences in these proportions based on sex, headache phenotype, and mechanism of injury. RESULT: 127 participants (66%; 95% CI: 59-72%) reported headache onset within 7 days of head injury and 65 (34%) reported headache onset between 8 days and 3 months after head injury. Fourteen percent of participants reported pre-existing migraine before head injury, and there was no difference in the proportion of veterans with pre-existing migraine based on headache onset. Headache onset times were not associated with sex, headache phenotype, or mechanism of injury. There were no significant differences in proportion of veterans with headache onset within 7 days of head injury based on headache phenotype (70% migraine onset within 7 days, 70% tension-type headache within 7 days, 56% cluster headache within 7 days; p ≥ .364). Similar findings were observed for head injury (64% blast, 60% blunt; p = .973). There were no significant differences observed between headache onset groups for psychiatric symptoms (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 = 1.3, 95% CI = -27.5, 30.1; Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item = 3.5, 95% CI = -6.3, 3.7; Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener = 6.5, 95% CI = -2.7, 15.6). CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the sample reported headache onset within 7 days of head injury, one-third experienced an onset outside of the diagnostic range. Additionally, veterans with headache onset within 7 days of head injury were not meaningfully different from those with later onset based on sex, headache phenotype, or mechanism of head injury. The ICHD-3 diagnostic criteria for 7-day headache onset should be expanded to 3 months. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02419131.

9.
Mil Med ; 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776113

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a significant problem in the U.S. military, with rates surpassing the U.S. general population as of 2008. Although there have been significant advances regarding suicide risk factors among U.S. military service members and veterans, there is little research about risk factors associated with suicide that could be potentially identified in theater. One salient study group consists of service members who receive a psychiatric aeromedical evacuation out of theater. The primary aims of this study were as follows: (1) determine the incidence of suicide-related aeromedical evacuation in deployed service members, (2) identify demographic and military characteristics associated with suicide-related aeromedical evacuation, and (3) evaluate the relationship between suicide-related aeromedical evacuation from a deployed setting and military separation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an archival analysis of U.S. Transportation Command Regulating and Command and Control Evacuation System and Defense Manpower Data Center electronic records of U.S. military service members (N = 7023) who were deployed to Iraq or Afghanistan and received a psychiatric aeromedical evacuation out of theater between 2001 and 2013. χ2 tests of independence and standardized residuals were used to identify cells with observed frequencies and proportions, respectively, that significantly differed from what would be expected by chance. In addition, odds ratios were calculated to provide context about the nature of any significant relationships. RESULTS: For every 1000 psychiatric aeromedical evacuations that occurred between 2001 and 2013, 34.4 were suicide related. Gender, ethnicity, branch of service, occupation classification, and deployment theater were associated with suicide-related aeromedical evacuation (odds ratios ranged from 1.37 to 3.02). Overall, 53% of all service members who received an aeromedical evacuation for any psychiatric condition had been separated from the military for a variety of reasons (both voluntary and involuntary) upon record review in 2015. Suicide-related aeromedical evacuation was associated with a 37% increased risk of military separation compared to evacuation for another psychiatric condition (P < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide novel information on risk factors associated with suicide-related aeromedical evacuation as well as military separation following a suicide-related aeromedical evacuation. In many cases, the psychiatric aeromedical evacuation of a service member for suicidal ideations and their subsequent separation from active duty is in the best interest of the individual and the military. However, the evacuation and eventual military separation can be costly for the military and the service member. Consequently, the military should focus on indicated prevention interventions for individuals who show sufficient early signs of crisis and functional problems so that specialized interventions can be used in theater to prevent evacuation. Indicated prevention interventions should start with leaders' awareness and mitigation of risk and, when feasible, evidence-based interventions for suicide risk provided by behavioral health (eg, brief cognitive behavioral therapy for suicide). Future research should evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of delivering suicide-related interventions in theater.

