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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238724, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956369

RESUMO

Wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype Triticum (MoT) is a threat to wheat production especially in the warmer-humid environments. In Zambia, wheat blast symptoms were observed for the first time on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in experimental plots and five farmers' fields in Mpika district of Muchinga Province during the 2017-18 rainy season. Infected plants showed the typical wheat blast symptoms with the spike becoming partially or completely bleached with the blackening of the rachis in a short span of time. Incidence of blast symptoms on nearly all wheat heads was high and ranged from 50 to 100%. Examination of diseased plant leaves showed the presence of elliptical, grayish to tan necrotic lesions with dark borders on the leaf often mixed with other foliar diseases. A study was conducted to isolate and identify the causal pathogen(s) using classical and molecular methods and determine the pathogenicity of the detected disease causal agent. Morphobiometrical determination of causal pathogen revealed conidia with characteristic pear shaped 2-septate hyaline spores associated with M. oryzae species. Preliminary polymerase chain reaction screening of six isolates obtained from wheat blast infected samples with diagnostic primers (MoT3F/R) was conducted at ZARI, Zambia, and subsequent analysis of two isolates with MoT3F/R and C17F/R was performed at USDA-ARS, USA. Both experiments confirmed that MoT is the causal agent of wheat blast in Zambia. Further, pathogenicity tests performed with pure culture isolates from samples WS4 and WS5 produced typical blast symptoms on all the six inoculated wheat genotypes. Results of this study indicate that MoT is causing wheat blast in rain-fed wheat grown in Zambia, thus making it the first report of MoT in Zambia and Africa. This inter-continental movement of the pathogen (disease) has serious implication for wheat production and trade that needs to be urgently addressed.


Assuntos
Magnaporthe/isolamento & purificação , Magnaporthe/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/microbiologia , Magnaporthe/patogenicidade , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Esporos Fúngicos/fisiologia , Zâmbia
2.
J Biophotonics ; 13(6): e202000048, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32246558

RESUMO

Handheld and endoscopic optical-sectioning microscopes are being developed for noninvasive screening and intraoperative consultation. Imaging a large extent of tissue is often desired, but miniature in vivo microscopes tend to suffer from limited fields of view. To extend the imaging field during clinical use, we have developed a real-time video mosaicking method, which allows users to efficiently survey larger areas of tissue. Here, we modified a previous post-processing mosaicking method so that real-time mosaicking is possible at >30 frames/second when using a device that outputs images that are 400 × 400 pixels in size. Unlike other real-time mosaicking methods, our strategy can accommodate image rotations and deformations that often occur during clinical use of a handheld microscope. We perform a feasibility study to demonstrate that the use of real-time mosaicking is necessary to enable efficient sampling of a desired imaging field when using a handheld dual-axis confocal microscope.

3.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 35-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660799

