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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The protozoan parasites in the Cryptosporidium genus cause both acute diarrheal disease and subclinical (i.e. non-diarrheal) disease. It is unclear if the microbiota can influence the manifestation of diarrhea during a Cryptosporidium infection. METHODS: To characterize the role of the gut microbiota in diarrheal cryptosporidiosis, the microbiome composition of both diarrheal and surveillance Cryptosporidium-positive fecal samples from 72 infants was evaluated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Additionally, the microbiome composition prior to infection was examined to test whether a preexisting microbiome profile could influence the Cryptosporidium infection phenotype. RESULTS: Fecal microbiome composition was associated with diarrheal symptoms at two timepoints. Megasphaera was significantly less abundant in diarrheal samples when compared to subclinical samples at the time of Cryptosporidium detection (log2(fold change) = -4.3, p=10 -10) and prior to infection (log2(fold change) = -2.0, p=10 -4); this assigned sequence variant was detected in 8 children who had diarrhea and 30 children without diarrhea. Random forest classification also identified Megasphaera abundance in the pre- and post-exposure microbiota as predictive of a subclinical infection. CONCLUSIONS: Microbiome composition broadly, and specifically low Megasphaera abundance, was associated with diarrheal symptoms prior to and at the time of Cryptosporidium detection. This observation suggests that the gut microenvironment may play a role in determining the severity of a Cryptosporidium infection.

2.
Infect Immun ; 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649051

RESUMO

Shigella is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea globally and the causative agent of shigellosis and bacillary dysentery. Associated with 80-165 million cases of diarrhea and over 13% of diarrheal deaths, in many regions Shigella exposure is ubiquitous while infection is heterogenous. To characterize host-genetic susceptibility to Shigella-associated diarrhea, we performed two independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) including Bangladeshi infants from the PROVIDE and CBC birth cohorts in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Cases were infants with Shigella-associated diarrhea (n=143) and controls were infants with no Shigella-associated diarrhea in the first 13 months of life (n=446). Shigella-associated diarrhea was identified via qPCR Ct distributions for the ipaH gene, carried by all four Shigella species and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli Host GWAS were performed under an additive genetic model. A joint analysis identified protective loci on chromosomes 11 (rs582240, within the KRT18P59 pseudogene, P=6.40x10-8, OR=0.43) and 8 (rs12550437, within the lincRNA RP11-115J16.1, P=1.49x10-7, OR=0.48). Conditional analyses identified two previously suggestive loci, a protective locus on chromosome 7 (rs10266841, within the 3'-UTR of CYTH3, Pconditional=1.48x10-7, OR=0.44) and a risk-associated locus on chromosome 10 (rs2801847, an intronic variant within MPP7, Pconditional=8.37x10-8, OR=5.51). These loci have all been indirectly linked to bacterial Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS) activity, its components, and bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Host genetic factors that may affect bacterial T3SS activity and are associated with the host response to Shigella-associated diarrhea may provide insight into vaccine and drug development efforts for Shigella-associated diarrheal disease.

3.
Trends Parasitol ; 37(2): 165-175, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33502317

RESUMO

The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis, an infection that manifests as colitis and, in some cases, liver abscess. A better understanding of host protective factors is key to developing an effective remedy. Recently, significant advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of MUC2 production by goblet cells upon amebic infection, regulation of antimicrobial peptide production by Paneth cells, the interaction of commensal microbiota with immune stimulation, and host genetics in conferring protection from amebiasis. In addition to host pathways that may serve as potential therapeutic targets, significant progress has also been made with respect to development of a vaccine against amebiasis. Here, we aim to highlight the current understanding and knowledge gaps critically.


Assuntos
Entamebíase/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Entamoeba histolytica , Entamebíase/genética , Entamebíase/parasitologia , Entamebíase/prevenção & controle , Células Caliciformes/imunologia , Células Caliciformes/parasitologia , Humanos , Mucina-2/imunologia , Celulas de Paneth/imunologia , Proteínas Citotóxicas Formadoras de Poros/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389260

RESUMO

Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a global health issue, and rapid and accurate testing is a key to diagnosis. We aimed to assess the performance of two novel enzyme immunoassays (EIA), the H. PYLORI QUIK CHEK™ and the H. PYLORI CHEK™ assays, for the detection of H. pylori antigen in stool. Patients from five geographically diverse sites across the USA, Germany, and in Bangladesh were tested for infection with Helicobacter pylori with the two novel stool antigen tests and two commercially available stool antigen assays. All patients provided a stool sample and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy for biopsy. Results were compared to a clinical diagnosis using a composite reference method consisting of histological analysis and rapid urease testing of the biopsy. A total of 271 patients, 68.2% female and mean age of 46 years, were included. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection was 24.1%. The sensitivity of the H. PYLORI QUIK CHEK™ and H. PYLORI CHEK™ was 92% and 91%, respectively. The specificity of H. PYLORI QUIK CHEK™ and H. PYLORI CHEK™ was 91% and 100%, respectively. No significant cross-reactivity against other gut pathogens was observed. The H. PYLORI QUIK CHEK™ and H. PYLORI CHEK™ assays demonstrate excellent clinical performance compared the composite reference method.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399861

