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1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1263-1272, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical phenotypes associated with KCNC1 variants other than the Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy-causing variant p.Arg320His, determine the electrophysiological functional impact of identified variants and explore genotype-phenotype-physiological correlations. METHODS: Ten cases with putative pathogenic variants in KCNC1 were studied. Variants had been identified via whole-exome sequencing or gene panel testing. Clinical phenotypic data were analyzed. To determine functional impact of variants detected in the Kv 3.1 channel encoded by KCNC1, Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and automated two-electrode voltage clamping were used. RESULTS: Six unrelated patients had a Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy and a recurrent de novo variant p.Ala421Val (c.1262C > T). Functional analysis of p.Ala421Val revealed loss of function through a significant reduction in whole-cell current, but no dominant-negative effect. Three patients had a contrasting phenotype of Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures and different KCNC1 variants, all of which caused loss of function with reduced whole-cell currents. Evaluation of the variant p.Ala513Val (c.1538C > T) in the tenth case, suggested it was a variant of uncertain significance. INTERPRETATION: These are the first reported cases of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy due to KCNC1 mutation. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with KCNC1 is now broadened to include not only a Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy, but an infantile onset Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy, as well as Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures. Loss of function is a key feature, but definitive electrophysiological separation of these phenotypes has not yet emerged.

2.
Brain Dev ; 41(9): 808-811, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196579

RESUMO

In some patients with GLUT1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS), the diagnosis can be difficult to reach. We report a child with 2 inherited mutations suggesting an autosomal recessive transmission of SLC2A1 mutations. METHODS: The child and her parents were explored with erythrocyte 3-O-methyl-d-Glucose uptake, glucose uptake in oocytes expressing GLUT1 with the gene mutations and measure of the expression of GLUT1 at the surface of the circulating red blood cells by flow cytometry (METAglut1™ test). RESULTS: Both erythrocyte glucose uptake and glucose uptake in oocyte with the patient's mutations did not support the diagnosis of a mild GLUT1-DS phenotype with autosomal recessive transmission of SLC2A1 mutations. Instead, GLUT-1 expression at the surface of the erythrocytes appeared to better correlate with the clinical phenotypes in this family. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of these functional/expression tools need to be further studied with a focus on mild phenotype of GLUT1-DS.

4.
Ann Neurol ; 85(4): 514-525, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the biophysical basis underlying the distinct and severe clinical presentation in patients with the recurrent missense SCN1A variant, p.Thr226Met. Patients with this variant show a well-defined genotype-phenotype correlation and present with developmental and early infantile epileptic encephalopathy that is far more severe than typical SCN1A Dravet syndrome. METHODS: Whole cell patch clamp and dynamic action potential clamp were used to study T226M Nav 1.1 channels expressed in mammalian cells. Computational modeling was used to explore the neuronal scale mechanisms that account for altered action potential firing. RESULTS: T226M channels exhibited hyperpolarizing shifts of the activation and inactivation curves and enhanced fast inactivation. Dynamic action potential clamp hybrid simulation showed that model neurons containing T226M conductance displayed a left shift in rheobase relative to control. At current stimulation levels that produced repetitive action potential firing in control model neurons, depolarization block and cessation of action potential firing occurred in T226M model neurons. Fully computationally simulated neuron models recapitulated the findings from dynamic action potential clamp and showed that heterozygous T226M models were also more susceptible to depolarization block. INTERPRETATION: From a biophysical perspective, the T226M mutation produces gain of function. Somewhat paradoxically, our data suggest that this gain of function would cause interneurons to more readily develop depolarization block. This "functional dominant negative" interaction would produce a more profound disinhibition than seen with haploinsufficiency that is typical of Dravet syndrome and could readily explain the more severe phenotype of patients with T226M mutation. Ann Neurol 2019;85:514-525.

