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1.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(8): 1026-1040, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218206

RESUMO

A comprehensive understanding of the cardiac structure-function relationship is essential for proper clinical cardiac imaging. This review summarizes the basic heart anatomy and physiology from the perspective of a heart imager focused on myocardial mechanics. The main issues analyzed are the left ventricular (LV) architecture, the LV myocardial deformation through the cardiac cycle, the LV diastolic function basic parameters and the basic parameters of the LV deformation used in clinical practice for the LV function assessment.


Assuntos
Cardiologistas , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Diástole/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Sístole/fisiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda
2.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(8): 1060-1065, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218208

RESUMO

Infective endocarditis (IE) poses a large diagnostic and therapeutical challenge. An early diagnosis is necessary for a positive outcome. Echocardiography is initial diagnostic method when there is a possibility of IE presence. TTE and TEE are useful in detection, accurate localisation and estimation of vegetation size, and also in detection of paravalvular spreading of infection. In certain situations, there is a need for usage of complementary methods like CCT and nuclear techniques. This article will outline advantages and limitations of certain diagnostic methods in diagnosis of IE.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Endocardite , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana/métodos , Endocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos
3.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(8): 1051-1059, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218209

RESUMO

Advanced cardiac imaging (ACI), including myocardial deformation imaging, 3D echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance, overcomes the limitations of conventional echocardiography in the assessment of patients with primary mitral regurgitation (MR). They enable a more precise MR quantification and reveal early changes before advanced and irreversible remodeling with depressed heart function occurs. ACI permits a thorough analysis of mitral valvular anatomy and MR mechanisms (important for planning and guiding percutaneous and surgical procedures) and helps to identify structural and functional changes coupled with a high arrhythmogenic potential, especially the occurrence of atrial fibrillation and heart failure development. The key question is how the data provided by ACI can improve the current management of primary MR.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia Tridimensional/métodos , Humanos , Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal
4.
J Clin Ultrasound ; 50(8): 1134-1142, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36218210

RESUMO

This review summarizes current knowledge about echocardiographic modalities used to assess microvascular function and left ventricular (LV) systolic function in women with ischemia and no obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA). Although the entire pathophysiological background of this clinical entity still remains elusive, it is primarily linked to microvascular dysfunction which can be assessed by coronary flow velocity reserve. Subtle impairments of LV systolic function in women with INOCA are difficult to assess by interpretation of wall motion abnormalities. LV longitudinal function impairment is considered to be an early marker of subclinical systolic dysfunction and can be assessed by global longitudinal strain quantification.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Isquemia , Sístole
5.
Int J Rehabil Res ; 45(1): 65-71, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044993

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection often causes pneumonia and respiratory failure that may lead to postintensive care syndrome, including critical illness neuropathy (CIN) and critical illness myopathy (CIM). The data on the rehabilitation outcomes of post-novel coronavirus disease (COVID) patients with CIN and CIM following respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation are still limited. To address this, we enrolled in our prospective observational study a sample of 50 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to our facility between 2 November 2020 and 3 May 2021 with electrophysiologically confirmed or clinically suspected diagnosis of CIN/CIM. The functional abilities were assessed at admission and discharge with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, 10-metre walk test, 6-min walk test and the de Morton Mobility Index. The gain in motor FIM and the length of stay were used as an index of rehabilitation efficiency. Nutritional status was also assessed using anthropometric measurements and bioelectrical Impedance analysis. Psychologic evaluation was performed at admission only. At admission, functional limitations and severe malnutrition were present in all patients with psychologic problems in about one third. At discharge (42 ± 16 days later), clinically important and statistically significant improvements were found in all outcome measures, which was also noted by the patients. The gain in motor FIM was larger with the longer length of stay up to 2 months and plateaued thereafter. We conclude that post-COVID-19 patients who develop CIN/CIM following respiratory failure can improve functional and nutritional status during inpatient rehabilitation.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Insuficiência Respiratória , Canadá , Estado Terminal , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Eslovênia
6.
Int Heart J ; 62(1): 16-22, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518655