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrheal pathogens have been associated with linear growth deficits. The effect of diarrheal pathogens on growth is likely due to inflammation which also adversely affects neurodevelopment. We hypothesized that diarrheagenic pathogens would be negatively associated with both growth and neurodevelopment. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal birth cohort study of 250 children with diarrheal surveillance and measured pathogen burden in diarrheal samples using quantitative PCR. Pathogen attributable fraction estimates (AFe) of diarrhea over the first two years of life, corrected for socioeconomic variables, were used to predict both growth and scores on the Bayley III Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. RESULTS: 180 children were analyzed for growth and 162 for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Rotavirus, Campylobacter, and Shigella were the leading causes of diarrhea in year 1 while Shigella, Campylobacter, and ST-ETEC were the leading causes in year 2. Norovirus was the only pathogen associated with LAZ at 24 months and was positively associated (RC 0.42, CI 0.04, 0.80). Norovirus (RC 2.46, CI 0.05 - 4.87) was also positively associated with cognitive scores while sapovirus (RC -2.64, CI -4.80 - -0.48) and Typical EPEC (RC -4.14, CI -8.02 - -0.27) were inversely associated. No pathogens were associated with language or motor scores. Significant maternal, socioeconomic, and perinatal predictors were identified for both growth and neurodevelopment. CONCLUSION: Maternal, prenatal, and socioeconomic factors were common predictors of growth and neurodevelopment. Only a limited number of diarrheal pathogens were associated with these outcomes.

6.
Reprod Health ; 17(Suppl 2): 148, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research (Global Network, GN) has established the Maternal Newborn Health Registry (MNHR) to assess MNH outcomes over time. Bangladesh is the newest country in the GN and has implemented a full electronic MNH registry system, from married women surveillance to pregnancy enrollment and subsequent follow ups. METHOD: Like other GN sites, the Bangladesh MNHR is a prospective, population-based observational study that tracks pregnancies and MNH outcomes. The MNHR site is in the Ghatail and Kalihati sub-districts of the Tangail district. The study area consists of 12 registry clusters each of ~ 18,000-19,000 population. All pregnant women identified through a two-monthly house-to-house surveillance are enrolled in the registry upon consenting and followed up on scheduled visits until 42 days after pregnancy outcome. A comprehensive automated registry data capture system has been developed that allows for married women surveillance, pregnancy enrollment, and data collection during follow-up visits using a web-linked tablet-PC-based system. RESULT: During March-May 2019, a total of 56,064 households located were listed in the Bangladesh MNH registry site. Of the total 221,462 population covered, 49,269 were currently married women in reproductive age (CMWRA). About 13% CMWRA were less susceptible to pregnancy. Large variability was observed in selected contraceptive usage across clusters. Overall, 5% of the listed CMWRAs were reported as currently pregnant. CONCLUSION: In comparison to paper-pen capturing system electronic data capturing system (EDC) has advantages of less error-prone data collection, real-time data collection progress monitoring, data quality check and sharing. But the implementation of EDC in a resource-poor setting depends on technical infrastructure, skilled staff, software development, community acceptance and a data security system. Our experience of pregnancy registration, intervention coverage, and outcome tracking provides important contextualized considerations for both design and implementation of individual-level health information capturing and sharing systems.

7.
J Trop Pediatr ; 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099650

RESUMO

AIM: There is insufficient knowledge on the * duodenal histology and Helicobacter pylori infection in malnourished Bangladeshi children. Therefore, we attempted to explore the prevalence of H. pylori infection and duodenal histopathology in 2-year-old chronic malnourished Bangladeshi slum-dwelling children and investigate their association with dyspeptic symptoms. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the data of the Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction study in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. With a view to address the association of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) with stunting, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed on 54 chronic malnourished children {31 stunted [length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) <-2] and 23 at risk of stunting (LAZ <-1 to -2)} aged between 12-24 months and the mucosal biopsies were subjected to histopathological examination after obtaining proper clinical history. Stool antigen for H. pylori (HpSA) was assessed to determine H. pylori status. RESULTS: In all, 83.3% (45/54) of the children had histopathological evidence of duodenitis. Chronic mild duodenitis was found to be the most prevalent form of duodenitis (53.7%) in the children. Only 8.9% (4/45) of the children with duodenitis had dyspepsia (p < 0.05). The 14.8% (8/54) of the children were found positive for H. pylori infection. Logistic regression analysis revealed children positive for HpSA had significant association with dyspepsia (OR 9.34; 95% CI 1.54-56.80). CONCLUSIONS: The number of chronic malnourished children suffering from duodenitis was found to be very high. Majority of these children was asymptomatic. Children positive for HpSA had significant association with dyspeptic symptoms.