10.
Behav Ther ; 51(5): 700-714, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800299

RESUMO

Cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (CBCT for PTSD; Monson & Fredman, 2012) is efficacious in improving PTSD symptoms and relationship adjustment among couples with PTSD. However, there is a need for more efficient delivery formats to maximize engagement and retention and to achieve faster outcomes in multiple domains. This nonrandomized trial was designed to pilot an abbreviated, intensive, multi-couple group version of CBCT for PTSD (AIM-CBCT for PTSD) delivered over a single weekend for 24 couples that included an active-duty service member or veteran with PTSD who had deployed in support of combat operations following September 11, 2001. All couples completed treatment. Assessments conducted by clinical evaluators 1 and 3 months after the intervention revealed significant reductions in clinician-rated PTSD symptoms (ds = -0.77 and -0.98, respectively) and in patients' self-reported symptoms of PTSD (ds = -0.73 and -1.17, respectively), depression (ds = -0.60 and -0.75, respectively), anxiety (ds = -0.63 and -0.73, respectively), and anger (ds = -0.45 and -0.60, respectively), relative to baseline. By 3-month follow-up, partners reported significant reductions in patients' PTSD symptoms (d = -0.56), as well as significant improvements in their own depressive symptoms (d = -0.47), anxiety (d = -0.60), and relationship satisfaction (d = 0.53), relative to baseline. Delivering CBCT for PTSD through an abbreviated, intensive multi-couple group format may be an efficient strategy for improving patient, partner, and relational well-being in military and veteran couples with PTSD.

12.
Mil Med ; 185(9-10): e1632-e1639, 2020 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601699

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Contingency operations during the past 18 years have exposed millions of U.S. military service members to numerous combat and operational stressors. Despite this, a relative dearth of literature has focused on the experiences of deployed military medical personnel. As such, the present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by conducting individual and small group interviews with Air Force medical personnel who had recently returned from a deployment to Iraq. Interviews targeted self-reported factors related to psychological risk and resiliency across the deployment cycle, while also seeking recommendations for future military medical personnel preparing for medical deployments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Inductive thematic analyses were conducted on transcripts from 12 individual and structured group interviews conducted with recently deployed U.S. Air Force medical personnel (N = 28). An interview script consisting of 18 prompts was carefully developed based on the experiences of study personnel. Two team members (n = 1 research psychologist; n = 1 military medical provider) coded exemplars from interview transcripts. A third team member (research psychologist) reviewed coded exemplars for consistency and retained themes when saturation was reached. RESULTS: In total we report on 6 primary themes. Participants reported feeling prepared to conduct their mission while deployed but often felt unprepared for the positions they assumed and the traumas they commonly experienced. Most participants reported deployment to be a rewarding experience, citing leader engagement, and social support as key protective factors against deployment-related stressors. Finally, following deployment, participants largely reported positive experiences reintegrating with their families but struggled to reintegrate into their workplace. CONCLUSION: Findings from the present study indicate that the military is largely doing a good job preparing Air Force medical providers to deploy. Results of the present study indicate that military medical personnel would benefit from: (1) increased predictability surrounding deployment timelines, (2) improved cross-cultural training, (3) advanced training for atypical injuries in unconventional patient populations, and (4) improvements in postdeployment workplace reintegration. The present research has the potential to positively impact the overall quality of life for deploying military service members and their families; while simultaneously highlighting the successes and shortfalls in the deployment process for U.S. military medical personnel.

13.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 59, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prolonged exposure therapy (PE) is an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that is underutilized in the military health system. Standard workshop training in PE may not be sufficient to alter provider behavior, but post-workshop consultation requires significant resources. Therefore, it is important to determine the incremental utility of post-workshop consultation. METHODS: This study used a hybrid type III randomized implementation trial at 3 US Army installations. Providers were randomized to receive a 4-day prolonged exposure workshop (Standard training condition, n = 60), or the prolonged exposure workshop followed by 6-8 months of post-workshop expert case consultation (Extended training condition, n = 43). The effects training condition were examined on provider attitudes (self-efficacy in delivering PE, expectations for patient improvement, and beliefs about PE), use of PE and PE components, and clinical outcomes of patients with PTSD (using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS-5)). RESULTS: Extended condition providers reported greater improvements in self-efficacy, b = .83, 95% CI [.38, 1.27], t(79) = 3.71, p = .001, and d = .63. A greater proportion of patients in the Extended condition (44%) than in the Standard condition (27%) received at least 1 PE session, b = .76, t(233) = 2.53, p = .012, and OR = 2.13. Extended condition providers used more PE components (M = .9/session) than did Standard condition providers (M = .5/session), b = .54, 95% CI [.15, .93], t(68) = 2.70, p = .007, and d = .68. Finally, decrease in patients' PTSD symptoms was faster for patients of Extended condition providers than for patients of Standard condition providers, b = - 1.81, 95% CI [- 3.57, - .04], t(263) = - 2.02, p = .045, and d = .66, and their symptoms were lower at the second assessment, b = - 5.47, 95% CI [- 9.30, - 1.63], t(210) = - 2.81, p = .005, and d = .66. CONCLUSIONS: Post-workshop consultation improved self-efficacy for delivering PE, greater use of PE, faster PTSD reduction, and lower PTSD severity at the second assessment. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that post-workshop case consultation for PE improves patient outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov , NCT02982538 . Registered December 5, 2016; retrospectively registered.

