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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(13): 7295-306, 2013 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23305532

RESUMO

From August 22 to September 16, 2012, atmospheric mercury (Hg) was measured from a common manifold in the field during the Reno Atmospheric Mercury Intercomparison eXperiment. Data were collected using Tekran systems, laser induced fluorescence, and evolving new methods. The latter included the University of Washington-Detector for Oxidized Mercury, the University of Houston Mercury instrument, and a filter-based system under development by the University of Nevada-Reno. Good transmission of total Hg was found for the manifold. However, despite application of standard protocols and rigorous quality control, systematic differences in operationally defined forms of Hg were measured by the sampling systems. Concentrations of reactive Hg (RM) measured with new methods were at times 2-to-3-fold higher than that measured by Tekran system. The low RM recovery by the latter can be attributed to lack of collection as the system is currently configured. Concentrations measured by all instruments were influenced by their sampling location in-the-manifold and the instrument analytical configuration. On the basis of collective assessment of the data, we hypothesize that reactions forming RM were occurring in the manifold. Results provide a new framework for improved understanding of the atmospheric chemistry of Hg.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Brometos/análise , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/química , Compostos de Mercúrio/análise , Nevada , Ozônio/análise
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 424: 297-307, 2012 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22444056

RESUMO

This paper describes the use of passive sampling systems and surrogate surfaces for monitoring atmospheric mercury (Hg) concentrations and dry deposition, respectively, in Florida,USA. Although this area has been reported to have low air concentrations, wet deposition values, reported by the Mercury Deposition Network, are some of the highest in the United States, and little is known about the magnitude of dry deposition to the region. To address this uncertainty, dry deposition of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) was estimated based on data collected using surrogate surfaces and through the application of a dry deposition model that utilized Tekran® Mercury Analyzer data for three sites (Davie near Fort Lauderdale, Tampa and Pensacola) over a year (July 2009-July 2010). Passive sampler systems for monitoring GOM and total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations were also deployed. In general, higher surrogate surface deposition, and GOM and TGM passive sampler uptake were observed at the DVE location. Across all sites, empirically derived dry deposition was higher than that determined using modeled values. Tekran® Instrument derived GOM concentrations, as well as modeled deposition rates, followed the same seasonal and spatial patterns as that measured by the samplers, however there were some spatial and temporal trends captured by the samplers that were not seen in the Tekran® derived data. Results indicate that these samplers may be applied to identify spatial and temporal trends in air Hg concentrations and potential deposition at sites with low and fairly constant GOM concentrations as reported by the Tekran® system (2-8 pg m(-3)). When viewed collectively, trends in sampler and Tekran® derived data also suggest the potential for different forms of GOM in air. Using empirical and modeled values, dry deposition in Florida during the year of this study could account for 1.5 to 14% of total annual Hg deposition (wet+dry).


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/instrumentação , Florida , Gases/análise , Gases/química , Mercúrio/química , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Óxidos/análise , Óxidos/química , Estações do Ano
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 405(1-3): 255-68, 2008 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18706677

RESUMO

The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. We hypothesized that the chemistry of the atmosphere above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg(0)) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a ~year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface, and HYSPLIT model back trajectories were developed to investigate potential sources of RGM to the lake. Atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations were similar to global ambient background values and RGM concentrations were similar to those reported for rural areas. Both Hg(0) and RGM exhibited regular diel variability. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm s(-1) while that determined for surrogate surfaces ranged from 2.8 to 7.8 cm s(-1). Filtered total and methyl Hg concentrations in Great Salt Lake surface waters were consistent throughout the year (3.6+/-0.8 ng L(-1) and 0.93+/-0.59 ng L(-1), respectively), while brine shrimp concentrations had a statistically significant increase from summer to fall. Data collected and data analyses indicated no direct local or regional source of Hg to the lake and that factors within the Great Salt Lake basin are important in controlling Hg(0) and RGM concentrations.


Assuntos
Ar , Artemia/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Água/química , Animais , Modelos Teóricos , Utah
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