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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(3): 187, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072358

RESUMO

The irresponsible and uncontrolled use of water bodies for long period of time leads to pollution and water quality degradation, particularly in sensitive protected terrestrial and aquatic areas as lakes and wetlands situated in the vicinity of human habitations. Vulnerable ecosystems, the Lake Zobnatica, Serbia and the Wetlands of Tompojevci, Croatia, are characterized as protected natural areas and are surrounded by agricultural land and developed anthropogenic activities. In the samples of surface, ground water and agricultural runoff the key physicochemical parameters were determined. The results of analysed water characterized the Lake water quality class as IV-V. The measured parameters for the Lake show the high values of nutrients, particularly in ground water and agricultural runoff, pH value higher than 8.5 and lower values of dissolved oxygen (DO) than 5 mg/L in the most of the examined water samples. According to the results and maximal allowable values Wetlands belong to the class V water quality, with high trophic state and poor eco-status according to Croatian and Serbian national Laws and By-Laws. The pH value higher than 8.5 of ground water in Wetlands of Tompojevci signifies alkaline groundwater. The maximum concentrations of orthophosphates in ground water and agricultural runoff (10.875 and 10.886 mg/L, respectively) imply the high level of agricultural pollution. Research study of water samples has been performed from 2017 to 2019 within the Interreg IPA CBC Croatia-Serbia Project AF_HR-RS135_SeNs_Wetlands. This type of parallel and comparative research in Serbia and Croatia was conducted for the first time.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226528, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851701

RESUMO

The processing and characterization of hybrid PMMA resin composites with nano-zirconia (ZrO2) and electrospun polystyrene (PS) polymer fibers were presented in this study. Reinforcement was selected with the intention to tune the physical and mechanical properties of the hybrid composite. Surface modification of inorganic particles was performed in order to improve the adhesion of reinforcement to the matrix. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provided successful modification of zirconia nanoparticles with 3-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MEMO) and bonding improvement between incompatible inorganic nanoparticles and PMMA matrix. Considerable deagglomeration of nanoparticles in the matrix occurred after the modification has been revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microhardness increased with the concentration of modified nanoparticles, while the fibers were the modifier that lowers hardness and promotes toughness of hybrid composites. Impact test displayed increased absorbed energy after the PS electrospun fibers had been embedded. The optimized composition of the hybrid was determined and a good balance of thermal and mechanical properties was achieved.

3.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 126(12): 647-652, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840675

RESUMO

The Netherlands, like other Western countries, shows an obvious demography of aging, which is associated with many challenges. People age differently, after all. Some remain vital until very old age, while others become frail and disabled much earlier in life. Because of the indicated demographic trend, morbidity is expected to increase and with it, the number of older people needing care. 'Aging in place' has become a central phenomenon in healthcare policies. This means that older people should be empowered to lead a meaningful life in their own living environment as long as possible, even when they are frail and care dependent. Therefore, in the future, most care for older people will actually occur at home. This article aims to present a meaningful care model for the older people. Starting from the 'definition discussion' about frailty and a revaluation of the concept of' resilience, a basis will be provided for a sustainable, proactive and personalised elderly care, close to the living environment of older people, in which dentists and other oral health professionals play an important role as well.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Idoso Fragilizado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Odontólogos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Países Baixos
4.
Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd ; 126(12): 687-695, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840681

RESUMO

Vurnerable older people often need intensive preventive and curative oral health care. However, their physical and cognitive decline does not always allow for lege artis implementation of dental treatments. This causes practical problems often with related moral issues. Including these moral issues in planning and implementation will make oral healthcare more effective and will also alleviate moral pressure on oral healthcare providers. Mostly the moral issues relate to every day ethics, which can be solved by all persons involved collectively, in open consultation and with an ethics of care approach. This means aiming at 'doing the right thing in the right way', including all the relevant aspects of the person of the patient and his/her environment. To achieve this, oral health care should be embedded in the overall care process for the elderly and care providers should feel involved with the older person and have reflective skills.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Idoso Fragilizado , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência Odontológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Princípios Morais , Saúde Bucal
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 1186-1198, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096332

