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Front Immunol ; 10: 316, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031743


Background: Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic immune disorders. While some PIDs can manifest with more than one phenotype, signs, and symptoms of various PIDs overlap considerably. Recently, novel defects in immune-related genes and additional variants in previously reported genes responsible for PIDs have been successfully identified by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), allowing the recognition of a broad spectrum of disorders. Objective: To evaluate the strength and weakness of targeted NGS sequencing using custom-made Ion Torrent and Haloplex (Agilent) panels for diagnostics and research purposes. Methods: Five different panels including known and candidate genes were used to screen 105 patients with distinct PID features divided in three main PID categories: T cell defects, Humoral defects and Other PIDs. The Ion Torrent sequencing platform was used in 73 patients. Among these, 18 selected patients without a molecular diagnosis and 32 additional patients were analyzed by Haloplex enrichment technology. Results: The complementary use of the two custom-made targeted sequencing approaches allowed the identification of causative variants in 28.6% (n = 30) of patients. Twenty-two out of 73 (34.6%) patients were diagnosed by Ion Torrent. In this group 20 were included in the SCID/CID category. Eight out of 50 (16%) patients were diagnosed by Haloplex workflow. Ion Torrent method was highly successful for those cases with well-defined phenotypes for immunological and clinical presentation. The Haloplex approach was able to diagnose 4 SCID/CID patients and 4 additional patients with complex and extended phenotypes, embracing all three PID categories in which this approach was more efficient. Both technologies showed good gene coverage. Conclusions: NGS technology represents a powerful approach in the complex field of rare disorders but its different application should be weighted. A relatively small NGS target panel can be successfully applied for a robust diagnostic suspicion, while when the spectrum of clinical phenotypes overlaps more than one PID an in-depth NGS analysis is required, including also whole exome/genome sequencing to identify the causative gene.

Front Immunol ; 10: 130, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30837984


We described for the first time a female patient with the simultaneous presence of two homozygous mutations in MYD88 and CARD9 genes presenting with pyogenic bacterial infections, elevated IgE, and persistent EBV viremia. In addition to defective TLR/IL1R-signaling, we described novel functional alterations into the myeloid compartment. In particular, we demonstrated a defective production of reactive oxygen species exclusively in monocytes upon E. coli stimulation, the inability of immature mono-derived DCs (iDCs) to differentiate into mature DCs (mDCs) and the incapacity of mono-derived macrophages (MDMs) to resolve BCG infection in vitro. Our data do not provide any evidence for digenic inheritance in our patient, but rather for the association of two monogenic disorders. This case illustrates the importance of using next generation sequencing (NGS) to determine the most accurate and early diagnosis in atypical clinical and immunological phenotypes, and with particular concern in consanguineous families. Indeed, besides the increased susceptibility to recurrent invasive pyogenic bacterial infections due to MYD88 deficiency, the identification of CARD9 mutations underline the risk of developing invasive fungal infections emphasizing the careful monitoring for the occurrence of fungal infection and the opportunity of long-term antifungal prophylaxis.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169837


Background: Assays to estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reservoir size require large amounts of blood, which represents a drawback especially in pediatric settings. We investigated whether HIV-antibody repertoire could estimate the viral reservoir size. Moreover, we assessed the magnitude of HIV-antibody response as a predictor of time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-antibody responses to 10 different viral proteins were evaluated by HIV Western blot (WB) kit and a WB score was assigned to each patient. Patients were classified in 2 subgroups based on the timing of ART initiation (early treated [ET], 0-24 weeks and late treated [LT], >24 weeks). Human immunodeficiency virus-deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction on total peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Logistic regression and principal component analysis were built on these data to test the ability of WB score to predict the expected value of HIV-DNA and the timing of ART initiation. Results: Sixty-nine perinatally HIV-infected children were evaluated. Reduced HIV-specific antibody responses and lower size of HIV-DNA were observed in ET compared with LT patients (P < .001 and P = .02, respectively). We found that WB score correlates with HIV-DNA (P = .032) and timing of ART initiation (P < .001). Based on the logistic regression analysis, we found that WB score can predict the HIV-DNA size and the timing of ART initiation with an Akaike information criterion of -118.13 and -151.51, respectively. Conclusions: Western blot score can estimate HIV-DNA size and timing of ART initiation in long-term virally suppressed children. This rapid, inexpensive, and easily reproducible tool can provide useful information to identify potential candidates for HIV remission studies.

Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30044346


BACKGROUND: Jagunal homolog 1 (JAGN1) gene was identified as a novel responsible for severe congenital neutropenia. The protein encoded by this gene is required for neutrophil differentiation, survival and function in microbial activity. JAGN1-deficient human neutrophils are characterized by alterations in trafficking within the endoplasmic reticulum and golgi compartments because of ultrastructural defects in endoplasmic reticulum and susceptibility to apoptosis. OBSERVATIONS: We report a patient exhibiting an intermittent neutropenia, for which a next-generation sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation in the JAGN1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: The patient extends the clinical variability associated to JAGN1 mutations, and this case highlights the importance of genetic investigations in patients with suspected neutropenia.

Clin Immunol ; 173: 121-123, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27713031


Recombination-activating gene (RAG) 1 and 2 mutations in humans cause T- B- NK+ SCID and Omenn syndrome, but milder phenotypes associated with residual protein activity have been recently described. We report a male patient with a diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) born from non-consanguineous parents, whose immunological phenotype was characterized by severe reduction of B cells and agammaglobulinemia for which several candidate genes were excluded by targeted Sanger sequencing. Next Generation Sequencing revealed two compound heterozygous mutations in the RAG1 gene: the previously described p.R624H, and the novel p.Y728H mutation, as well as the known polymorphism p.H249R. This case reinforces the notion of large phenotypic spectrum in RAG deficiency and opens questions on the management and follow-up of these patients.

Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Pólipos Nasais/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Criança , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Pólipos Nasais/imunologia , Fenótipo