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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502745

RESUMO

Congenital limb malformations (CLM) comprise many conditions affecting limbs and more than 150 associated genes have been reported. Due to this large heterogeneity, a high proportion of patients remains without a molecular diagnosis. In the last two decades, advances in high throughput sequencing have allowed new methodological strategies in clinical practice. Herein, we report the screening of 52 genes/regulatory sequences by multiplex high-throughput targeted sequencing, in a series of 352 patients affected with various CLM, over a 3-year period of time. Patients underwent a clinical triage by expert geneticists in CLM. A definitive diagnosis was achieved in 35.2% of patients, the yield varying considerably, depending on the phenotype. We identified 112 single nucleotide variants and 26 copy-number variations, of which 52 are novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. In 6% of patients, variants of uncertain significance have been found in good candidate genes. We showed that multiplex targeted high-throughput sequencing works as an efficient and cost-effective tool in clinical practice for molecular diagnosis of congenital limb malformations. Careful clinical evaluation of patients may maximize the yield of CLM panel testing.

2.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

3.
Epigenetics Chromatin ; 12(1): 48, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gonadotrope lineage differentiation is a stepwise process taking place during pituitary development. The early step of gonadotrope lineage specification is characterized by the expression of the Nr5a1 transcription factor, a crucial factor for gonadotrope cell fate determination. Abnormalities affecting Nr5a1 expression lead to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and infertility. Although significant knowledge has been gained on the signaling and transcriptional events controlling gonadotrope differentiation, epigenetic mechanisms regulating Nr5a1 expression during early gonadotrope lineage specification are still poorly understood. RESULTS: Using ATAC chromatin accessibility analyses on three cell lines recapitulating gradual stages of gonadotrope differentiation and in vivo on developing pituitaries, we demonstrate that a yet undescribed enhancer is transiently recruited during gonadotrope specification. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we show that this enhancer is mandatory for the emergence of Nr5a1 during gonadotrope specification. Furthermore, we identify a highly conserved estrogen-binding element and demonstrate that the enhancer activation is dependent upon estrogen acting through ERα. Lastly, we provide evidence that binding of ERα is crucial for chromatin remodeling of Nr5a1 enhancer and promoter, leading to RNA polymerase recruitment and transcription. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the earliest regulatory sequence involved in gonadotrope lineage specification and highlights the key epigenetic role played by ERα in this differentiation process.

4.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273343

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To date, heterozygous or homozygous COL12A1 variants have been reported in 13 patients presenting with a clinical phenotype overlapping with collagen VI-related myopathies and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The small number of reported patients limits thorough investigation of this newly identified syndrome, currently coined as myopathic EDS. METHODS: DNA from 78 genetically unresolved patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for myopathic EDS was sequenced using a next-generation panel of COL12A1, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3. RESULTS: Among this cohort, we identified four pathogenic heterozygous in-frame exon skipping (∆) defects in COL12A1, clustering to the thrombospondin N-terminal region and the adjacent collagenous domain (Δ52, Δ53, Δ54, and Δ56 respectively), one heterozygous COL12A1 arginine-to-cysteine substitution of unclear significance (p.(Arg1863Cys)), and compound heterozygous pathogenic COL6A1 variants (c.[98-6G>A];[301C>T]) in one proband. Variant-specific intracellular accumulation of collagen XII chains, extracellular overmodification of the long isoform and near-absence of the short isoform of collagen XII, and extracellular decrease of decorin and tenascin-X were observed for the COL12A1 variants. In contrast, the COL6A1 variants abolished collagen VI and V deposition and increased tenascin-X levels. CONCLUSION: Our data further support the significant clinical overlap between myopathic EDS and collagen VI-related myopathies, and emphasize the variant-specific consequences of collagen XII defects.

5.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327046

RESUMO

In mammalian ovaries, the theca layers of growing follicles are critical for maintaining their structural integrity and supporting androgen synthesis. Through combining the postnatal monitoring of ovaries by abdominal magnetic resonance imaging, endocrine profiling, hormonal analysis of the follicular fluid of growing follicles, and transcriptomic analysis of follicular theca cells, we provide evidence that the exposure of ovine fetuses to testosterone excess activates postnatal follicular growth and strongly affects the functions of follicular theca in adulthood. Prenatal exposure to testosterone impaired androgen synthesis in the small antral follicles of adults and affected the expression in their theca cells of a wide array of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, their membrane receptors, and signaling pathways. Most expression changes were uncorrelated with the concentrations of gonadotropins, steroids, and anti-Müllerian hormone in the recent hormonal environment of theca cells, suggesting that these changes rather result from the long-term developmental effects of testosterone on theca cell precursors in fetal ovaries. Disruptions of the extracellular matrix structure and signaling in the follicular theca and ovarian cortex can explain the acceleration of follicle growth through altering the stiffness of ovarian tissue. We propose that these mechanisms participate in the etiology of the polycystic ovarian syndrome, a major reproductive pathology in woman.