RESUMO

The aim of this randomized prospective study was to evaluate the quality of life (QoL) using the "Seattle Angina Questionnaire" (SAQ) in patients with chronic total occlusion (CTO) in coronary arteries treated with either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or optimal medical therapy (OMT), or only with OMT.The potential benefits of recanalization of CTO by PCI have been controversial because of the scarcity of randomized controlled trials.A total of 100 patients with CTO were randomized (1:1) prospectively into the PCI CTO or the OMT group (50 patients in each group). There were no baseline differences in the SAQ scores between the groups, except for physical limitation scores (P = 0.03). During the mean follow-up (FUP) of 275 ± 88 days, patients in the PCI group reported less physical activity limitations (72.7 ± 21.3 versus 60.5 ± 27, P = 0.014), less frequent angina episodes (89.8 ± 17.6 versus 76.8 ± 27.1, P = 0.006), better QoL (79.9 ± 22.7 versus 62.5 ± 25.5, P = 0.001), greater treatment satisfaction (91.2 ± 13.6 versus 81.4 ± 18.4, P = 0.003), and borderline differences in angina stability (61.2 ± 26.5 versus 51.0 ± 23.7, P = 0.046) compared to patients in the OMT group. There were no significant differences in SAQ scores in the OMT group at baseline and during the FUP. There was a statistically significant increase in all five domains in the PCI group.Symptoms and QoL measured by the SAQ were significantly improved after CTO PCI compared to OMT alone.


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/tratamento farmacológico , Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(20): e021936, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34634920

RESUMO

Background Microvascular dysfunction might be a major determinant of clinical deterioration and outcome in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, long-term prognostic value of transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TDE) coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) on clinical outcome is uncertain in HCM patients. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess long-term prognostic value of CFVR on clinical outcome in HCM population. Methods and Results We prospectively included 150 HCM patients (82 women; mean age 48±15 years). Patients' clinical characteristics, echocardiographic and CFVR findings (both for left anterior descending [LAD] and posterior descending artery [PD]), were assessed in all patients. The primary outcome was a composite of: HCM related death, heart failure requiring hospitalization, sustained ventricular tachycardia and ischemic stroke. Patients were stratified into 2 subgroups depending on CFVR LAD value: Group 1 (CFVR LAD>2, [n=87]) and Group 2 (CFVR LAD≤2, [n=63]). During a median follow-up of 88 months, 41/150 (27.3%) patients had adverse cardiac events. In Group 1, there were 8/87 (9.2%), whereas in Group 2 there were 33/63 (52.4%, P<0.001 vs. Group 1) adverse cardiac events. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with preserved CFVR LAD had significantly higher cumulative event-free survival rate compared to patients with impaired CFVR LAD (96.4% and 90.9% versus 66.9% and 40.0%, at 5 and 8 years, respectively: log-rank 37.2, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis identified only CFVR LAD≤2 as an independent predictor for adverse cardiac outcome (HR 6.54; 95% CI 2.83-16.30, P<0.001), while CFVR PD was not significantly associated with outcome. Conclusions In patients with HCM, impaired CFVR LAD (≤2) is a strong, independent predictor of adverse cardiac outcome. When the aim of testing is HCM risk stratification and CFVR LAD data are available, the evaluation of CFVR PD is redundant.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
8.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 18(1): 29, 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) is characterized by the presence of collateral blood vessels which can provide additional blood supply to CTO-artery dependent myocardium. Successful CTO recanalization is followed by significant decrease in collateral donor artery blood flow and collateral derecruitment, but data on coronary hemodynamic changes in relation to myocardial function are limited. We assessed changes in coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) by echocardiography in collateral donor and recanalized artery following successful opening of coronary CTO. METHODS: Our study enrolled 31 patients (60 ± 9 years; 22 male) with CTO and viable myocardium by SPECT scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Non-invasive CFVR was measured in collateral donor artery before PCI, 24 h and 6 months post-PCI, and 24 h and 6 months in recanalized artery following successful PCI of CTO. RESULTS: Collateral donor artery showed significant increase in CFVR 24 h after CTO recanalization compared to pre-PCI values (2.30 ± 0.49 vs. 2.71 ± 0.45, p = 0.005), which remained unchanged after 6-months (2.68 ± 0.24). Baseline blood flow velocity of the collateral donor artery significantly decreased 24 h post-PCI compared to pre-PCI (0.28 ± 0.06 vs. 0.24 ± 0.04 m/s), and remained similar after 6 months, with no significant difference in maximum hyperemic blood flow velocity pre-PCI, 24 h and 6 months post-PCI. CFVR of the recanalized coronary artery 24 h post-PCI was 2.55 ± 0.35, and remained similar 6 months later (2.62 ± 0.26, p = NS). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with viable myocardium, prompt and significant CFVR increase in both recanalized and collateral donor artery, was observed within 24 h after successful recanalization of CTO artery, which maintained constant during the 6 months. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (Number NCT04060615 ).