RESUMO

This study investigated the occurrence of 135 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) - pharmaceuticals, pesticides, a set of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) (parabens, bisphenols, hormones, triazoles, organophosphorus flame retardants and triclosan), UV-filters, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) - in 59 fish samples, collected in 2010 in 4 Spanish Rivers (Guadalquivir, Júcar, Ebro and Llobregat). Of the 135 CECs, 76 including 8 pharmaceuticals, 25 pesticides, 10 EDCs, 5 UV-filters, 15 PFASs and 13 HFRs were detected. Pharmaceuticals were the less frequently found and at lower concentrations. Pesticides, EDCs, UV-filters, PFASs and HFRs were detected more frequently (>50% of the samples). The maximum concentrations were 15 ng/g dry weight (dw) for pharmaceuticals (diclofenac), 840 ng/g dw for pesticides (chlorpyrifos), 224 ng/g dw for EDCs (bisphenol A), 242 ng/g dw for UV-filters (EHMC), 1738 ng/g dw for PFASs (PFHxA) and 64 ng/g dw for HFRs (Dec 602). The contaminants detected in fish are commonly detected also in sediments. In light of current knowledge, the risk assessment revealed that there was no risk for humans related to the exposure to CECs via freshwater fish consumption. However, results provide detailed information on the mixtures of CECs accumulated that would be very useful to identify their effects on aquatic biota.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Água Doce/química , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/metabolismo , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Rios/química , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Drugs Aging ; 36(4): 299-307, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741371

RESUMO

Falls are a major public health concern in the older population, and certain medication classes are a significant risk factor for falls. However, knowledge is lacking among both physicians and older people, including caregivers, concerning the role of medication as a risk factor. In the present statement, the European Geriatric Medicine Society (EuGMS) Task and Finish group on fall-risk-increasing drugs (FRIDs), in collaboration with the EuGMS Special Interest group on Pharmacology and the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) Geriatric Medicine Section, outlines its position regarding knowledge dissemination on medication-related falls in older people across Europe. The EuGMS Task and Finish group is developing educational materials to facilitate knowledge dissemination for healthcare professionals and older people. In addition, steps in primary prevention through judicious prescribing, deprescribing of FRIDs (withdrawal and dose reduction), and gaps in current research are outlined in this position paper.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Geriatria/métodos , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/efeitos adversos , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia , Geriatria/normas , Humanos , Polimedicação , Fatores de Risco
8.
Acta Clin Belg ; 74(2): 126-136, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698077

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Ghent Older People's Prescriptions community Pharmacy Screening (GheOP3S-) tool was recently developed as an explicit screening method to detect Potentially Inappropriate Prescribing (PIP) in the community pharmacy. We aimed to validate the GheOP3S-tool as an effective screening method for PIP. METHODS: All patients admitted to the acute geriatric ward of the Sint-Vincentius hospital (Belgium) were consecutively screened for inclusion (≥70 years,≥5 drugs chronically). PIP prevalence was evaluated by applying the GheOP3S-tool on the complete medication history. For each PIP-item, clinical relevance of the detected item, relevance of proposed alternative and subsequent acceptance by the treating geriatrician and a general practitioner were evaluated. Additionally, contribution to the current admission and preventability was assessed by the geriatrician. The completeness of a PIP-screening with the GheOP3S-tool was evaluated through comparison with the adapted Medication Appropriateness Index (aMAI). RESULTS: We detected 250 GheOP3S-items in 57 of 60 included patients (95%) (median: four PIP-items per patient; IQR: 3-5). Both the geriatrician and the general practitioners scored the clinical relevance of the detected items 'serious' or 'significant' in over 70% of cases. Proposed alternative treatment plans were accepted for 79% of the PIP-items (n = 198). The aMAI detected 536 items, of which 145 were also detected by the GheOP3S-tool. A total of 119 PIP-items were additionally detected by the GheOP3S-tool. CONCLUSION: The clinical relevance of the PIP-items detected with the GheOP3S-tool is high, likewise the acceptance rate of proposed alternatives.