6.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316167

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups. RESULTS: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.

7.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 108, 2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a group of congenital skeletal disorders which may occur either as an isolated abnormality or in syndromic forms with extra-limb manifestations. Chromosomal micro-duplication or micro-triplication involving 17p13.3 region has been described as the most common cause of split hand/foot malformation with long bone deficiency (SHFLD) in several different Caucasian and Asian populations. Gene dosage effect of the extra copies of BHLHA9 gene at this locus has been implicated in the pathogenesis of SHFLD. CASE PRESENTATION: The proband was a female child born to non-consanguineous parents. She was referred for genetic evaluation of bilateral asymmetric ectrodactyly involving both hands and right foot along with right tibial hemimelia. The right foot had fixed clubfoot deformity with only 2 toes. The mother had bilateral ectrodactyly involving both hands, but the rest of the upper limbs and both lower limbs were normal. Neither of them had any other congenital malformations or neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Genetic testing for rearrangement of BHLHA9 gene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed the duplication of the BHLHA9 gene in both the proband and the mother. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first Sri Lankan family with genetic diagnosis of BHLHA9 duplication causing SHFLD. This report along with the previously reported cases corroborate the possible etiopathogenic role of BHLHA9 gene dosage imbalances in SHFM and SHFLD across different populations.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1351-1356, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050392

RESUMO

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a genetically heterogeneous congenital limb malformation typically limited to a defect of the central rays of the autopod, presenting as a median cleft of hands and feet. It can be associated with long bone deficiency or included in more complex syndromes. Among the numerous genetic causes, WNT10B homozygous variants have been recently identified in consanguineous families, but remain still rarely described (SHFM6; MIM225300). We report on three novel SHFM families harboring WNT10B variants and review the literature, allowing us to highlight some clinical findings. The feet are more severely affected than the hands and there is a frequent asymmetry without obvious side-bias. Syndactyly of third-fourth fingers was a frequent finding (62%). Polydactyly, which was classically described in SHFM6, was only present in 27% of patients. No genotype-phenotype correlation is delineated but heterozygous individuals might have mild features of SHFM, suggesting a dose-effect of the WNT10B loss-of-function.

10.
J Exp Med ; 216(5): 1199-1213, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936263

RESUMO

Cellular innate immune sensors of DNA are essential for host defense against invading pathogens. However, the presence of self-DNA inside cells poses a risk of triggering unchecked immune responses. The mechanisms limiting induction of inflammation by self-DNA are poorly understood. BLM RecQ-like helicase is essential for genome integrity and is deficient in Bloom syndrome (BS), a rare genetic disease characterized by genome instability, accumulation of micronuclei, susceptibility to cancer, and immunodeficiency. Here, we show that BLM-deficient fibroblasts show constitutive up-regulation of inflammatory interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, which is mediated by the cGAS-STING-IRF3 cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. Increased DNA damage or down-regulation of the cytoplasmic exonuclease TREX1 enhances ISG expression in BLM-deficient fibroblasts. cGAS-containing cytoplasmic micronuclei are increased in BS cells. Finally, BS patients demonstrate elevated ISG expression in peripheral blood. These results reveal that BLM limits ISG induction, thus connecting DNA damage to cellular innate immune response, which may contribute to human pathogenesis.

