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1.
Panminerva Med ; 2018 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30394713

RESUMO

In the last decades, the use of flexible bronchoscopy (FB) has greatly increased in intensive care, anesthesia and thoracic surgery for diagnostic purpose, management of critical patients and to facilitate airway management for tracheal intubation, one lung ventilation and lung transplant management. The huge availability of endoscopic instruments and devices for airway management has amplified indications and possibilities for bronchoscopic procedures performed by intensive care physicians, anesthesiologist, endoscopists, and surgeons too. These practices need adequate technical skills that can be acquired only through defined learning pathways. This manuscript summarizes the indications and the competencies needed to perform bronchoscopic procedures in intensive care, anesthesia and thoracic surgery settings.

2.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 46(3): 176-183, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30140512

RESUMO

Objective: Management of pain, agitation and delirium (PAD) remains to be a true challenge in critically ill patients. The pharmacological proprieties of dexmedetomidine (DEX) make it an ideal candidate drug for light and cooperative sedation, but many practical questions remain unanswered. This structured consensus from 17 intensivists well experienced on PAD management and DEX use provides indications for the appropriate use of DEX in clinical practice. Methods: A modified RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used. In four predefined patient populations, the clinical scenarios do not properly cope by the current recommended pharmacological strategies (except DEX), and the possible advantages of DEX use were identified and voted for agreement, after reviewing literature data. Results: Three scenarios in medical patients, five scenarios in patients with acute respiratory failure undergoing non-invasive ventilation, three scenarios in patients with cardiac surgery in the early postoperative period and three scenarios in patients with overt delirium were identified as challenging with the current PAD strategies. In these scenarios, the use of DEX was voted as potentially useful by most of the panellists owing to its specific pharmacological characteristics, such as conservation of cognitive function, lack of effects on the respiratory drive, low induction of delirium and analgesia effects. Conclusion: DEX might be considered as a first-line sedative in different scenarios even though conclusive data on its benefits are still lacking.

4.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 19(1): 44-53, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451509

RESUMO

The correct management of acute heart failure continues to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In particular, administering the right type and dose of fluids and drugs, thus avoiding fluid overload while establishing organ perfusion, is of key importance in stabilizing critical patients and improving prognosis. A correct estimate of the fluid volume status, however, may be difficult, as the invasive evaluation of cardiac filling pressures by cardiac catheterization is limited in routine medical practice, and there is no universal consensus on the best tools for its non-invasive evaluation. Here we review current evidence about diagnosis and treatment of fluid volume abnormalities in acute heart failure according to the most recent guidelines.

5.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 84(12): 1377-1386, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The transition of new residents from medical school to the post-graduate clinical environment remains challenging. We hypothesized that an introductory simulation course could improve new residents' performance in anesthesiology. METHODS: The Anesthesiology Residents Induction Month (ARIM) program was designed as a non-clinical simulation training program aiming at providing the theoretical and practical skills to safely approach, as junior anesthesiologists, the operating rooms. For each participant, specific knowledge, procedural skills and non-technical performance were assessed with a pre and post-test approach, before and immediately after the participation in the study. RESULTS: Fifteen first-month residents participated in the study. As compared to pre-test, residents significantly improved in all three evaluated areas. Pre-test knowledge assessment mean improved from 56% to 73% in the post-test (P<0.001). In the procedural skills assessment, pre-test mean improved from 43% to 77% (P<0.001) and non-technical skills assessment improved from 3.17 to 4.61 (in a scale out of seven points) in the post-test (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest that an intensive simulation-based program can be an effective way for first-year residents to rapidly acquire and develop basic skills specific to anesthesiology. There might be benefits to begin residency with a training program aiming at developing and standardizing technical and non-technical skills.