Assuntos
Revisão de Uso de Medicamentos/métodos , Prescrição Inadequada , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 85(1): 126-135, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321459

RESUMO

AIMS: Paracetamol is the analgesic most used by older people. The physiological changes occurring with ageing influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of paracetamol and its variability. We performed a population PK-analysis to describe the PK of intravenous (IV) paracetamol in fit older people. Simulations were performed to illustrate target attainment and variability of paracetamol exposure following current dosing regimens (1000 mg every 6 h, every 8 h) using steady-state concentration (Css-mean ) of 10 mg l-1 as target for effective analgesia. METHODS: A population PK-analysis, using NONMEM 7.2, was performed based on 601 concentrations of paracetamol from 30 fit older people (median age 77.3 years, range [61.8-88.5], body weight 79 kg [60-107]). All had received an IV paracetamol dose of 1000 mg (over 15 min) after elective knee surgery. RESULTS: A two-compartment PK-model best described the data. Volume of distribution of paracetamol increased exponentially with body weight. Clearance was not influenced by any covariate. Simulations of the standardized dosing regimens resulted in a Css of 9.2 mg l-1 and 7.2 mg l-1 , for every 6 h and every 8 h respectively. Variability in paracetamol PK resulted in Css above 5.4 and 4.1 mg l-1 , respectively, in 90% of the population and above 15.5 and 11.7, respectively, in 10% at these dosing regimens. CONCLUSIONS: The target concentration was achieved in the average patient with 1000 mg every 6 h, while every 8 h resulted in underdosing for the majority of the population. Furthermore, due to a large (unexplained) interindividual variability in paracetamol PK a relevant proportion of the fit older people remained either under- or over exposed.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/farmacocinética , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/farmacocinética , Variação Biológica da População , Modelos Biológicos , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Analgesia/métodos , Analgésicos não Entorpecentes/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
J Biomech ; 83: 85-90, 2019 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473134

RESUMO

People with diabetes display biomechanical gait alterations compared to controls and have a higher metabolic cost of walking (CoW), but it remains unknown whether differences in the vertical displacement of the body centre of mass (CoM) may play a role in this higher CoW. The aim of this study was to investigate vertical CoM displacement (and step length as a potential underpinning factor) as an explanatory factor in the previously observed increased CoW with diabetes. Thirty-one non-diabetic controls (Ctrl); 22 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy (DM) and 14 patients with moderate/severe Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy (DPN), underwent gait analysis using a motion analysis system and force plates while walking at a range of matched speeds between 0.6 and 1.6 m/s. Vertical displacement of the CoM was measured over the gait cycle, and was not different in either diabetes patients with or without diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared to controls across the range of matched walking speeds examined (at 1 m/s: Ctrl: 5.59 (SD: 1.6), DM: 5.41 (1.63), DPN: 4.91 (1.66) cm; p > 0.05). The DPN group displayed significantly shorter steps (at 1 m/s: Ctrl: 69, DM: 67, DPN: 64 cm; p > 0.05) and higher cadence (at 1 m/s: Ctrl: 117 (SD1.12), DM: 119 (1.08), DPN: 122 (1.25) steps per minute; p > 0.05) across all walking speeds compared to controls. The vertical CoM displacement is therefore unlikely to be a factor in itself that contributes towards the higher CoW observed recently in people with diabetic neuropathy. The higher CoW in patients with diabetes may not be explained by the CoM displacement, but rather may be more related to shorter step lengths, increased cadence and the associated increased internal work and higher muscle forces developed by walking with more flexed joints.


Assuntos
Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Velocidade de Caminhada
11.
J Mycol Med ; 28(4): 623-627, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30166063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an alternative treatment in a form of recommended diet modification during and after conventional treatment with antifungals in patients with a chronic form of intestinal Candida overgrowth (ICOG). METHODS: The study included patients with ICOG divided in two subgroups: patients treated with nystatin and recommended diet regime (study group-SG) and the patients treated only with nystatin (control group-CG). After treatment, the mycological control examination and follow-up were performed two times: the first one within ten days after the completion of antifungal treatment, and the second one three months after the treatment initialization. RESULTS: A total of 120 patients finished the study: 80 from the SG and 40 from the CG. At the first mycological control examination of SG patients stools, we noted satisfactory antifungal and symptomatic effect in 56 out of 80 (70.0%) patients and 29 out of 40 (72.5%) in CG, with no statistically significant difference. However, at the second control stool examination, significantly higher percent (85%) of cured patients was recorded after three months of the recommended diet comparing with CG-17 out of 40 (42.5%). CONCLUSION: Results of this pilot study showed that patients who adhered to diet modification during and after treatment with nystatin had better outcomes of ICOG and strongly suggest the need for diet modification in these patients which recommendation could reduce excessive prescription of antifungals.