5.
J Biol Chem ; 2018 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409907

RESUMO

The CAPOS (cerebellar ataxia, areflexia, pes cavus, optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss) syndrome is caused by the single mutation E818K of the α3-isoform of Na+,K+-ATPase. Here, using biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, we examined the functional characteristics of E818K as well as of E818Q and E818A mutants. We found that these amino acid substitutions reduce the apparent Na+ affinity at the cytoplasmic-facing sites of the pump protein and that this effect is more pronounced for the lysine and glutamine substitutions (3- to 4-fold) than for the alanine substitution. The electrophysiological measurements indicated a more conspicuous, ~30-fold reduction of apparent Na+ affinity for the extracellular-facing sites in the CAPOS mutant, which was related to an accelerated transition between the phosphoenzyme intermediates E1P and E2P. The apparent affinity for K+ activation of the ATPase activity was unaffected by these substitutions, suggesting that primarily the Na+-specific site III is affected. Furthermore, the apparent affinities for ATP and vanadate were wild type-like in E818K, indicating a normal E1-E2 equilibrium of the dephosphoenzyme. Proton-leak currents were not increased in E818K. However, the CAPOS mutation caused a weaker voltage dependence of the pumping rate and a stronger inhibition by cytoplasmic K+ than the wild type enzyme, which together with the reduced Na+ affinity of the cytoplasmic-facing sites precluded proper pump activation under physiological conditions. The functional deficiencies could be traced to the participation of Glu-818 in an intricate hydrogen bonding/salt bridge network connecting it to key residues involved in Na+ interaction at site III.

6.
Epilepsia ; 59(10): 1889-1898, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of quinidine in patients with KCNT1-related epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in the infantile period and to compare with the effect of quinidine on mutant channels in vitro. METHODS: We identified 4 patients with EIMFS with onset in the neonatal period, pathogenic variants in the KCNT1 gene, and lack of response to AEDs. Patients were prospectively enrolled, treated with quinidine, and monitored according to a predefined protocol. Electroclinical, neuroimaging, and genetic data were reviewed. Two patients had novel variants in the KCNT1 gene that were modeled in Xenopus oocytes with channel properties characterized using electrophysiology recordings. RESULTS: Three of four patients were treated with quinidine early in their disease course, prior to 6 months of age. No significant side effects were noted with quinidine therapy. In addition, there were no significant changes in electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed seizure burden during therapy, and patients had near hourly seizures before, during, and after treatment. Two patients had previously reported gain-of-function mutations, which demonstrated sensitivity to high levels of quinidine in the oocyte assay. Two patients with novel variants, showed characteristic gain-of-function and were thus predicted to be pathogenic. Of interest, these variants were essentially insensitive to high levels of quinidine. SIGNIFICANCE: Patients had no reported benefit to quinidine therapy despite age at treatment initiation. Pharmacogenetic results in oocytes were consistent with clinical treatment failure in 2 patients, suggesting that single-dose pharmacologic assessment may be helpful in predicting which patients are exceedingly unlikely to achieve benefit with quinidine. In the 2 patients who had a lack of therapeutic benefit despite sensitivity to high concentrations of quinidine with in vitro oocyte assay, it is likely that the achievable exposure levels in the brain were too low to cause significant in vivo channel blockade.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(34): E8077-E8085, 2018 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076230

RESUMO

Dravet syndrome is a catastrophic, pharmacoresistant epileptic encephalopathy. Disease onset occurs in the first year of life, followed by developmental delay with cognitive and behavioral dysfunction and substantially elevated risk of premature death. The majority of affected individuals harbor a loss-of-function mutation in one allele of SCN1A, which encodes the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Brain NaV1.1 is primarily localized to fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons; thus the mechanism of epileptogenesis in Dravet syndrome is hypothesized to be reduced inhibitory neurotransmission leading to brain hyperexcitability. We show that selective activation of NaV1.1 by venom peptide Hm1a restores the function of inhibitory interneurons from Dravet syndrome mice without affecting the firing of excitatory neurons. Intracerebroventricular infusion of Hm1a rescues Dravet syndrome mice from seizures and premature death. This precision medicine approach, which specifically targets the molecular deficit in Dravet syndrome, presents an opportunity for treatment of this intractable epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Mioclônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Mutação , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/metabolismo , Venenos de Aranha/farmacologia , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/genética , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/metabolismo , Epilepsias Mioclônicas/patologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interneurônios/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Mutantes , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.1/genética
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(24): E5516-E5525, 2018 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844171

