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1.
ChemSusChem ; 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253811

RESUMO

Perovskite-based oxides have emerged as promising oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts. The performance is closely related to the lattice, electronic, and defect structure of the oxides, which determine surface and bulk properties and consequent catalytic activity and durability. Further, interfacial interactions between phases in a nanocomposite may affect bulk transportation and surface adsorption properties in a similar manner to phase doping except without solubility limits. Herein, we report the development of a single/double perovskite nanohybrid with limited surface self-reconstruction capability as an OER electrocatalyst. Such superior performance arises from a structure that maintains high crystallinity post OER catalysis, in addition to forming an amorphous layer following the self-reconstruction of a single perovskite structure during the OER process. In situ X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy and high-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction reveal an amorphization process in the hybrid single/double perovskite oxide system that is limited in comparison to single perovskite amorphization, ensuring high catalytic activity.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207203

RESUMO

Spinel LiNi0.5 Mn1.5 O4 (LNMO) is a promising cathode candidate for the next-generation high energy-density lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Unfortunately, the application of LNMO is hindered by its poor cycle stability. Now, site-selectively doped LNMO electrode is prepared with exceptional durability. In this work, Mg is selectively doped onto both tetrahedral (8a) and octahedral (16c) sites in the Fd 3 ‾ m structure. This site-selective doping not only suppresses unfavorable two-phase reactions and stabilizes the LNMO structure against structural deformation, but also mitigates the dissolution of Mn during cycling. Mg-doped LNMOs exhibit extraordinarily stable electrochemical performance in both half-cells and prototype full-batteries with novel TiNb2 O7 counter-electrodes. This work pioneers an atomic-doping engineering strategy for electrode materials that could be extended to other energy materials to create high-performance devices.

3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(5): 5939-5950, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913594

RESUMO

With the potential of delivering reversible capacities of up to 300 mAh/g, Li-rich transition-metal oxides hold great promise as cathode materials for future Li-ion batteries. However, a cohesive synthesis-structure-electrochemistry relationship is still lacking for these materials, which impedes progress in the field. This work investigates how and why different synthesis routes, specifically solid-state and modified Pechini sol-gel methods, affect the properties of Li2MnO3, a compositionally simple member of this material system. Through a comprehensive investigation of the synthesis mechanism along with crystallographic, morphological, and electrochemical characterization, the effects of different synthesis routes were found to predominantly influence the degree of stacking faults and particle morphology. That is, the modified Pechini method produced isotropic spherical particles with approximately 57% faulting and the solid-state samples possessed heterogeneous morphology with approximately 43% faulting probability. Inevitably, these differences lead to variations in electrochemical performance. This study accentuates the importance of understanding how synthesis affects the electrochemistry of these materials, which is critical considering the crystallographic and electrochemical complexities of the class of materials more generally. The methodology employed here is extendable to studying synthesis-property relationships of other compositionally complex Li-rich layered oxide systems.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(6): 2815-2823, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996477

RESUMO

Existing lithium-ion battery technology is struggling to meet our increasing requirements for high energy density, long lifetime, and low-cost energy storage. Here, a hybrid electrode design is developed by a straightforward reengineering of commercial electrode materials, which has revolutionized the "rocking chair" mechanism by unlocking the role of anions in the electrolyte. Our proof-of-concept hybrid LiFePO4 (LFP)/graphite electrode works with a staged deintercalation/intercalation mechanism of Li+ cations and PF6 - anions in a broadened voltage range, which was thoroughly studied by ex situ X-ray diffraction, ex situ Raman spectroscopy, and operando neutron powder diffraction. Introducing graphite into the hybrid electrode accelerates its conductivity, facilitating the rapid extraction/insertion of Li+ from/into the LFP phase in 2.5 to 4.0 V. This charge/discharge process, in turn, triggers the in situ formation of the cathode/electrolyte interphase (CEI) layer, reinforcing the structural integrity of the whole electrode at high voltage. Consequently, this hybrid LFP/graphite-20% electrode displays a high capacity and long-term cycling stability over 3,500 cycles at 10 C, superior to LFP and graphite cathodes. Importantly, the broadened voltage range and high capacity of the hybrid electrode enhance its energy density, which is leveraged further in a full-cell configuration.