Assuntos
Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candidíase/dietoterapia , Enteropatias/dietoterapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/classificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Candidíase/patologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Enteropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias/microbiologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nistatina/uso terapêutico , Projetos Piloto , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Chemosphere ; 201: 388-398, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29529566

RESUMO

Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are natural or man-made chemicals that can affect the health of organisms by interfering with their normal hormonal functions. Many of these substances can cause their effects at very low doses and, considering the key role played by the endocrine system on development, organisms in early phases of growth (foetal, childhood, puberty) are especially sensitive to the action of EDs. In addition, when combined, they can show additive, antagonistic and synergistic activities. Taking all this into account it is essential to determine the presence of this kind of compounds in drinking water. Thus the main aim of the present study was to monitor the presence of substances with suspected or known endocrine activity in drinking water of the Madrid Region (MR) (Central Spain) and determine possible estrogenic, androgenic, or thyroidal activities. Water samples were collected at different times from a number of supply points that received water from reservoirs or rivers. The sampling point with the highest concentration of the analysed substances (up to 30 compounds) was DW1 (1203 ng L-1). This sampling point receives water from a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) that serves the population from the south of the MR with treated water from the Tajuña River. DW2 was the second point with the highest concentration of the analysed substances (1021 ng L-1). DW2 receives water from one of the reservoirs in the north of the MR. The highest daily concentrations detected corresponded to the flame retardant Tris (2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) (266.55 ng L-1) and to the nonylphenol diethoxylate (188.57 ng L-1) at points DW1 and DW4, respectively, both of which are supplied with treated river water. None of the water samples exhibited androgenic, oestrogenic, or thyroidal activities in in vitro assays based on cells stably transfected with the receptors of interest and luciferase as reporter gene. These results demonstrate that water quality in the MR is high and does not present a health risk for the population, although the concentrations of some substances justify the need for local authorities to continually monitor the presence of these contaminants in order to implement any corrective measures if necessary.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Qualidade da Água/normas , Androgênios/análise , Água Potável/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/análise , Humanos , Espanha , Hormônios Tireóideos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Abastecimento de Água/normas
13.
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 124(5): 1333-1340, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29420151

RESUMO

The Achilles tendon (AT) has the capacity to store and release elastic energy during walking, contributing to metabolic energy savings. In diabetes patients, it is hypothesized that a stiffer Achilles tendon may reduce the capacity for energy saving through this mechanism, thereby contributing to an increased metabolic cost of walking (CoW). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of diabetes and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) on the Achilles tendon and plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit behavior during walking. Twenty-three nondiabetic controls (Ctrl); 20 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy (DM), and 13 patients with moderate/severe DPN underwent gait analysis using a motion analysis system, force plates, and ultrasound measurements of the gastrocnemius muscle, using a muscle model to determine Achilles tendon and muscle-tendon length changes. During walking, the DM and particularly the DPN group displayed significantly less Achilles tendon elongation (Ctrl: 1.81; DM: 1.66; and DPN: 1.54 cm), higher tendon stiffness (Ctrl: 210; DM: 231; and DPN: 240 N/mm), and higher tendon hysteresis (Ctrl: 18; DM: 21; and DPN: 24%) compared with controls. The muscle fascicles of the gastrocnemius underwent very small length changes in all groups during walking (~0.43 cm), with the smallest length changes in the DPN group. Achilles tendon forces were significantly lower in the diabetes groups compared with controls (Ctrl: 2666; DM: 2609; and DPN: 2150 N). The results strongly point toward the reduced energy saving capacity of the Achilles tendon during walking in diabetes patients as an important factor contributing to the increased metabolic CoW in these patients. NEW & NOTEWORTHY From measurements taken during walking we observed that the Achilles tendon in people with diabetes and particularly people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy was stiffer, was less elongated, and was subject to lower forces compared with controls without diabetes. These altered properties of the Achilles tendon in people with diabetes reduce the tendon's energy saving capacity and contribute toward the higher metabolic energy cost of walking in these patients.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/fisiologia , Neuropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
14.
Ageing Res Rev ; 43: 10-16, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408342