6.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 35(1): 6-24, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28877145

RESUMO

: Procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) has become a widespread practice given the increasing demand to relieve anxiety, discomfort and pain during invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The role of, and credentialing required by, anaesthesiologists and practitioners performing PSA has been debated for years in different guidelines. For this reason, the European Society of Anaesthesiology (ESA) and the European Board of Anaesthesiology have created a taskforce of experts that has been assigned to create an evidence-based guideline and, whenever the evidence was weak, a consensus amongst experts on: the evaluation of adult patients undergoing PSA, the role and competences required for the clinicians to safely perform PSA, the commonly used drugs for PSA, the adverse events that PSA can lead to, the minimum monitoring requirements and post-procedure discharge criteria. A search of the literature from 2003 to 2016 was performed by a professional librarian and the retrieved articles were analysed to allow a critical appraisal according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation method. The Taskforce selected 2248 articles. Where there was insufficiently clear and concordant evidence on a topic, the Rand Appropriateness Method with three rounds of Delphi voting was used to obtain the highest level of consensus among the taskforce experts.These guidelines contain recommendations on PSA in the adult population. It does not address sedation performed in the ICU or in children and it does not aim to provide a legal statement on how PSA should be performed and by whom. The National Societies of Anaesthesiology and Ministries of Health should use this evidence-based document to help decision-making on how PSA should be performed in their countries. The final draft of the document was available to ESA members via the website for 4 weeks with the facility for them to upload their comments. Comments and suggestions of individual members and national Societies were considered and the guidelines were amended accordingly. The ESA guidelines Committee and ESA board finally approved and ratified it before publication.


Assuntos
Analgesia/normas , Anestesiologia/normas , Sedação Consciente/normas , Manejo da Dor/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Adulto , Analgesia/métodos , Anestesiologia/métodos , Sedação Consciente/métodos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Manejo da Dor/métodos
8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 6(12): 948-962, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30629933

RESUMO

The periextubation period represents a crucial moment in the management of critically ill patients. Extubation failure, defined as the need for reintubation within 2-7 days after a planned extubation, is associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation, increased incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia, longer intensive care unit and hospital stays, and increased mortality. Conventional oxygen therapy is commonly used after extubation. Additional methods of non-invasive respiratory support, such as non-invasive ventilation and high-flow nasal therapy, can be used to avoid reintubation. The aim of this Review is to describe the pathophysiological mechanisms of postextubation respiratory failure and the available techniques and strategies of respiratory support to avoid reintubation. We summarise and discuss the available evidence supporting the use of these strategies to achieve a tailored therapy for an individual patient at the bedside.


Assuntos
Extubação/efeitos adversos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Fatores Etários , Extubação/mortalidade , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/etiologia , Obstrução das Vias Respiratórias/terapia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Oxigenoterapia , Período Pós-Operatório , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 45(3): 146-152, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752004

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As the care of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) patients remains heterogeneous, we hypothesized that it may reflect insufficient OSA knowledge/awareness among clinicians. METHODS: OSA Knowledge/Attitude Questionnaire (OSAKA) was translated into Italian and distributed to anaesthetists attending SIAARTI National Congress and Airways courses and Hands-on Workshops from October 2012 to June 2013. RESULTS: In total, 370 anaesthetists returned the questionnaires (response rate, 62%); the median (interquartile range [IQR]) knowledge score was 12 (10-14), and the range was 1-17 with no difference by gender, age, professional title or years of practice. The knowledge items achieved a mean rate of corrected response of 66%±0.14%. With regard to attitude items, median (IQR) score was 15 (13-17) and range was 0-20. Females and anaesthetists with >15 years of practice reached higher scores, while anaesthesia residents showed a lower attitude score. Gender and professional title were statistically associated with the attitude score (gender: F=14.6, p=0.0002; professional title: F=4.72, p=0.0099), whereas a weak association was observed within years in practice and attitude score (F=2.6, p=0.0519). Knowledge score correlated positively with attitude score (r=0.4, p<0.0001). For knowledge domains, there was a positive correlation between pathophysiology (mid-grade: r=0.3, p<0.0001), symptoms (low grade: r=0.2, p<0.0001), diagnosis (mid grade: r=0.3, p<0.0001) and the attitude score. Correlation close to zero was observed for epidemiology and treatment domains (r=0.09, p=0.06; r=-0.01, p=0.78, respectively). CONCLUSION: The results of our survey demonstrate lack of knowledge about OSA and its treatment, revealing the need to update the syllabus of teaching in medical practice and in national health care policies to improve perioperative care.