5.
Adv Mater ; : e1904528, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544298

RESUMO

The performance of rechargeable batteries is influenced by the structural and phase changes of components during cycling. Neutron powder diffraction (NPD) provides unique and useful information concerning the structure-function relation of battery components and can be used to study the changes to component phase and structure during battery cycling, known as in operando measurement studies. The development and use of NPD for in operando measurements of batteries is summarized along with detailed experimental approaches that impact the insights gained by these. A summary of the information gained concerning battery function using in operando NPD measurements is provided, including the structural and phase evolution of electrode materials and charge-carrying ion diffusion pathways through these, which are critical to the development of battery technology.

6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(30): 26909-26919, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268291

RESUMO

Development of low-cost and cobalt-free efficient cathode materials for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains one of the paramount motivations for material researchers at a low temperature (<650 °C). In particular, iron-based perovskite oxides show promise as electrocatalysts for ORR because Fe metal is cheaper and naturally abundant, exhibit matched thermal expansion with contacting components such as electrolytes, and show high tolerance in a CO2-containing atmosphere. Herein, we demonstrated a new mechanism, the in situ formation of alkali metal carbonates at the cathode surface. This new mechanism leads to an efficient and robust cobalt-free electrocatalyst (Sr0.95A0.05Fe0.8Nb0.1Ta0.1O3-δ, SAFNT5, A = Li, Na, and K) for the application of low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (LT-SOFCs). Our results revealed that the formation of Li\K carbonates boosts the ORR activity with an area-specific resistance as low as 0.12 and 0.18 Ω cm2 at 600 °C, which show the highest performance of the cobalt-free single-phase cathode that has been ever reported so far. We also find that the chemical stability and tolerance of tested cathodes toward CO2 poisoning significantly improved with alkali carbonates, as compared to the pristine SrFe0.8Nb0.1Ta0.1O3-δ (SFNT) at 600 °C. This work demonstrates the conclusive role of alkali carbonates in developing highly efficient and stable cobalt-free cathodes for LT-SOFCs and CO2 neutralization.

7.
Chemistry ; 25(20): 5222-5234, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729591

RESUMO

Reaction of the chloranilate dianion with Y(NO3 )3 in the presence of Et4 N+ in the appropriate proportions results in the formation of (Et4 N)[Y(can)2 ], which consists of anionic square-grid coordination polymer sheets with interleaved layers of counter-cations. These counter-cations, which serve as squat pillars between [Y(can)2 ] sheets, lead to alignment of the square grid sheets and the subsequent generation of square channels running perpendicular to the sheets. The crystals are found to be porous and retain crystallinity following cycles of adsorption and desorption. This compound exhibits a high affinity for volatile guest molecules, which could be identified within the framework by crystallographic methods. In situ neutron powder diffraction indicates a size-shape complementarity leading to a strong interaction between host and guest for CO2 and CH4 . Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments indicate significant interactions between the host framework and discrete I2 or Br2 molecules. A series of isostructural compounds (cat)[MIII (X-an)2 ] with M=Sc, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Bi or In, cat=Et4 N, Me4 N and X-an=chloranilate, bromanilate or cyanochloranilate bridging ligands have been generated. The magnetic properties of representative examples (Et4 N)[Gd(can)2 ] and (Et4 N)[Dy(can)2 ] are reported with normal DC susceptibility but unusual AC susceptibility data noted for (Et4 N)[Gd(can)2 ].

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4873, 2018 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30451823

RESUMO

Control of the thermomechanical properties of functional materials is of great fundamental and technological significance, with the achievement of zero or negative thermal expansion behavior being a key goal for various applications. A dynamic, reversible mode of control is demonstrated for the first time in two Prussian blue derivative frameworks whose coefficients of thermal expansion are tuned continuously from negative to positive values by varying the concentration of adsorbed CO2. A simple empirical model that captures site-specific guest contributions to the framework expansion is derived, and displays excellent agreement with the observed lattice behaviour.