11.
Clin Genet ; 95(3): 384-397, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30614526

RESUMO

Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an emblematic ciliopathy associated with retinal dystrophy, obesity, postaxial polydactyly, learning disabilities, hypogonadism and renal dysfunction. Before birth, enlarged/cystic kidneys as well as polydactyly are the hallmark signs of BBS to consider in absence of familial history. However, these findings are not specific to BBS, raising the problem of differential diagnoses and prognosis. Molecular diagnosis during pregnancies remains a timely challenge for this heterogeneous disease (22 known genes). We report here the largest cohort of BBS fetuses to better characterize the antenatal presentation. Prenatal ultrasound (US) and/or autopsy data from 74 fetuses with putative BBS diagnosis were collected out of which molecular diagnosis was established in 51 cases, mainly in BBS genes (45 cases) following the classical gene distribution, but also in other ciliopathy genes (6 cases). Based on this, an updated diagnostic decision tree is proposed. No genotype/phenotype correlation could be established but postaxial polydactyly (82%) and renal cysts (78%) were the most prevalent symptoms. However, autopsy revealed polydactyly that was missed by prenatal US in 55% of the cases. Polydactyly must be carefully looked for in pregnancies with apparently isolated renal anomalies in fetuses.

12.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 29(2): 114-126, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598237

RESUMO

Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a rare autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by progressive motor and respiratory decline during the first year of life. Early and late-onset cases have recently been reported, although not meeting the established diagnostic criteria, these cases have been genotyped. We thus conducted a national multicenter observational retrospective study to determine the prognosis of children with SMARD1 according to their phenotype. We recorded all known French pediatric cases with mutations identified on the immunoglobulin µ-binding protein 2 gene and the presence of respiratory symptoms. Thirty centers provided 22 observations. A diaphragmatic palsy was diagnosed 1.5 months (p = 0.02) after first respiratory symptoms, and hypotonia preceded areflexia by 4 months (p = 0.02). Early onset of symptoms leading to specialist consultation before the age of 3 months was associated with a significantly worse prognosis (p < 0.01). Among the 6 patients who were still alive, all were tracheostomized. Only one case survived beyond 2 years without artificial ventilation. The remaining patients died at a median age of 7 months. Our results may help pediatricians to provide medical information to parents and improve the decision-making process of setting up life support.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(4): 525-534, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30622331

RESUMO

Split-hand-split-foot malformation (SHFM) is a rare condition that occurs in 1 in 8500-25,000 newborns and accounts for 15% of all limb reduction defects. SHFM is heterogeneous and can be isolated, associated with other malformations, or syndromic. The mode of inheritance is mostly autosomal dominant with incomplete penetrance, but can be X-linked or autosomal recessive. Seven loci are currently known: SHFM1 at 7q21.2q22.1 (DLX5 gene), SHFM2 at Xq26, SHFM3 at 10q24q25, SHFM4 at 3q27 (TP63 gene), SHFM5 at 2q31 and SHFM6 as a result of variants in WNT10B (chromosome 12q13). Duplications at 17p13.3 are seen in SHFM when isolated or associated with long bone deficiency. Tandem genomic duplications at chromosome 10q24 involving at least the DACTYLIN gene are associated with SHFM3. No point variant in any of the genes residing within the region has been identified so far, but duplication of exon 1 of the BTRC gene may explain the phenotype, with likely complex alterations of gene regulation mechanisms that would impair limb morphogenesis. We report on 32 new index cases identified by array-CGH and/or by qPCR, including some prenatal ones, leading to termination for the most severe. Twenty-two cases were presenting with SHFM and 7 with monodactyly only. Three had an overlapping phenotype. Additional findings were identified in 5 (renal dysplasia, cutis aplasia, hypogonadism and agenesis of corpus callosum with hydrocephalus). We present their clinical and radiological findings and review the literature on this rearrangement that seems to be one of the most frequent cause of SHFM.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 213-228, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639323

RESUMO

Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.

15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 360-368, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552424

RESUMO

Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS) is an autosomal dominant condition characterised by the association of congenital heart defect (CHD), with or without rhythm disturbances and radial defects, due to TBX5 variants. The diagnosis is challenged by the variability of expression and the large phenotypic overlap with other conditions, like Okihiro syndrome, TAR syndrome or Fanconi disease. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients referred for suspicion of HOS between 2002 and 2014, who underwent TBX5 screening. A TBX5 variant has been identified in 78 patients, representing the largest molecular series ever described. In the cohort, 61 met the previously described diagnostic criteria and 17 have been considered with an uncertain HOS diagnosis. A CHD was present in 91% of the patients with a TBX5 variant, atrial septal defects being the most common (61.5%). The genotype-phenotype study highlights the importance of some critical features in HOS: the septal characteristic of the CHD, the bilateral and asymmetric characteristics of the radial defect and the presence of shoulder or elbow mobility defect. Besides, 21 patients presented with an overlapping condition. Among them, 13 had a typical HOS presentation. We discuss the strategies that could be adopted to improve the molecular delineation of the remaining typical patients.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Comunicação Interatrial/genética , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Inferiores/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Superiores/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Cardiopatias Congênitas/patologia , Comunicação Interatrial/patologia , Humanos , Lactente , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Inferiores/patologia , Mutação , Deformidades Congênitas das Extremidades Superiores/patologia
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