10.
Turk J Anaesthesiol Reanim ; 45(2): 76-82, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28439437

RESUMO

In the crowded world of supraglottic airway devices (SADs), many papers compare the easiness of insertion based on the different endpoints of an operator's satisfaction: first pass success, ventilation effectiveness, complications and morbidity. Proseal LMA™ (Laryngeal Mask Airway, Teleflex Medical, Dublin, Ireland) has been extensively studied because on one hand it has a steeper learning curve and more complex insertion when compared with other SADs and on the other hand many alternative techniques are available to facilitate insertion. This research is part of a larger body of studies exploring the issue that some devices are more difficult to insert because of many features related to sizing, constructive material, airway conduit and cuff design, performance and last but not least experience. Nevertheless, the biggest question might be the search for a systematic categorization of insertion difficulty features and identification of criteria allowing the choice for the best device and consequently for the best insertion technique. Given that, as a result of many intrinsic characteristics of the device we are using, insertion might become the secondary issue to be considered only after we clearly identify what makes it difficult, and to be counterbalanced on the results we expect from the device, performance we can achieve and degree of airway protection it could grant. The aim of this narrative review is to consider which factors might affect or condition SAD insertion difficulty and to try identifying some criteria addressing physicians pertaining to the use of SADs in clinical practice.

12.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 34(1): 4-7, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27548778

RESUMO

These European Board of Anaesthesiology (EBA) recommendations for safe medication practice replace the first edition of the EBA recommendations published in 2011. They were updated because evidence from critical incident reporting systems continues to show that medication errors remain a major safety issue in anaesthesia, intensive care, emergency medicine and pain medicine, and there is an ongoing need for relevant up-to-date clinical guidance for practising anaesthesiologists. The recommendations are based on evidence wherever possible, with a focus on patient safety, and are primarily aimed at anaesthesiologists practising in Europe, although many will be applicable elsewhere. They emphasise the importance of correct labelling practice and the value of incident reporting so that lessons can be learned, risks reduced and a safety culture developed.


Assuntos
Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesiologia/normas , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Gestão da Segurança/normas , Anestesia/métodos , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Rotulagem de Medicamentos/normas , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Gestão da Segurança/métodos
13.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 82(12): 1314-1335, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27759743

RESUMO

Proper management of obese patients requires a team vision and appropriate behaviors by all health care providers in hospital. Specialist competencies are fundamental, as are specific clinical pathways and good clinical practices designed to deal with patients whose Body Mass Index (BMI) is ≥30 kg/m2. Standards of care for bariatric and non-bariatric surgery and for the critical care management of this population exist but are not well defined nor clearly followed in every hospital. Thus every anesthesiologist is likely to deal with this challenging population. Obesity is a multisystem, chronic, proinflammatory disorder. Unfortunately many countries are facing a marked increase in the obese population, defined as "globesity". Obesity presents an added risk in hospital, leading health care organizations to call for action to avoid adverse events and preventable complications. Periprocedural assessment and critical care strategies designed specifically for obese patients are crucial for reducing morbidity and mortality during surgery and in emergency settings, critical care and other particular settings (e.g., obstetrics). Specific care is needed for airway management, as are proactive strategies to reduce the risk of cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic and infective complications; any effort can be fruitful, including special attention to the science of human factors. The Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI) organized a consensus project involving other national scientific societies to increase risk awareness, define the best multidisciplinary approach for treating obese patients in election and emergency, and enable every hospital to provide appropriate levels of care and good clinical practices. The Obesity Project Task Force, a section of the SIAARTI Airway Management Study Group, used a formal consensus process to identify a series of notes, alerts and statements, to be adopted as bundles, to define appropriate clinical pathways for hospitalized obese patients. The consensus, approved by the Task Force and endorsed by several European scientific societies actively operating in this field, is presented herein.