9.
Chemistry ; 24(19): 4774-4779, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29450922

RESUMO

The interdependent effects of temperature and guest uptake on the structure of the ultramicroporous metal-organic framework [Cu3 (cdm)4 ] (cdm=C(CN)2 (CONH2 )- ) were explored in detail by using in situ neutron scattering and density functional theory calculations. The tetragonal lattice displays an anisotropic thermal response related to a hinged "lattice-fence" mechanism, unusual for this topology, which is facilitated by pivoting of the rigid cdm anion about the Cu nodes. Calculated pore-size metrics clearly illustrate the potential for temperature-mediated adsorption in ultramicroporous frameworks due to thermal fluctuations of the pore diameter near the value of the target guest kinetic diameter, though in [Cu3 (cdm)4 ] this is counteracted by a competing contraction of the pore with increasing temperature as a result of the anisotropic lattice response.

10.
IUCrJ ; 4(Pt 5): 540-554, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28989711

RESUMO

Energy materials form the central part of energy devices. An essential part of their function is the ability to reversibly host charge or energy carriers, and analysis of their phase composition and structure in real time under non-equilibrium conditions is mandatory for a full understanding of their atomic-scale functional mechanism. Real-time powder diffraction is increasingly being applied for this purpose, forming a critical step in the strategic chemical engineering of materials with improved behaviour. This topical review gives examples of real-time analysis using powder diffraction of rechargeable battery electrodes and porous sorbent materials used for the separation and storage of energy-relevant gases to demonstrate advances in the insights which can be gained into their atomic-scale function.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(14): 12461-12468, 2017 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28332828

RESUMO

All-solid-state Li-ion batteries with metallic Li anodes and solid electrolytes could offer superior energy density and safety over conventional Li-ion batteries. However, compared with organic liquid electrolytes, the low conductivity of solid electrolytes and large electrolyte/electrode interfacial resistance impede their practical application. Garnet-type Li-ion conducting oxides are among the most promising electrolytes for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries. In this work, the large-radius Rb is doped at the La site of cubic Li6.10Ga0.30La3Zr2O12 to enhance the Li-ion conductivity for the first time. The Li6.20Ga0.30La2.95Rb0.05Zr2O12 electrolyte exhibits a Li-ion conductivity of 1.62 mS cm-1 at room temperature, which is the highest conductivity reported until now. All-solid-state Li-ion batteries are constructed from the electrolyte, metallic Li anode, and LiFePO4 active cathode. The addition of Li(CF3SO2)2N electrolytic salt in the cathode effectively reduces the interfacial resistance, allowing for a high initial discharge capacity of 152 mAh g-1 and good cycling stability with 110 mAh g-1 retained after 20 cycles at a charge/discharge rate of 0.05 C at 60 °C.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 13990, 2017 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28045088

RESUMO

The slow activity of cathode materials is one of the most significant barriers to realizing the operation of solid oxide fuel cells below 500 °C. Here we report a niobium and tantalum co-substituted perovskite SrCo0.8Nb0.1Ta0.1O3-δ as a cathode, which exhibits high electroactivity. This cathode has an area-specific polarization resistance as low as ∼0.16 and ∼0.68 Ω cm2 in a symmetrical cell and peak power densities of 1.2 and 0.7 W cm-2 in a Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95-based anode-supported fuel cell at 500 and 450 °C, respectively. The high performance is attributed to an optimal balance of oxygen vacancies, ionic mobility and surface electron transfer as promoted by the synergistic effects of the niobium and tantalum. This work also points to an effective strategy in the design of cathodes for low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(2): 1542-1552, 2017 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28004907