RESUMO

De novo variants in SCN2A developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) show distinctive genotype-phenotype correlations. The two most recurrent SCN2A variants in DEE, R1882Q and R853Q, are associated with different ages and seizure types at onset. R1882Q presents on day 1 of life with focal seizures, while infantile spasms is the dominant seizure type seen in R853Q cases, presenting at a median age of 8 months. Voltage clamp, which characterizes the functional properties of ion channels, predicted gain-of-function for R1882Q and loss-of-function for R853Q. Dynamic action potential clamp, that we implement here as a method for modeling neurophysiological consequences of a given epilepsy variant, predicted that the R1882Q variant would cause a dramatic increase in firing, whereas the R853Q variant would cause a marked reduction in action potential firing. Dynamic clamp was also able to functionally separate the L1563V variant, seen in benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures from R1882Q, seen in DEE, suggesting a diagnostic potential for this type of analysis. Overall, the study shows a strong correlation between clinical phenotype, SCN2A genotype, and functional modeling. Dynamic clamp is well positioned to impact our understanding of pathomechanisms and for development of disease mechanism-targeted therapies in genetic epilepsy.


Assuntos
Potenciais de Ação/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Convulsões/genética , Espasmos Infantis/genética , Adulto Jovem
9.
Epilepsia ; 59(5): 915-922, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658992

RESUMO

Epilepsy has a strong genetic component, with an ever-increasing number of disease-causing genes being discovered. Most epilepsy-causing mutations are germ line and thus present from conception. These mutations are therefore well positioned to have a deleterious impact during early development. Here we review studies that investigate the role of genetic lesions within the early developmental window, specifically focusing on genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE). Literature on the potential pathogenic role of sub-mesoscopic structural changes in GGE is also reviewed. Evidence from rodent models of genetic epilepsy support the idea that functional and structural changes can occur in early development, leading to altered seizure susceptibility into adulthood. Both animal and human studies suggest that sub-mesoscopic structural changes occur in GGE. The existence of sub-mesoscopic structural changes prior to seizure onset may act as biomarkers of excitability in genetic epilepsies. We also propose that presymptomatic treatment may be essential for limiting the long-term consequences of disease-causing mutations in genetic epilepsies.

10.
Trends Neurosci ; 41(7): 442-456, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691040

RESUMO

Advances in gene discovery for neurodevelopmental disorders have identified SCN2A dysfunction as a leading cause of infantile seizures, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability. SCN2A encodes the neuronal sodium channel NaV1.2. Functional assays demonstrate strong correlation between genotype and phenotype. This insight can help guide therapeutic decisions and raises the possibility that ligands that selectively enhance or diminish channel function may improve symptoms. The well-defined function of sodium channels makes SCN2A an important test case for investigating the neurobiology of neurodevelopmental disorders more generally. Here, we discuss the progress made, through the concerted efforts of a diverse group of academic and industry scientists as well as policy advocates, in understanding and treating SCN2A-related disorders.

11.
Prog Retin Eye Res ; 65: 77-92, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631042

RESUMO

Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration causes vision loss in patients with glaucoma, and this has been generally considered to be irreversible due to RGC death. We question this assertion and summarise accumulating evidence that points to visual function improving in glaucoma patients with treatment, particularly in the early stages of disease. We propose that prior to death, RGCs enter periods of dysfunction but can recover with relief of RGC stress. We first summarise the clinical evidence for vision improvement in glaucoma and then detail our experimental work that points to the underlying processes that underpin clinical improvement. We show that functional recovery can occur following a prolonged course of RGC dysfunction and demonstrate how the capacity for recovery can be modified. Detecting RGC dysfunction and augmenting recovery of such 'comatosed' RGCs holds clinical potential to improve early detection of glaucoma and improve visual function.