17.
J Endocrinol ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30403655

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) regulates ovarian function in cyclic females, notably by preventing premature FSH-mediated follicular growth and steroidogenesis. Its expression in growing follicles is controlled by FSH and by estradiol (E2). In infantile females, there is a transient increase in the activity of the gonadotrope axis, as reflected by elevated levels of both gonadotropins and E2. We previously demonstrated in mice that elevated FSH concentrations are necessary to induce E2 production by preantral/early antral follicles through the stimulation of aromatase expression without supporting their growth. However, whether this action of FSH could involve AMH is unknown. Here, we show that Amh mRNA and protein abundance and serum AMH levels are elevated in infantile mouse females, as compared with those in adults. By experimentally manipulating FSH and E2 levels in infantile mice, we demonstrate that high FSH concentrations lower Amh expression specifically in preantral/early antral follicles, whereas E2 has no effect. Importantly, treatment of infantile ovaries in organotypic cultures with AMH decreases FSH-mediated expression of Cyp19a1 aromatase but it does not alter the expression of cyclin D2 mediating granulosa cell proliferation. Overall, our data indicate that the infantile elevation in FSH levels suppresses Amh expression in preantral/early antral follicles, thereby favoring Cyp19a1 aromatase expression and E2 production. Together with recent discoveries that AMH can act on both the hypothalamus and the pituitary to increase gonadotropin levels, this work suggests that AMH is a critical regulator of the gonadotrope axis during the infantile period, thereby contributing to adult reproductive function programming.

18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

19.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30143806

RESUMO

Red cell polymorphisms can provide evidence of human migration and adaptation patterns. In Eurasia, the distribution of Diego blood group system polymorphisms remains unaddressed. To shed light on the dispersal of the Dia antigen, we performed analyses of correlations between the frequencies of DI*01 allele, C2-M217 and C2-M401 Y-chromosome haplotypes ascribed as being of Mongolian-origin and language affiliations, in 75 Eurasian populations including DI*01 frequency data from the HGDP-CEPH panel. We revealed that DI*01 reaches its highest frequency in Mongolia, Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan, expanding southward and westward across Asia with Altaic-speaking nomadic carriers of C2-M217, and even more precisely C2-M401, from their homeland presumably in Mongolia, between the third century BCE and the thirteenth century CE. The present study has highlighted the gene-culture co-migration with the demographic movements that occurred during the past two millennia in Central and East Asia. Additionally, this work contributes to a better understanding of the distribution of immunogenic erythrocyte polymorphisms with a view to improve transfusion safety.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0201494, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30052687

RESUMO

Reproductive function is under the control of the neurohormone GnRH, which activates a G-protein-coupled receptor (GnRHR) expressed in pituitary gonadotrope cells. GnRHR activates a complex signaling network to regulate synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropin hormones, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone, both regulating gametogenesis and steroidogenesis in gonads. Recently, in an attempt to identify the mechanisms underlying GnRHR signaling plasticity, we identified the first interacting partner of GnRHR, the proto-oncogene SET. We showed that SET binds to intracellular domains of GnRHR to enhance its coupling to cAMP pathway in αT3-1 gonadotrope cells. Here, we demonstrate that SET protein is rapidly regulated by GnRH, which increases SET phosphorylation state and decreases dose-dependently SET protein level. Our results highlight a post-translational regulation of SET protein involving the proteasome pathway. We determined that SET phosphorylation upon GnRH stimulation is mediated by PKC and that PKC mediates GnRH-induced SET down-regulation. Phosphorylation on serine 9 targets SET for degradation into the proteasome. Furthermore, a non-phosphorylatable SET mutant on serine 9 is resistant to GnRH-induced down-regulation. Altogether, these data suggest that GnRH-induced SET phosphorylation on serine 9 mediates SET protein down-regulation through the proteasome pathway. Noteworthy, SET down-regulation was also observed in response to pulsatile GnRH stimulation in LßT2 gonadotrope cells as well as in vivo in prepubertal female mice supporting its physiological relevance. In conclusion, this study highlights a regulation of SET protein by the neurohormone GnRH and identifies some of the mechanisms involved.

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