RESUMO

Wheat head blast (WHB), caused by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum, is a devastating disease affecting South America and South Asia. Despite 30 years of intensive effort, the 2NVS translocation from Aegilops ventricosa contains the only useful source of resistance to WHB effective against M. oryzae triticum isolates. The objective of this study was to identify non-2NVS sources of resistance to WHB among elite cultivars, breeding lines, landraces, and wild-relative accessions. Over 780 accessions were evaluated under field and greenhouse conditions in Bolivia, greenhouse conditions in Brazil, and at two biosafety level-3 laboratories in the United States. The M. oryzae triticum isolates B-71 (2012), 008 (2015), and 16MoT001 (2016) were used for controlled experiments, while isolate 008 was used for field experiments. Resistant and susceptible checks were included in all experiments. Under field conditions, susceptible spreaders were inoculated at the tillering stage to guarantee sufficient inoculum. Disease incidence and severity were evaluated as the average rating for each 1-m-row plot. Under controlled conditions, heads were inoculated after full emergence and individually rated for percentage of diseased spikelets. The diagnostic marker Ventriup-LN2 was used to test for the presence of the 2NVS translocation. Four non-2NVS spring wheat International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center breeding lines (CM22, CM49, CM52, and CM61) and four wheat wild-relatives (A. tauschii TA10142, TA1624, TA1667, and TA10140) were identified as resistant (<5% of severity) or moderately resistant (5 to <25% severity) to WHB. Experiments conducted at the seedling stage showed little correlation with disease severity at the head stage. M. oryzae triticum isolate 16MoT001 was significantly more aggressive against 2NVS-based varieties. The low frequency of WHB resistance and the increase in aggressiveness of newer M. oryzae triticum isolates highlight the threat that the disease poses to wheat production worldwide and the urgent need to identify and characterize new resistance genes that can be used in breeding for durably resistant varieties.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Triticum , Ásia , Bolívia , Brasil , Cruzamento , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Triticum/genética , Triticum/microbiologia
5.
Lasers Surg Med ; 2019 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a developing approach for noninvasive detection of oral lesions with label-free contrast and cellular-level resolution. For access into the oral cavity, confocal microscopes are being configured with small-diameter telescopic probes and small objective lenses. However, a small probe and objective lens allows for a rather small field-of-view relative to the large areas of tissue that must be examined for diagnosis. To extend the field-of-view for intraoral RCM imaging, we are investigating a video-mosaicking approach. METHODS: A relay telescope and objective lens were adapted to an existing confocal microscope for access into the oral cavity. Imaging was performed using metal three-dimensional-printed objective lens front-end caps with coverslip windows to contact and stabilize the tissue and set depth. Four healthy volunteers (normal oral mucosa), one patient (with an amalgam tattoo) in a clinical setting, and 20 anesthetized patients (with oral squamous cell carcinoma [OSCC]) in a surgical setting were imaged. Instead of the usual still RCM images, videos were recorded and then processed into video-mosaics. Thirty video-mosaics were read and qualitatively assessed by an expert reader of RCM images of the oral mucosa. RESULTS: Whereas the objective lens' native field-of-view is 0.75 mm × 0.75 mm, the video-mosaics display larger areas, ranging from 2 mm × 2 mm to 4 mm × 2 mm, with resolution, morphologic detail, and image quality that is preserved relative to that observed in the original videos (individual images). Video-mosaics in healthy volunteers' and the patients' images showed cellular morphologic patterns in the lower epithelium and at the epithelial junction, and connective tissue along with capillary loops and blood flow in the deeper lamina propria. In OSCC, tumor nests could be observed along with normal looking mucosa in margin areas. CONCLUSIONS: Video-mosaicking is a reasonably quick and efficient approach for extending the field-of-view of RCM imaging, which can, to some extent, overcome the inherent limitation of an intraoral probe's small field-of-view. Reading video-mosaics can mimic the procedure for examining pathology: initial visualization of the spatial cellular and morphologic patterns of the tumor and the spread of tumor margins over larger areas of the lesion, followed by digitally zooming (magnifying) for closer inspection of suspicious areas. However, faster processing of videos into video-mosaics will be necessary, to allow examination of video-mosaics in real-time at the bedside. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

6.
J Biomed Opt ; 24(3): 30501, 2019 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717147

RESUMO

There would be clinical value in a miniature optical-sectioning microscope to enable in vivo interrogation of tissues as a real-time and noninvasive alternative to gold-standard histopathology for early disease detection and surgical guidance. To address this need, a reflectance-based handheld line-scanned dual-axis confocal microscope was developed and fully packaged for label-free imaging of human skin and oral mucosa. This device can collect images at >15 frames/s with an optical-sectioning thickness and lateral resolution of 1.7 and 1.1 µm, respectively. Incorporation of a sterile lens cap design enables pressure-sensitive adjustment of the imaging depth by the user during clinical use. In vivo human images and videos are obtained to demonstrate the capabilities of this high-speed optical-sectioning microscopy device.