12.
Epilepsia ; 59(4): 802-813, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574705

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Many previous studies of drug repurposing have relied on literature review followed by evaluation of a limited number of candidate compounds. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a more comprehensive approach using high-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of a gain-of-function mutation in the SCN8A gene associated with severe pediatric epilepsy. METHODS: We developed cellular models expressing wild-type or an R1872Q mutation in the Nav 1.6 sodium channel encoded by SCN8A. Voltage clamp experiments in HEK-293 cells expressing the SCN8A R1872Q mutation demonstrated a leftward shift in sodium channel activation as well as delayed inactivation; both changes are consistent with a gain-of-function mutation. We next developed a fluorescence-based, sodium flux assay and used it to assess an extensive library of approved drugs, including a panel of antiepileptic drugs, for inhibitory activity in the mutated cell line. Lead candidates were evaluated in follow-on studies to generate concentration-response curves for inhibiting sodium influx. Select compounds of clinical interest were evaluated by electrophysiology to further characterize drug effects on wild-type and mutant sodium channel functions. RESULTS: The screen identified 90 drugs that significantly inhibited sodium influx in the R1872Q cell line. Four drugs of potential clinical interest-amitriptyline, carvedilol, nilvadipine, and carbamazepine-were further investigated and demonstrated concentration-dependent inhibition of sodium channel currents. SIGNIFICANCE: A comprehensive drug repurposing screen identified potential new candidates for the treatment of epilepsy caused by the R1872Q mutation in the SCN8A gene.

13.
Neuron ; 97(1): 59-66.e5, 2018 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29301106

RESUMO

X-linked diseases typically exhibit more severe phenotypes in males than females. In contrast, protocadherin 19 (PCDH19) mutations cause epilepsy in heterozygous females but spare hemizygous males. The cellular mechanism responsible for this unique pattern of X-linked inheritance is unknown. We show that PCDH19 contributes to adhesion specificity in a combinatorial manner such that mosaic expression of Pcdh19 in heterozygous female mice leads to striking sorting between cells expressing wild-type (WT) PCDH19 and null PCDH19 in the developing cortex, correlating with altered network activity. Complete deletion of PCDH19 in heterozygous mice abolishes abnormal cell sorting and restores normal network activity. Furthermore, we identify variable cortical malformations in PCDH19 epilepsy patients. Our results highlight the role of PCDH19 in determining cell adhesion affinities during cortical development and the way segregation of WT and null PCDH19 cells is associated with the unique X-linked inheritance of PCDH19 epilepsy.

14.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 667, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330459

RESUMO

Recent advances in thick tissue clearing are enabling high resolution, volumetric fluorescence imaging of complex cellular networks. Fluorescent proteins (FPs) such as GFP, however, can be inactivated by the denaturing chemicals used to remove lipids in some tissue clearing methods. Here, we solved the crystal structure of a recently engineered ultra-stable GFP (usGFP) and propose that the two stabilising mutations, Q69L and N164Y, act to improve hydrophobic packing in the core of the protein and facilitate hydrogen bonding networks at the surface, respectively. usGFP was found to dimerise strongly, which is not desirable for some applications. A point mutation at the dimer interface, F223D, generated monomeric usGFP (muGFP). Neurons in whole mouse brains were virally transduced with either EGFP or muGFP and subjected to Clear Lipid-exchanged Acrylamide-hybridized Rigid Imaging/Immunostaining/In situ hybridization-compatible Tissue-hYdrogel (CLARITY) clearing. muGFP fluorescence was retained after CLARITY whereas EGFP fluorescence was highly attenuated, thus demonstrating muGFP is a novel FP suitable for applications where high fluorescence stability and minimal self-association are required.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/química , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Mutação , Animais , Cristalografia por Raios X , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Imagem Tridimensional , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Neurônios/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Estabilidade Proteica , Espalhamento a Baixo Ângulo , Transdução Genética
15.
Pharmacol Rev ; 70(1): 142-173, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263209