8.
J Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011801

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) represents a significant burden on the health care system, one that is exacerbated by the emergence of binary toxin (CDT)-producing hypervirulent C. difficile strains. Previous work from our lab has shown that TLR2 recognizes CDT to induce inflammation. Here we explore the interactions of CDT with TLR2 and the impact on host immunity during CDI. We found that the TLR2/6 heterodimer, not TLR2/1, is responsible for CDT recognition, and that gene pathways including NF-κB and MAPK downstream of TLR2/6 are upregulated in mice with intact TLR2/6 signaling during CDI.

9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078702

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is common in early childhood, and both diarrheal and subclinical infections are associated with adverse developmental outcomes. Improved therapeutic medications may help reduce the burden of cryptosporidial diarrhea; however, an effective vaccine would be better able to prevent the detrimental impact of both diarrheal and subclinical disease. A more complete understanding of naturally occurring immunity may further inform strategies to develop an effective vaccine. In this prospective cohort study of Bangladeshi children, greater fecal IgA at 12 months, but not plasma IgG, directed against two sporozoite-expressed, immunodominant and vaccine candidate antigens was associated with delayed time to subsequent cryptosporidiosis to 3 years of life. These findings extend prior work and further support the role of mucosal antibody responses in naturally developing protective immunity to Cryptosporidium.

10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33104186

RESUMO

In this article, the editors of Clinical Infectious Diseases review some of the most important lessons they have learned about the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection and identify essential questions about COVID-19 that remain to be answered.

11.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 221, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Event-related potentials (ERP) data are widely used in brain studies that measure brain responses to specific stimuli using electroencephalogram (EEG) with multiple electrodes. Previous ERP data analyses haven't accounted for the structured correlation among observations in ERP data from multiple electrodes, and therefore ignored the electrode-specific information and variation among the electrodes on the scalp. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of early adversity on brain connectivity by identifying risk factors and early-stage biomarkers associated with the ERP responses while properly accounting for structured correlation. METHODS: In this study, we extend a penalized generalized estimating equation (PGEE) method to accommodate structured correlation of ERPs that accounts for electrode-specific data and to enable group selection, such that grouped covariates can be evaluated together for their association with brain development in a birth cohort of urban-dwelling Bangladeshi children. The primary ERP responses of interest in our study are N290 amplitude and the difference in N290 amplitude. RESULTS: The selected early-stage biomarkers associated with the N290 responses are representatives of enteric inflammation (days of diarrhea, MIP1b, retinol binding protein (RBP), Zinc, myeloperoxidase (MPO), calprotectin, and neopterin), systemic inflammation (IL-5, IL-10, ferritin, C Reactive Protein (CRP)), socioeconomic status (household expenditure), maternal health (mother height) and sanitation (water treatment). CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed group penalized GEE estimator with structured correlation matrix can properly model the complex ERP data and simultaneously identify informative biomarkers associated with such brain connectivity. The selected early-stage biomarkers offer a potential explanation for the adversity of neurocognitive development in low-income countries and facilitate early identification of infants at risk, as well as potential pathways for intervention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The related clinical study was retrospectively registered with https://doi.org/ClinicalTrials.gov , identifier NCT01375647, on June 3, 2011.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940644

RESUMO

In a cohort of infants, we found that lack of the Lewis histo-blood group antigen was associated with increased susceptibility to shigellosis. Broadly inhibiting fucosylation in epithelial cells in vitro decreased invasion by Shigella flexneri. These results support a role for fucosylated glycans in susceptibility to shigellosis.

13.
Anaerobe ; 66: 102275, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971206

RESUMO

Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired gastrointestinal infections in the U.S. While the immune response to C. difficile is not well understood, it has been shown that severe disease is accompanied by high levels of infiltrating immune cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This study tests the roles of two type 2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-5, in mediating protection in a murine model of disease. Administration of IL-5 protected from mortality due to CDI, and both IL-4 and IL-5 were protective against severe disease symptoms. Together, the results from this study increase our understanding of how type 2 immune signaling processes are protective from severe C. difficile infection.