14.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 119: 104749, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554173

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with dysregulation of the neuroendocrine system, including cortisol, allopregnanolone, and pregnanolone. Preliminary evidence from animal models suggests that baseline levels of these biomarkers may predict response to PTSD treatment. We report the change in biomarkers over the course of PTSD treatment. Biomarkers were sampled from individuals participating in (1) a randomized controlled trial comparing a web-version of Prolonged Exposure (Web-PE) therapy to in-person Present-Centered Therapy (PCT) and (2) from individuals participating in a nonrandomized effectiveness study testing PE delivered in-person as part of an intensive outpatient PTSD program. We found that higher cortisol reactivity during script-driven imagery was associated with higher baseline PTSD severity and that baseline allopregnanolone, pregnanolone, and cortisol reactivity were associated with PTSD treatment responder status over the course of intensive outpatient treatment. These findings demonstrate that peripherally assessed biomarkers are associated with PTSD severity and likelihood of successful treatment outcome of PE delivered daily over two weeks. These assessments could be used to determine which patients are likely to respond to treatment and which patients require augmentation to increase the likelihood of optimal response to PTSD treatment.

15.
Behav Ther ; 51(4): 522-534, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586427

RESUMO

Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTi) is well established as the first-line treatment for the management of chronic insomnia. Identifying predictors of response to CBTi should enable the field to efficiently utilize resources to treat those who are likely to respond and to personalize treatment approaches to optimize outcomes for those who are less likely to respond to traditional CBTi. Although a range of studies have been conducted, no clear pattern of predictors of response to CBTi has emerged. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact and relative importance of a comprehensive group of pretreatment predictors of insomnia outcomes in 99 active-duty service members who received in-person CBTi in a randomized clinical trial. Results indicated that higher levels of baseline insomnia severity and total sleep time predicted greater improvements on the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) following treatment. Higher depression symptoms and a history of head injury predicted a worse response to treatment (i.e., smaller improvements on the ISI). Clinically meaningful improvements, as measured by the reliable change index (RCI), were found in 59% of the sample. Over and above baseline insomnia severity, only depressive symptoms predicted this outcome. Future studies should examine if modifications to CBTi based on these predictors of response can improve outcomes.

16.
J Trauma Stress ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598575

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects approximately 8% of the general population. The prevalence of PTSD is twice as high in active duty service members and military veterans. Few studies have investigated the incidence rates of PTSD in active duty military personnel. The present study evaluated the incidence of PTSD diagnoses and the differences between demographic factors for service members between 2001 and 2017. Data on 182,400 active duty service members between 2001 and 2017 were drawn from the Defense Medical Epidemiological Database and examined by sex, age, service branch, military pay grade, marital status, and race. From 2001 to 2017, the incidence rates of PTSD in the active force (per 1,000 service members) steadily climbed, with a low of 1.24 in 2002 to a high of 12.94 in 2016. Service members most often diagnosed with PTSD were in the U.S. Army, with the enlisted pay grades of E-5-E-9, White, married, male, and between 20 and 24 years old. Statistically significant differences, ps < .001, were found between observed and expected counts across all examined demographic variables. The present study is the first to our knowledge to provide a comprehensive examination of PTSD incidence rates in an active duty military population.

17.
Behav Ther ; 51(3): 386-400, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402255

RESUMO

Both negative posttraumatic cognitions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms decrease over the course of cognitive-behavior therapy for PTSD; however, further research is needed to determine whether cognitive change precedes and predicts symptom change. The present study examined whether weekly changes in blame predicted subsequent changes in PTSD symptoms over the course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT). Participants consisted of 321 active duty U.S. Army soldiers with PTSD who received CPT in one of two clinical trials. Symptoms of PTSD and blame were assessed at baseline and weekly throughout treatment. Bivariate latent difference score modeling was used to examine temporal sequential dependencies between the constructs. Results indicated that changes in self-blame and PTSD symptoms were dynamically linked: When examining cross-construct predictors, changes in PTSD symptoms were predicted by prior changes in self-blame, but changes in self-blame were also predicted by both prior levels of and prior changes in PTSD. Changes in other-blame were predicted by prior levels of PTSD, but changes in other-blame did not predict changes in PTSD symptoms. Findings highlight the dynamic relationship between self-blame and PTSD symptoms during treatment in this active military sample.