RESUMO

Ageing is associated both with frailty and cognitive decline. The quest for a unifying approach has led to a new concept: cognitive frailty. This systematic review explores the contribution of cognitive assessment in frailty operationalization. PubMed, Web of Knowledge and PsycINFO were searched until December 2016 using the keywords aged; frail elderly; aged, 80 and over; frailty; diagnosis; risk assessment and classification, yielding 2863 hits. Seventy-nine articles were included, describing 94 frailty instruments. Two instruments were not sufficiently specified and excluded. 46% of the identified frailty instruments included cognition. Of these, 85% were published after 2010, with a significant difference for publication date (X2 = 8.45, p < .05), indicating increasing awareness of the contribution of cognitive deficits to functional decline. This review identified 7 methods of cognitive assessment: dementia as co-morbidity; objective cognitive-screening instruments; self-reported; specific signs and symptoms; delirium/clouding of consciousness; non-specific cognitive terms and mixed assessments. Although cognitive assessment has been increasingly integrated in recently published frailty instruments, this has been heterogeneously operationalized. Once the domains most strongly linked to functional decline will have been identified and operationalized, this will be the groundwork for the identification of reversible components, and for the development of preventive interventional strategies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Humanos
15.
Int J Dent Hyg ; 16(2): e120-e127, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29327449

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A clinical prospective study was designed to evaluate microbiological, cytomorphometric and clinical efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) as an adjunct to periodontal therapy in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. METHODS: Sixty subjects were included and randomly assigned into 2 groups: SRP (scaling root planning) group (n = 30) and LLLT + SRP group (n = 30). Clinical parameters were measured before intervention, after the fifth treatment, and after a month. All subjects received oral hygiene instructions and full-mouth conservative periodontal treatment (removal of dental plaque followed by SRP). Afterwards, in group II, Kavo LLLT (980 nm, 0.2 W, 6 J/cm2 ) was applied. Subgingival samples were collected at baseline and after the fifth treatment to quantify Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythensis and Treponema denticola by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Gingival swabs were taken, and direct smears were prepared on slides for cytomorphometric analysis. RESULTS: Evaluation using clinical parameters showed better results in LLLT group. A statistically significant decrease in the prevalence of bacteria after treatment in LLLT group was observed for the following: T. forsythensis and T. denticola (P < .001), P. gingivalis (P < .01), A. actinomycetemcomitans and P. intermedia (P < .05). The values of nuclear area, perimeter and Ferret's diameter were significantly lower in both studied groups after treatment, but statistical significance was higher in LLLT group (P < .001) than in the SRP therapy group (P < .05). CONCLUSION: Low-level laser therapy as an adjunct to periodontal therapy demonstrates short-term additional bacteriological, cytological and clinical benefits.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Periodontite Crônica/terapia , Terapia com Luz de Baixa Intensidade/métodos , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Raspagem Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Prospectivos , Aplainamento Radicular , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 612: 1387-1406, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898946