Assuntos
Epiderme/patologia , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Lentes , Microscopia de Vídeo/instrumentação , Dispositivos Ópticos , Fenômenos Ópticos
7.
Phytopathology ; 109(4): 509-511, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30565503

RESUMO

This is a response to a recent Letter to the Editor of Phytopathology, in which Gupta et al. (2019) caution against the indiscriminate use of the MoT3 diagnostic assay that distinguishes isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae in the Triticum lineage from those that do not cause aggressive wheat blast. We confirm that the assay does reliably distinguish between wheat and rice isolates from Bangladesh and worldwide, as described in the original paper by Pieck et al. (2017) . We have been unable to reproduce the equally intense amplification of WB12 and WB12-like sequences reported in Figure 1 of the Letter. Other data presented by Gupta et al. (2019) support the specificity of the MoT3 assay. Therefore, cautions beyond those always associated with accurate reproduction of diagnostic assays are unwarranted.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0196124, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694435

RESUMO

In the United States (US), the sugarcane aphid (SCA) Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was introduced in the 1970s, however at that time it was only considered a pest of sugarcane. In 2013, a massive outbreak of M. sacchari occured on sorghum, resulting in significant economic damage to sorghum grown in North America including the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. The aim of the present study was to determine if the SCA pest emergence in American sorghum resulted from the introduction of new genotypes. To this end we used microsatellite markers and COI sequencing to compare the genetic diversity of SCA populations collected in the Americas after the 2013 SCA outbreak on sorghum (during 2013-2017) to older samples collected before the pest outbreak (during 2007-2009). Our results show that the SCA outbreak in the Americas and the Caribbean observed since 2013 belong to populations exhibiting low genetic diversity and consisting of a dominant clonal lineage, MLL-F, which colonizes Sorghum spp. and sugarcane. The comparison of MLL-F specimens collected post-2013 with specimens collected in Louisiana in 2007 revealed that both populations are genetically distinct, according to COI sequencing and microsatellite data analyses. Our result suggest that MLL-F is a new invasive genotype introduced into the Americas that has spread rapidly across sorghum growing regions in the US, Mexico, Honduras and the Caribbean. The origin of this introduction is either Africa or Asia, with Asia being the most probable source.


Assuntos
Afídeos/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Sorghum/parasitologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Espécies Introduzidas , América do Norte
9.
Biomed Opt Express ; 9(4): 1906-1915, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29675328

RESUMO

We report development of a low-cost smartphone confocal microscope and its first demonstration of in vivo human skin imaging. The smartphone confocal microscope uses a slit aperture and diffraction grating to conduct two-dimensional confocal imaging without using any beam scanning devices. Lateral and axial resolutions of the smartphone confocal microscope were measured as 2 and 5 µm, respectively. In vivo confocal images of human skin revealed characteristic cellular structures, including spinous and basal keratinocytes and papillary dermis. Results suggest that the smartphone confocal microscope has a potential to examine cellular details in vivo and may help disease diagnosis in resource-poor settings, where conducting standard histopathologic analysis is challenging.

10.
Environ Entomol ; 47(4): 834-839, 2018 08 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635446

RESUMO

The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major insect pest of stored grain. This study evaluated resistance of grain of 26 sorghum genotypes, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, to maize weevil under laboratory conditions. Three female and two male newly emerged maize weevils were reared with 5 g of grain in each of 10 vials for each of the 26 sorghum genotypes in a laboratory experiment. The weevils and grain of each genotype were scored once every 3 wk for a total of five times during 105 d. The numbers of live and newly emerged maize weevils, dead weevils from the initial population, damage score (scale of 1-5), and grain weight loss were used to indicate resistance. The least percentage weight loss of 23.9 and 24.1% was recorded for sorghum genotypes Sureño and (5BRON151*Tegemeo)-HG7, respectively. Genotypes B.HF8 and (A964*P850029)-HW6 had the most weight loss, 70.6 and 67.7%, at 105 d after infestation. Genotypes B.HF8 and (A964*P850029)-HW6 consistently exhibited the highest numbers of maize weevil, 63 and 84, per vial at 105 d after infestation. Sorghum genotypes Sureño, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15, (5BRON151*Tegemeo)-HG7, and (B35*B9501)-HD9 ranked among the top four genotypes with least damage rating more often than any other genotype across the five sampling dates. On the other hand, genotypes B.HF8, (A964*P850029)-HW6, (Segaolane*WM#322)LG2, and (Tx2880*(Tx2880*(Tx2864*(Tx436*(Tx2864*PI550607)))))-PR3-CM1 were more often ranked among the top four genotypes with the highest damage rating. Our results indicate that grain of genotype Sureno is most resistant to the maize weevil among screened genotypes.