RESUMO

Owing to their high conductivity, crystalline Li7-3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 garnets are promising electrolytes for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. Herein, the influence of Ga doping on the phase, lithium-ion distribution, and conductivity of Li7-3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 garnets is investigated, with the determined concentration and mobility of lithium ions shedding light on the origin of the high conductivity of Li7-3xGaxLa3Zr2O12. When the Ga concentration exceeds 0.20 Ga per formula unit, the garnet-type material is found to assume a cubic structure, but lower Ga concentrations result in the coexistence of cubic and tetragonal phases. Most lithium within Li7-3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 is found to reside at the octahedral 96h site, away from the central octahedral 48g site, while the remaining lithium resides at the tetrahedral 24d site. Such kind of lithium distribution leads to high lithium-ion mobility, which is the origin of the high conductivity; the highest lithium-ion conductivity of 1.46 mS/cm at 25 °C is found to be achieved for Li7-3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 at x = 0.25. Additionally, there are two lithium-ion migration pathways in the Li7-3xGaxLa3Zr2O12 garnets: 96h-96h and 24d-96h-24d, but the lithium ions transporting through the 96h-96h pathway determine the overall conductivity.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(28): 8824-33, 2016 07 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27314640

RESUMO

The mechanism of capacity fade of the Li2MnO3·LiMO2 (M = Li, Ni, Co, Mn) composite positive electrode within a full cell was investigated using a combination of operando neutron powder diffraction and transmission X-ray microscopy methods, enabling the phase, crystallographic, and morphological evolution of the material during electrochemical cycling to be understood. The electrode was shown to initially consist of 73(1) wt % R3̅m LiMO2 with the remaining 27(1) wt % C2/m Li2MnO3 likely existing as an intergrowth. Cracking in the Li2MnO3·LiMO2 electrode particle under operando microscopy observation was revealed to be initiated by the solid-solution reaction of the LiMO2 phase on charge to 4.55 V vs Li(+)/Li and intensified during further charge to 4.7 V vs Li(+)/Li during the concurrent two-phase reaction of the LiMO2 phase, involving the largest lattice change of any phase, and oxygen evolution from the Li2MnO3 phase. Notably, significant healing of the generated cracks in the Li2MnO3·LiMO2 electrode particle occurred during subsequent lithiation on discharge, with this rehealing being principally associated with the solid-solution reaction of the LiMO2 phase. This work reveals that while it is the reduction of lattice size of electrode phases during charge that results in cracking of the Li2MnO3·LiMO2 electrode particle, with the extent of cracking correlated to the magnitude of the size change, crack healing is possible in the reverse solid-solution reaction occurring during discharge. Importantly, it is the phase separation during the two-phase reaction of the LiMO2 phase that prevents the complete healing of the electrode particle, leading to pulverization over extended cycling. This work points to the minimization of behavior leading to phase separation, such as two-phase and oxygen evolution, as a key strategy in preventing capacity fade of the electrode.

15.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 18(26): 17183-9, 2016 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26961230

RESUMO

High-voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) is considered a potential high-power-density positive electrode for lithium-ion batteries, however, it suffers from capacity decay after extended charge-discharge cycling, severely hindering commercial application. Capacity fade is thought to occur through the significant volume change of the LNMO electrode occurring on cycling, and in this work we use operando neutron powder diffraction to compare the structural evolution of the LNMO electrode in an as-assembled 18650-type battery containing a Li4Ti5O12 negative electrode with that in an identical battery following 1000 cycles at high-current. We reveal that the capacity reduction in the battery post cycling is directly proportional to the reduction in the maximum change of the LNMO lattice parameter during its evolution. This is correlated to a corresponding reduction in the MnO6 octahedral distortion in the spinel structure in the cycled battery. Further, we find that the rate of lattice evolution, which reflects the rate of lithium insertion and removal, is ∼9 and ∼10% slower in the cycled than in the as-assembled battery during the Ni(2+)/Ni(3+) and Ni(3+)/Ni(4+) transitions, respectively.