RESUMO

Antibiotics are an increasing focus of interest due to their high detection frequency in the environment. However, their presence in water bodies is not regulated by environmental policies. This field study investigates, for the first time, the occurrence, behavior and fate of a selection of 53 antibiotics, including up to 10 chemical groups, in an alluvial aquifer originated from manure application in an agricultural region using hydrogeological, hydrochemical and isotopic approaches. Up to 11 antibiotics were found in groundwater corresponding to 4 different chemical groups: fluoroquinolones, macrolides, quinolones and sulfonamides. In surface water, only 5 different antibiotics from 2 chemical groups: fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides, were quantified. The most frequent antibiotics were sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin. Concentrations of antibiotics were in the order of ng/L, with maximum concentrations of 300ng/L in groundwater. Hydrochemistry and isotopic data and geostatistics confirmed the spatial trend observed for nitrates, where nitrate concentrations tend to be higher in the margin areas of the study area, and lower concentrations are found nearby the river. On the other hand, no clear continuous spatial concentration trend of antibiotics was observed in the aquifer, supported by the short spatial correlation found in the variograms. This indicates that the physical-chemical properties and processes of each antibiotic (mainly, sorption and degradation), and other environmental issues, such as a patchy diffuse input and the manure antibiotic content itself, play an important role in their spatial distribution in groundwater. A discussion on the estimation of the antibiotic sorption parameter reveals the difficulties of describing such phenomena. Furthermore, retardation factors will extend over several orders of magnitude, which highly affects the movement of individual antibiotics within the aquifer. To summarize, this study points out the difficulties associated with antibiotic research in groundwater in order to define water resources quality management strategies and environmental regulations.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Água Subterrânea/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitratos/análise , Rios/química , Espanha
17.
Tijdschr Gerontol Geriatr ; 48(5): 195-202, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884457

RESUMO

Psychotropic drugs (hypno-sedatives, antidepressants and antipsychotics) are commonly used in the older population. On the long term, psychotropic drug use in older persons is associated with several negative functional outcomes such as an increased risk of falls. Gradual withdrawal of psychotropic drugs in older persons is feasible and leads to a significant reduction of falls. Both withdrawal of psychotropic drugs as well as the initiation of appropriate treatment with psychotropic drugs requires knowledge, consultation and cooperation between disciplines and a mentality change among healthcare professionals. In order to inform and support healthcare professionals, the Centre of Expertise for Fall and Fracture Prevention Flanders developed three clinical practice algorithms for the appropriate use of psychotropic drugs in older persons with high risk of falls and a fact sheet with background information.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Algoritmos , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
Community Dent Health ; 34(3): 143-151, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28872808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted of nursing home residents with limited access to regular oral health care services to evaluate their oral health status, to perform an assessment of the need for oral treatment and to determine the possible predicting value of age, gender, care dependency and income level on their oral health status and treatment needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three experienced dentists collected clinical oral health data with a mobile dental unit in 23 nursing homes. Socio-demographic data were extracted from the residents' records in the nursing home. Besides the descriptive and bivariate analysis, a general linear mixed model analysis was also performed with the nursing home as random effect. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 1,226 residents with a mean age of 83.9 years, of which 41.9% were edentulous. The mean D3MFt in the dentate group was 24.5 and 77% needed extractions or fillings. In the group of residents wearing removable dentures, 36.9% needed repair, rebasing or renewal of the denture. The mixed model analysis demonstrated that with each year a resident gets older, the oral health outcomes get worse and that men have worse oral health and higher treatment needs than women. However, the level of income and care dependency had a less extensive role in predicting the oral health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: The nursing home residents presented a poor overall oral health status and high dental and prosthetic treatment needs. Gender and age were important predicting variables for the oral health outcomes.


Assuntos
Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Casas de Saúde , Saúde Bucal , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças da Boca
19.
Nanotechnology ; 28(18): 185202, 2017 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28304284

RESUMO

We compare classical versus quantum electron transport in recently investigated magnetic focusing devices (Bhandari et al 2016 Nano Lett. 16 1690) exposed to the perturbing potential of a scanning gate microscope (SGM). Using the Landauer-Büttiker formalism for a multi-terminal device, we calculate resistance maps that are obtained as the SGM tip is scanned over the sample. There are three unique regimes in which the scanning tip can operate (focusing, repelling, and mixed regime) which are investigated. Tip interacts mostly with electrons with cyclotron trajectories passing directly underneath it, leaving a trail of modified current density behind it. Other (indirect) trajectories become relevant when the tip is placed near the edges of the sample, and current is scattered between the tip and the edge. We point out that, in contrast to SGM experiments on gapped semiconductors, the STM tip can induce a pn junction in graphene, which improves contrast and resolution in SGM. We also discuss possible explanations for spatial asymmetry of experimentally measured resistance maps, and connect it with specific configurations of the measuring probes.

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