Assuntos
Antibiose , Genótipo , Sorghum/fisiologia , Gorgulhos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Controle de Insetos , Masculino , Sorghum/genética
11.
Dermatol Pract Concept ; 7(4): 13-16, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214103

RESUMO

The majority of oral pigmentations are benign lesions such as nevi, melanotic macules, melanoacanthomas or amalgam tattoos. Conversely, mucosal melanomas are rare but often lethal; therefore, excluding oral melanomas in this setting is crucial. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a non-invasive, in vivo imaging system with cellular resolution that has been used to distinguish benign from malignant pigmented lesions in the skin, and more recently in the mucosa. However, lesions located posteriorly in the oral cavity are difficult to assess visually and difficult to biopsy due to their location. Herein we present a patient with previous multiple melanomas presenting with an oral amalgam tattoo in the buccal mucosa, which was imaged using an intraoral telescopic probe attached to a commercially available handheld RCM. In this case report we describe this novel probe, the first RCM description of an amalgam tattoo and we discuss its differences with the findings described in oral melanomas.

12.
Opt Lett ; 42(7): 1241-1244, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28362739

RESUMO

Wide-field (WF) imaging paired with reflectance confocal microscopy can noninvasively detect skin cancer with high accuracy. However, two separate devices are required to perform each imaging procedure. We describe a new concept that integrates the two into one device: a miniature WF color camera within the objective lens used for confocal microscopy, providing simultaneous sub-surface cellular imaging and WF surface morphologic imaging. The camera, inserted between a hyperhemisphere front lens and a back lens group of the objective, commands a field of view of 4.0 mm, with a resolution better than 30 µm, while confocal optical sectioning is preserved at sharper than 2.5 µm.

13.
J Biomed Opt ; 22(3): 34002, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327961

RESUMO

Confocal microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid imaging of freshly excised tissue without the need for frozen- or fixed-section processing. Initial studies have described imaging of breast tissue using fluorescence confocal microscopy with small regions of interest, typically 750 × 750 ?? ? m 2 . We present exploration with a microscope, termed confocal strip-mosaicking microscope (CSM microscope), which images an area of 2 × 2 ?? cm 2 of tissue with cellular-level resolution in 10 min of excision. Using the CSM microscope, we imaged 34 fresh, human, large breast tissue specimens from 18 patients, blindly analyzed by a board-certified pathologist and subsequently correlated with the corresponding standard fixed histopathology. Invasive tumors and benign tissue were clearly identified in CSM strip-mosaic images. Thirty specimens were concordant for image-to-histopathology correlation while four were discordant.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia Confocal , Feminino , Humanos
14.
Plant Dis ; 101(5): 684-692, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678560