16.
Nat Chem ; 8(3): 270-5, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892560

RESUMO

The mechanical flexibility of coordination frameworks can lead to a range of highly anomalous structural behaviours. Here, we demonstrate the extreme compressibility of the LnFe(CN)6 frameworks (Ln = Ho, Lu or Y), which reversibly compress by 20% in volume under the relatively low pressure of 1 GPa, one of the largest known pressure responses for any crystalline material. We delineate in detail the mechanism for this high compressibility, where the LnN6 units act like torsion springs synchronized by rigid Fe(CN)6 units performing the role of gears. The materials also show significant negative linear compressibility via a cam-like effect. The torsional mechanism is fundamentally distinct from the deformation mechanisms prevalent in other flexible solids and relies on competition between locally unstable metal coordination geometries and the constraints of the framework connectivity, a discovery that has implications for the strategic design of new materials with exceptional mechanical properties.

17.
Acta Crystallogr B Struct Sci Cryst Eng Mater ; 71(Pt 6): 648-60, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26634721

RESUMO

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are promising solid sorbents, showing gas selectivity and uptake capacities relevant to many important applications, notably in the energy sector. To improve and tailor the sorption properties of these materials for such applications, it is necessary to gain an understanding of their working mechanisms at the atomic and molecular scale. Specifically, it is important to understand how features such as framework porosity, topology, chemical functionality and flexibility underpin sorbent behaviour and performance. Such information is obtained through interrogation of structure-function relationships, with neutron powder diffraction (NPD) being a particularly powerful characterization tool. The combination of NPD with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations enables a deep understanding of the sorption mechanisms, and the resulting insights can direct the future development of MOF sorbents. In this paper, experimental approaches and investigations of two example MOFs are summarized, which demonstrate the type of information and the understanding into their functional mechanisms that can be gained. Such information is critical to the strategic design of new materials with targeted gas-sorption properties.

18.
ChemSusChem ; 8(17): 2826-53, 2015 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26223736

RESUMO

The ability to directly track the charge carrier in a battery as it inserts/extracts from an electrode during charge/discharge provides unparalleled insight for researchers into the working mechanism of the device. This crystallographic-electrochemical information can be used to design new materials or modify electrochemical conditions to improve battery performance characteristics, such as lifetime. Critical to collecting operando data used to obtain such information in situ while a battery functions are X-ray and neutron diffractometers with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to capture complex and subtle structural changes. The number of operando battery experiments has dramatically increased in recent years, particularly those involving neutron powder diffraction. Herein, the importance of structure-property relationships to understanding battery function, why in situ experimentation is critical to this, and the types of experiments and electrochemical cells required to obtain such information are described. For each battery type, selected research that showcases the power of in situ and operando diffraction experiments to understand battery function is highlighted and future opportunities for such experiments are discussed. The intention is to encourage researchers to use in situ and operando techniques and to provide a concise overview of this area of research.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Eletrodos , Difração de Pó , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
19.
IUCrJ ; 2(Pt 2): 292-304, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25866665

RESUMO

In situ and in operando studies are commonplace and necessary in functional materials research. This review highlights recent developments in the analysis of functional materials using state-of-the-art in situ and in operando X-ray and neutron scattering and analysis. Examples are given covering a number of important materials areas, alongside a description of the types of information that can be obtained and the experimental setups used to acquire them.

20.
J Vis Exp ; (93): e52284, 2014 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406578

RESUMO

Li-ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices and are considered as promising candidates for higher-energy applications such as electric vehicles. However, many challenges, such as energy density and battery lifetimes, need to be overcome before this particular battery technology can be widely implemented in such applications. This research is challenging, and we outline a method to address these challenges using in situ NPD to probe the crystal structure of electrodes undergoing electrochemical cycling (charge/discharge) in a battery. NPD data help determine the underlying structural mechanism responsible for a range of electrode properties, and this information can direct the development of better electrodes and batteries. We briefly review six types of battery designs custom-made for NPD experiments and detail the method to construct the 'roll-over' cell that we have successfully used on the high-intensity NPD instrument, WOMBAT, at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO). The design considerations and materials used for cell construction are discussed in conjunction with aspects of the actual in situ NPD experiment and initial directions are presented on how to analyze such complex in situ data.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Lítio/química , Difração de Nêutrons/instrumentação , Cátions Monovalentes/química , Eletrodos , Difração de Nêutrons/métodos , Difração de Pó
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