18.
Sleep ; 43(10)2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246153

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine sleep disorder symptom reports at baseline and posttreatment in a sample of active duty U.S. Army Soldiers receiving treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Explore sleep-related predictors of outcomes. METHODS: Sleep was evaluated in 128 participants in a parent randomized clinical trial comparing Spaced formats of Prolonged Exposure (PE) or Present Centered Therapy and a Massed format of PE. In the current study, Spaced formats were combined and evaluated separately from Massed. RESULTS: At baseline, the average sleep duration was < 5 h per night on weekdays/workdays and < 6 h per night on weekends/off days. The majority of participants reported clinically significant insomnia, clinically significant nightmares, and probable sleep apnea and approximately half reported excessive daytime sleepiness at baseline. Insomnia and nightmares improved significantly from baseline to posttreatment in all groups, but many patients reported clinically significant insomnia (>70%) and nightmares (>38%) posttreatment. Excessive daytime sleepiness significantly improved only in the Massed group, but 40% continued to report clinically significant levels at posttreatment. Short sleep (Spaced only), clinically significant insomnia and nightmares, excessive daytime sleepiness, and probable sleep apnea (Massed only) at baseline predicted higher PTSD symptoms across treatment course. Short weekends/off days sleep predicted lower PTSD symptom improvement in the Spaced treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Various sleep disorder symptoms were high at baseline, were largely unchanged with PTSD treatment, and were related to worse PTSD treatment outcomes. Studies are needed with objective sleep assessments and targeted sleep disorders treatments in PTSD patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01049516.

19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 93: 106008, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite efforts by the U.S. Department of Defense to train behavioral health (BH) providers in evidence-based psychotherapies (EBPs) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), numerous barriers limit EBP implementation. A context-tailored implementation approach called TACTICS (Targeted Assessment and Context-Tailored Implementation of Change Strategies) holds promise for increasing the use of EBPs such as prolonged exposure therapy (PE) in military treatment facilities. TACTICS combines a needs assessment, a rubric for selecting implementation strategies based on local barriers, an implementation toolkit, and external facilitation to support local champions and their implementation teams in enacting changes. This paper describes the rationale for and design of a study that will evaluate whether TACTICS can increase implementation of PE for PTSD and improve patient outcomes in military BH clinics relative to provider training in PE alone. METHODS: The study is a multi-site, cluster randomized, stepped-wedge trial, with the military treatment facility as the unit of analysis. Eight facilities undergo a provider-training phase, followed by 5 months of TACTICS implementation. The timing of TACTICS at each facility is randomly assigned to begin 9, 14, or 19 months after beginning the provider-training phase. Primary analyses will compare the proportion of PTSD patients receiving PE and patients' mean improvement in PTSD symptoms before and after the onset of TACTICS. DISCUSSION: TACTICS endeavors to balance standardization of empirically-supported implementation strategies with the flexibility of application necessary for success across varied clinical settings. If successful, TACTICS may represent a systematic and scalable method of promoting and supporting EBP implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT03663452.

20.
Transl Behav Med ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043529

RESUMO

Military service presents unique challenges and opportunities for health care and public health. In the USA, there are over 2 million military servicemembers, 20 million veterans, and millions more military and veteran family members. Military servicemembers and eligible family members, many veterans, and retirees receive health care through the two largest learning health care systems in the USA, managed and delivered through the Departments of Defense (DoD), Veterans Affairs (VA), and contracted health care organizations. Through a network of collaborative relationships, DoD, VA, and partnering health care and research organizations (university, corporate, community, and government) accelerate research translation into best practices and policy across the USA and beyond. This article outlines military and veteran health research translation as summarized from a collaborative workshop led by experts across health care research, practice, and administration in DoD, VA, the National Institutes of Health, and affiliated universities. Key themes and recommendations for research translation are outlined in areas of: (a) stakeholder engagement and collaboration; (b) implementation science methods; and (c) funding along the translation continuum. Overall, the ability to rapidly translate research into clinical practice and policy for positive health outcomes requires collaborative relationships among many stakeholders. This includes servicemembers, veterans, and their families along with researchers, health care clinicians, and administrators, as well as policymakers and the broader population.

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