RESUMO

Wheat blast is a devastating disease that was first identified in Brazil and has subsequently spread to surrounding countries in South America. In May 2011, disease scouting in a University of Kentucky wheat trial plot in Princeton, KY identified a single plant with disease symptoms that differed from the Fusarium head blight that was present in surrounding wheat. The plant in question bore a single diseased head that was bleached yellow from a point about one-third up the rachis to the tip. A gray mycelial mass was observed at the boundary of the healthy tissue and microscopic examination of this material revealed pyriform spores consistent with a Magnaporthe sp. The pathogen was subsequently identified as Magnaporthe oryzae through amplification and sequencing of molecular markers, and genome sequencing revealed that the U.S. wheat blast isolate was most closely related to an M. oryzae strain isolated from annual ryegrass in 2002 and quite distantly related to M. oryzae strains causing wheat blast in South America. The suspect isolate was pathogenic to wheat, as indicated by growth chamber inoculation tests. We conclude that this first occurrence of wheat blast in the United States was most likely caused by a strain that evolved from an endemic Lolium-infecting pathogen and not by an exotic introduction from South America. Moreover, we show that M. oryzae strains capable of infecting wheat have existed in the United States for at least 16 years. Finally, evidence is presented that the environmental conditions in Princeton during the spring of 2011 were unusually conducive to the early production of blast inoculum.

15.
Plant Dis ; 101(1): 103-109, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682315

RESUMO

Wheat blast has emerged as a major threat to wheat production in South America. Although originally restricted to Brazil, the disease has since been observed in the neighboring countries of Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay and recently the pathogen, Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype, was isolated from infected wheat in Bangladesh. There is growing concern that the pathogen may continue to spread to other parts of the world, including the United States, where several M. oryzae pathotypes are endemic. M. oryzae pathotypes are morphologically indistinguishable and, therefore, must be characterized genotypically. Symptoms of wheat blast include bleaching of the head, which closely resembles the symptoms of Fusarium head blight, further complicating efforts to monitor for the presence of the pathogen in the field. We used a genomics-based approach to identify molecular markers unique to the Triticum pathotype of M. oryzae. One of these markers, MoT3, was selected for the development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay that was evaluated for specificity using DNA from 284 M. oryzae isolates collected from a diverse array of host species. Conventional PCR primers were designed to amplify a 361-bp product, and the protocol consistently amplified from as little as 0.1 ng of purified DNA. The specificity of the MoT3-based assay was also evaluated using Fusarium spp. DNA, from which no amplicons were detected.

16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 21242, 2016 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26878888

RESUMO

There is a need to image excised tissues during tumor-resection procedures in order to identify residual tumors at the margins and to guide their complete removal. The imaging of dysregulated cell-surface receptors is a potential means of identifying the presence of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. However, due to heterogeneities in the expression of protein biomarkers in tumors, molecular-imaging technologies should ideally be capable of visualizing a multiplexed panel of cancer biomarkers. Here, we demonstrate that the topical application and quantification of a multiplexed cocktail of receptor-targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) enables rapid quantitative molecular phenotyping (QMP) of the surface of freshly excised tissues to determine the presence of disease. In order to mitigate the ambiguity due to nonspecific sources of contrast such as off-target binding or uneven delivery, a ratiometric method is employed to quantify the specific vs. nonspecific binding of the multiplexed NPs. Validation experiments with human tumor cell lines, fresh human tumor xenografts in mice, and fresh human breast specimens demonstrate that QMP imaging of excised tissues agrees with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, and that this technique may be achieved in less than 15 minutes for potential intraoperative use in guiding breast-conserving surgeries.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Imagem Molecular/métodos , Nanopartículas , Receptores de Superfície Celular , Análise Espectral Raman/métodos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Margens de Excisão , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28919662