14.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1215-1219, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723427

RESUMO

Murine models of SARS-CoV-2 infection are critical for elucidating the biological pathways underlying COVID-19. Because human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing the human ACE2 gene have shown promise as a potential model for COVID-19. Five mice from the transgenic mouse strain K18-hACE2 were intranasally inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 Hong Kong/VM20001061/2020. Mice were followed twice daily for 5 days and scored for weight loss and clinical symptoms. Infected mice did not exhibit any signs of infection until day 4, when no other obvious clinical symptoms other than weight loss were observed. By day 5, all infected mice had lost around 10% of their original body weight but exhibited variable clinical symptoms. All infected mice showed high viral titers in the lungs as well as altered lung histology associated with proteinaceous debris in the alveolar space, interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, and alveolar septal thickening. Overall, these results show that the K18-hACE2 transgenic background can be used to establish symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and can be a useful mouse model for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Queratina-18/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Pandemias
16.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(8): 715-717, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563557

RESUMO

Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 recognizes and responds to threats early in bacterial infections and can influence the downstream immune response to the host's benefit or detriment. Therapeutic modulation of TLR2 signaling represents an underutilized opportunity to moderate the immune response to infection to promote an improved outcome for the host.

17.
Cell ; 181(7): 1452-1454, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589955

RESUMO

In this issue of Cell, Alavi et al. report that infection by Vibrio cholerae is blocked by gut microbiome-mediated hydrolysis of bile acids. Cholera therefore joins amebic dysentery and Clostridioides difficile colitis as enteric infections profoundly influenced by the microbiome's impact on bile acid metabolism.

18.
Trends Mol Med ; 26(5): 496-507, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359480

RESUMO

Our understanding and utilization of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has jump-started over the past two decades. Recent technological advancements in sequencing and metabolomics have allowed for better characterization of our intestinal microbial counterparts, triggering a surge of excitement in the fields of mucosal immunology and microbiology. This excitement is well founded, as demonstrated by 90% relapse-free cure rates in FMT treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections. Growing evidence suggests that in addition to bacterial factors, the host immune response during C. difficile infection greatly influences disease severity. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in understanding the interplay between immune cells and the microbiota and how they may relate to recovery from C. difficile through FMT therapy.

19.
J Clin Invest ; 130(8): 4019-4024, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369444

RESUMO

The microbiome provides resistance to infection. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate that colonization with the intestinal bacterium Clostridium scindens protects from Entamoeba histolytica colitis via innate immunity. Introduction of C. scindens into the gut microbiota epigenetically altered and expanded bone marrow granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) and resulted in increased intestinal neutrophils with subsequent challenge with E. histolytica. Introduction of C. scindens alone was sufficient to expand GMPs in gnotobiotic mice. Adoptive transfer of bone marrow from C. scindens-colonized mice into naive mice protected against amebic colitis and increased intestinal neutrophils. Children without E. histolytica diarrhea also had a higher abundance of Lachnoclostridia. Lachnoclostridia C. scindens can metabolize the bile salt cholate, so we measured deoxycholate and discovered that it was increased in the sera of C. scindens-colonized specific pathogen-free and gnotobiotic mice, as well as in children protected from amebiasis. Administration of deoxycholate alone increased GMPs and provided protection from amebiasis. We elucidated a mechanism by which C. scindens and the microbially metabolized bile salt deoxycholic acid alter hematopoietic precursors and provide innate protection from later infection with E. histolytica.

20.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457246

RESUMO

There is a pressing need for biomarker-based models to predict mortality from and recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Risk stratification would enable targeted interventions such as fecal microbiota transplant, antitoxin antibodies, and colectomy for those at highest risk. Because severity of CDI is associated with the immune response, we immune profiled patients at the time of diagnosis. The levels of 17 cytokines in plasma were measured in 341 CDI inpatients. The primary outcome of interest was 90-day mortality. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL-5), suppression of tumorigenicity 2 receptor (sST-2), IL-8, and IL-15 predicted mortality by univariate analysis. After adjusting for demographics and clinical characteristics, the mortality risk (as indicated by the hazard ratio [HR]) was higher for patients in the top 25th percentile for TNF-α (HR = 8.35, P = 0.005) and IL-8 (HR = 4.45, P = 0.01) and lower for CCL-5 (HR = 0.18, P ≤ 0.008). A logistic regression risk prediction model was developed and had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.91 for 90-day mortality and 0.77 for 90-day recurrence. While limited by being single site and retrospective, our work resulted in a model with a substantially greater predictive ability than white blood cell count. In conclusion, immune profiling demonstrated differences between patients in their response to CDI, offering the promise for precision medicine individualized treatment.IMPORTANCE Clostridioides difficile infection is the most common health care-associated infection in the United States with more than 20% patients experiencing symptomatic recurrence. The complex nature of host-bacterium interactions makes it difficult to predict the course of the disease based solely on clinical parameters. In the present study, we built a robust prediction model using representative plasma biomarkers and clinical parameters for 90-day all-cause mortality. Risk prediction based on immune biomarkers and clinical variables may contribute to treatment selection for patients as well as provide insight into the role of immune system in C. difficile pathogenesis.

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