RESUMO

Epilepsy is a common and serious neurologic disease with a strong genetic component. Genetic studies have identified an increasing collection of disease-causing genes. The impact of these genetic discoveries is wide reaching-from precise diagnosis and classification of syndromes to the discovery and validation of new drug targets and the development of disease-targeted therapeutic strategies. About 25% of genes identified in epilepsy encode ion channels. Much of our understanding of disease mechanisms comes from work focused on this class of protein. In this study, we review the genetic, molecular, and physiologic evidence supporting the pathogenic role of a number of different voltage- and ligand-activated ion channels in genetic epilepsy. We also review proposed disease mechanisms for each ion channel and highlight targeted therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/genética , Canais Iônicos/genética , Animais , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacologia , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Humanos , Canais Iônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais Iônicos/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular
16.
Neurology ; 90(1): e67-e72, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quinidine as a precision therapy for severe epilepsy due to gain of function mutations in the potassium channel gene KCNT1. METHODS: A single-center, inpatient, order-randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of oral quinidine included 6 patients with severe autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) due to KCNT1 mutation. Order was block randomized and blinded. Four-day treatment blocks were used with a 2-day washout between. Dose started at 900 mg over 3 divided doses then, in subsequent participants, was reduced to 600 mg, then 300 mg. Primary outcome was seizure frequency measured on continuous video-EEG in those completing the trial. RESULTS: Prolonged QT interval occurred in the first 2 patients at doses of 900 and 600 mg quinidine per day, respectively, despite serum quinidine levels well below the therapeutic range (0.61 and 0.51 µg/mL, reference range 1.3-5.0 µg/mL). Four patients completed treatment with 300 mg/d without adverse events. Patients completing the trial had very frequent seizures (mean 14 per day, SD 7, median 13, interquartile range 10-18). Seizures per day were nonsignificantly increased by quinidine (median 2, 95% confidence interval -1.5 to +5, p = 0.15) and no patient had a 50% seizure reduction. CONCLUSION: Quinidine did not show efficacy in adults and teenagers with ADNFLE. Dose-limiting cardiac side effects were observed even in the presence of low measured serum quinidine levels. Although small, this trial suggests use of quinidine in ADNFLE is likely to be ineffective coupled with considerable cardiac risks. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration Clinical Trial Registry (trial number 2015/0151). CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that for persons with severe epilepsy due to gain of function mutations in the potassium channel gene KCNT1, quinidine does not significantly reduce seizure frequency.

17.
Neurology ; 90(1): e55-e66, 2018 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29196579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the phenotypic spectrum, molecular genetic findings, and functional consequences of pathogenic variants in early-onset KCNT1 epilepsy. METHODS: We identified a cohort of 31 patients with epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) and screened for variants in KCNT1 using direct Sanger sequencing, a multiple-gene next-generation sequencing panel, and whole-exome sequencing. Additional patients with non-EIMFS early-onset epilepsy in whom we identified KCNT1 variants on local diagnostic multiple gene panel testing were also included. When possible, we performed homology modeling to predict the putative effects of variants on protein structure and function. We undertook electrophysiologic assessment of mutant KCNT1 channels in a xenopus oocyte model system. RESULTS: We identified pathogenic variants in KCNT1 in 12 patients, 4 of which are novel. Most variants occurred de novo. Ten patients had a clinical diagnosis of EIMFS, and the other 2 presented with early-onset severe nocturnal frontal lobe seizures. Three patients had a trial of quinidine with good clinical response in 1 patient. Computational modeling analysis implicates abnormal pore function (F346L) and impaired tetramer formation (F502V) as putative disease mechanisms. All evaluated KCNT1 variants resulted in marked gain of function with significantly increased channel amplitude and variable blockade by quinidine. CONCLUSIONS: Gain-of-function KCNT1 pathogenic variants cause a spectrum of severe focal epilepsies with onset in early infancy. Currently, genotype-phenotype correlations are unclear, although clinical outcome is poor for the majority of cases. Further elucidation of disease mechanisms may facilitate the development of targeted treatments, much needed for this pharmacoresistant genetic epilepsy.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(2): 202-209, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064616