RESUMO

Reflectance Confocal Microscopy, or RCM, is being increasingly used to guide diagnosis of skin lesions. The combination of widefield dermoscopy (WFD) with RCM is highly sensitive (~90%) and specific (~ 90%) for noninvasively detecting melanocytic and non-melanocytic skin lesions. The combined WFD and RCM approach is being implemented on patients to triage lesions into benign (with no biopsy) versus suspicious (followed by biopsy and pathology). Currently, however, WFD and RCM imaging are performed with separate instruments, while using an adhesive ring attached to the skin to sequentially image the same region and co-register the images. The latest small handheld RCM instruments offer no provision yet for a co-registered wide-field image. This paper describes an innovative solution that integrates an ultra-miniature dermoscopy camera into the RCM objective lens, providing simultaneous wide-field color images of the skin surface and RCM images of the subsurface cellular structure. The objective lens (0.9 NA) includes a hyperhemisphere lens and an ultra-miniature CMOS color camera, commanding a 4 mm wide dermoscopy view of the skin surface. The camera obscures the central portion of the aperture of the objective lens, but the resulting annular aperture provides excellent RCM optical sectioning and resolution. Preliminary testing on healthy volunteers showed the feasibility of combined WFD and RCM imaging to concurrently show the skin surface in wide-field and the underlying microscopic cellular-level detail. The paper describes this unique integrated dermoscopic WFD/RCM lens, and shows representative images. The potential for dermoscopy-guided RCM for skin cancer diagnosis is discussed.

19.
J Econ Entomol ; 108(2): 576-82, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26470168

RESUMO

The graminous host range and sources of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] plant resistance, including cross-resistance from greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), were studied for the newly emerging sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), in greenhouse no-choice experiments and field evaluations. The sugarcane aphid could not survive on field corn, Zea mays (L.), Teff grass, Eragrostis tef (Zucc.), proso millet, Panicum miliaceum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and rye, Secale cereale L. Only sorghum genotypes served as hosts including Johnsongrass, Sorghum halepense (L.), a highly suitable noncrop host that generates high numbers of sugarcane aphid and maintains moderate phenotypic injury. The greenbug-resistant parental line RTx2783 that is resistant to greenbug biotypes C and E was resistant to sugarcane aphid in both greenhouse and field tests, while PI 55607 greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E was highly susceptible. PI 55610 that is greenbug resistant to biotypes B, C, and E maintained moderate resistance to the sugarcane aphid, while greenbug-resistant PI 264453 was highly susceptible to sugarcane aphid. Two lines and two hybrids from the Texas A&M breeding program B11070, B11070, AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx436, and AB11055-WF1-CS1/RTx437 were highly resistant to sugarcane aphid, as were parental types SC110, SC170, and South African lines Ent62/SADC, (Macia/TAM428)-LL9, (SV1*Sima/IS23250)-LG15. Tam428, a parental line that previously showed moderate resistance in South Africa and India, also showed moderate resistance in these evaluations. Overall, 9 of 20 parental sorghum entries tested for phenotypic damage in the field resulted in good resistance to the sugarcane aphid and should be utilized in breeding programs that develop agronomically acceptable sorghums for the southern regions of the United States.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Sorghum/imunologia , Animais , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Fenótipo
20.
J Environ Qual ; 43(6): 1963-71, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25602213

RESUMO

As the world's population increases, marginal lands such as drylands are likely to become more important for food production. One proven strategy for improving crop production in drylands involves shifting from conventional tillage to no-till to increase water use efficiency, especially when this shift is coupled with more intensive crop rotations. Practices such as no-till that reduce soil disturbance and increase crop residues may promote C and N storage in soil organic matter, thus promoting N retention and reducing N losses. By sampling soils 15 yr after a N tracer addition, this study compared long-term soil N retention across several agricultural management strategies in current and converted shortgrass steppe ecosystems: grazed and ungrazed native grassland, occasionally mowed planted perennial grassland, and three cropping intensities of no-till dryland cropping. We also examined effects of the environmental variables site location and topography on N retention. Overall, the long-term soil N retention of >18% in these managed semiarid ecosystems was high compared with published values for other cropped or grassland ecosystems. Cropping practices strongly influenced long-term N retention, with planted perennial grass systems retaining >90% of N in soil compared with 30% for croplands. Grazing management, topography, and site location had smaller effects on long-term N retention. Estimated 15-yr N losses were low for intact and cropped systems. This work suggests that semiarid perennial grass ecosystems are highly N retentive and that increased intensity of semiarid land management can increase the amount of protein harvested without increasing N losses.

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