16.
Arch Ital Urol Androl ; 87(4): 327-9, 2016 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766808

RESUMO

Bochdalek's diaphragmatic hernia (BDH) is a congenital defect of the diaphragm that usually present during the neonatal period and rarely remain silent until adulthood. We present a 45-year-old-female case with diagnosis of double left kidney tumor prepared for robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RPN). During the preoperative procedure she had a reduction of inspiratory volumes and increased pulmonary pressures: the robotic camera revealed the incidental presence of the left diaphragmatic defect. We report a simultaneous nephron sparing surgery (NSS) and left posterolateral BDH correction done by the da Vinci Surgical Robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA).


Assuntos
Hérnias Diafragmáticas Congênitas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Renais/cirurgia , Nefrectomia , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Robóticos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Período Intraoperatório , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nefrectomia/métodos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Anticancer Res ; 34(5): 2525-31, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24778070

RESUMO

AIM: To report our experience on implementation and preliminary results of a decision-making model based on the recommendations of an Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group developed for the management of colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The multidisciplinary team identified a reference guideline using appraisal of guidelines for research and evaluation (AGREE) tool based on a sequential assessment of the guideline quality. Thereafter, internal guidelines with diagnostic and therapeutic management for early, locally advanced and metastatic colonic and rectal cancer were drafted; organizational aspects, responsibility matrices, protocol actions for each area of specialty involved and indicators for performing audits were also defined. RESULTS: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) UK guideline was the reference for drafting the internal guideline document; from February to November 2013, 125 patients with colorectal cancer were discussed by and taken under the care of the Interdisciplinary Oncological Care Group. The first audit performed in December 2013 revealed optimal adherence to the internal guideline, mainly in terms of uniformity and accuracy of perioperative staging, coordination and timing of multi-modal therapies. To date, all patients under observation are within the diagnostic and therapeutic course, no patient came out from the multidisciplinary "path" and only in 14% of cases have the first recommendations proposed been changed. The selected indicators appear effective and reliable, while at the moment, it is not yet possible to assess the impact of the multidisciplinary team on clinical outcome. CONCLUSION: Although having a short observation period, our model seems capable of determining optimal uniformity of diagnostic and therapeutic management, to a high degree of patient satisfaction. A longer observation period is necessary in order to confirm these observations and for assessing the impact on clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Oncologia/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Humanos
19.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 26(5): 764-72, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22726656

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With more than 220 million major surgical procedures performed annually, perioperative interventions leading to even minor mortality reductions would save thousands of lives per year. This international consensus conference aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality as suggested by randomized evidence. DESIGN AND SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference. PARTICIPANTS: More than 1,000 physicians from 77 countries participated in this web-based consensus conference. INTERVENTIONS: Systematic literature searches (MEDLINE/PubMed, June 8, 2011) were used to identify the papers with a statistically significant effect on mortality together with contacts with experts. Interventions were considered eligible for evaluation if they (1) were published in peer-reviewed journals, (2) dealt with a nonsurgical intervention (drug/technique/strategy) in adult patients undergoing surgery, and (3) provided a statistically significant mortality increase or reduction as suggested by a randomized trial or meta-analysis of randomized trials. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Fourteen interventions that might change perioperative mortality in adult surgery were identified. Interventions that might reduce mortality include chlorhexidine oral rinse, clonidine, insulin, intra-aortic balloon pump, leukodepletion, levosimendan, neuraxial anesthesia, noninvasive respiratory support, hemodynamic optimization, oxygen, selective decontamination of the digestive tract, and volatile anesthetics. In contrast, aprotinin and extended-release metoprolol might increase mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Future research and health care funding should be directed toward studying and evaluating these interventions.


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/mortalidade , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos
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