RESUMO

Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) is a common epilepsy syndrome that encompasses seizure disorders characterized by spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs). Pacemaker hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (HCN) are considered integral to SWD genesis, making them an ideal gene candidate for GGE. We identified HCN2 missense variants from a large cohort of 585 GGE patients, recruited by the Epilepsy Phenome-Genome Project (EPGP), and performed functional analysis using two-electrode voltage clamp recordings from Xenopus oocytes. The p.S632W variant was identified in a patient with idiopathic photosensitive occipital epilepsy and segregated in the family. This variant was also independently identified in an unrelated patient with childhood absence seizures from a European cohort of 238 familial GGE cases. The p.V246M variant was identified in a patient with photo-sensitive GGE and his father diagnosed with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Functional studies revealed that both p.S632W and p.V246M had an identical functional impact including a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation that is consistent with a gain-of-function. In contrast, no biophysical changes resulted from the introduction of common population variants, p.E280K and p.A705T, and the p.R756C variant from EPGP that did not segregate with disease. Our data suggest that HCN2 variants can confer susceptibility to GGE via a gain-of-function mechanism.

19.
J Neurosci Methods ; 293: 53-58, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28827162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stem cells-derived neuronal cultures hold great promise for in vitro disease modelling and drug screening. However, currently stem cells-derived neuronal cultures do not recapitulate the functional properties of primary neurons, such as network properties. Cultured primary murine neurons develop networks which are synchronised over large fractions of the culture, whereas neurons derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) display only partly synchronised network activity and human pluripotent stem cells-derived neurons have mostly asynchronous network properties. Therefore, strategies to improve correspondence of derived neuronal cultures with primary neurons need to be developed to validate the use of stem cell-derived neuronal cultures as in vitro models. NEW METHOD: By combining serum-free derivation of ESCs from mouse blastocysts with neuronal differentiation of ESCs in morphogen-free adherent culture we generated neuronal networks with properties recapitulating those of mature primary cortical cultures. RESULTS: After 35days of differentiation ESC-derived neurons developed network activity very similar to that of mature primary cortical neurons. Importantly, ESC plating density was critical for network development. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): Compared to the previously published methods this protocol generated more synchronous neuronal networks, with high similarity to the networks formed in mature primary cortical culture. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that ESC-derived neuronal networks recapitulating key properties of mature primary cortical networks can be generated by optimising both stem cell derivation and differentiation. This validates the approach of using ESC-derived neuronal cultures for disease modelling and in vitro drug screening.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/fisiologia , Neurogênese , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Blastômeros/citologia , Blastômeros/fisiologia , Contagem de Células , Células Cultivadas , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Sincronização Cortical/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos da Linhagem 129 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microeletrodos , Modelos Biológicos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Vias Neurais/citologia , Vias Neurais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia
20.
ACS Nano ; 11(12): 12077-12086, 2017 12 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29111670

RESUMO

Optical biomarkers have been used extensively for intracellular imaging with high spatial and temporal resolution. Extending the modality of these probes is a key driver in cell biology. In recent years, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in nanodiamond has emerged as a promising candidate for bioimaging and biosensing with low cytotoxicity and stable photoluminescence. Here we study the electrophysiological effects of this quantum probe in primary cortical neurons. Multielectrode array recordings across five replicate studies showed no statistically significant difference in 25 network parameters when nanodiamonds are added at varying concentrations over various time periods, 12-36 h. The physiological validation motivates the second part of the study, which demonstrates how the quantum properties of these biomarkers can be used to report intracellular information beyond their location and movement. Using the optically detected magnetic resonance from the nitrogen-vacancy defects within the nanodiamonds we demonstrate enhanced signal-to-noise imaging and temperature mapping from thousands of nanodiamond probes simultaneously. This work establishes nanodiamonds as viable multifunctional intraneuronal sensors with nanoscale resolution, which may ultimately be used to detect magnetic and electrical activity at the membrane level in excitable cellular systems.

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