Assuntos
Oclusão Coronária/cirurgia , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico/fisiologia , Contração Miocárdica/fisiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença Crônica , Oclusão Coronária/diagnóstico , Oclusão Coronária/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Hypertens ; 38(8): 1525-1530, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the predictive value of right ventricular (RV) remodeling and 24-h blood pressure (BP) patterns on long-term cardiovascular prognosis in the initially untreated hypertensive patients. METHODS: The current study included 505 initially untreated hypertensive patients who were consequently included in this study from 2007 to 2012. All the patients underwent laboratory analysis, 24-h BP monitoring and echocardiographic examination at baseline. The patients were followed for a median period of 9 years. The adverse outcome was defined as the hospitalization due to cardiovascular events (atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, myocardial revascularization, heart failure, stroke, or cardiovascular death). RESULTS: During the 9-year follow-up period adverse cardiovascular events occurred in 82 hypertensive patients. Night-time SBP, the nondipping BP pattern, left ventricle hypertrophy, RV hypertrophy, right atrial enlargement, RV diastolic dysfunction, and RV systolic dysfunction were associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, night-time SBP, the nondipping BP pattern, mitral E/e', left ventricle hypertrophy, and RV hypertrophy were the only independent predictors of cardiovascular events. When all four BP patterns were included in the model, only the reverse dipping BP pattern was an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. CONCLUSION: The present investigation showed that RV hypertrophy and the reverse dipping BP pattern were independent long-term predictors of the cardiovascular outcome. Detailed echocardiographic evaluation and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be performed even in low-risk hypertensive patients.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Hipertensão , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
10.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 53(6): 421-427, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality rates following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) have decreased due to improvements in diagnoses and the management of complications, as well as early obliteration of the aneurysms. Neurogenic pulmonary oedema (NPO) is a clinical syndrome associated with an acute increase in intracranial pressure and a release of catecholamines into the circulation. This study investigated independent predictors of unfavourable outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Scores 1, 2 or 3) in patients with aSAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 262 patients with aSAH (162 females) were included in this prospective study. Clinical characteristics were assessed, and electrocardiographic, serum cardiac and inflammatory biomarker measurements were recorded on admission. Outcomes were assessed three months after admission. Univariate and multivariate analyses of these data were used to predict unfavourable outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 156 patients (59.54%) had unfavourable outcomes. Compared to those who had favourable outcomes, patients with unfavourable outcomes were significantly older (54.37 ± 10.56 vs. 49.13 ± 10.77 years; p < 0.001) and had more severe aSAHs (Hunt and Hess grades ≥ 3: 82.7% vs. 39.6%; p < 0.001). Patients with unfavourable outcomes were more likely to have NPO (10.3% vs. 2.8%; p = 0.023), hydrocephalus (34.0% vs. 20.8%; p = 0.02), and aneurysm reruptures (28.2% vs. 3.8%; p < 0.001). Independent predictors of an unfavourable outcome included Hunt and Hess grades ≥ 3 (odds ratio [OR], 4.291; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.168-8.491; p < 0.001), increased systolic blood pressure on admission (OR, 1.020; 95% CI, 1.002-1.038; p = 0.03), increased heart rate (HR) on admission (OR, 1.024; 95% CI, 1.001-1.048; p = 0.04), and aneurysm rerupture (OR, 4.961; 95% CI, 1.461-16.845; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that aneurysm reruptures, as well as increased blood pressure and HR, are associated with unfavourable outcomes in patients with aSAH.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Aneurisma Intracraniano , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 13(4): 352-356, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32045381

RESUMO

Streptococcus gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) bacteremia is commonly associated with endocarditis and diseases of gastrointestinal tract, especially with colorectal carcinoma. On the other side, it is rarely connected to liver disease, especially alcoholic liver disease. A 44-old patient with a history of one month fever, pre-existing heart murmur and previous alcohol abuse, was treated in Clinic for Infectious and tropical diseases, Clinical Centre of Serbia (CCS), Belgrade. The diagnose of infective endocarditis (IE) of the aortic valve caused by S. gallolyticus has been established. Despite the conducted antibiotic treatment based on antibiogram, pericardial effusion with paracardial aortic abscess was diagnosed on the 9th day of treatment. Pericardiocentesis was done and 800 mL of haemorrhagic fluid was evacuated in the Clinic for Cardiology, CCS. Unfortunately, 20th day of hospitalization the patient died. Clinical autopsy confirmed endocarditis, liver cirrhosis and chronic pericarditis. Prognosis of the outcome of treatment of patient with endocarditis caused S. gallolyticus and liver cirrhosis is not optimistic. Therefore, significant attention should be given to patients with liver cirrhosis and febrile of unknown origin.


Assuntos
Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Derrame Pericárdico/etiologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estreptocócicas/patologia , Streptococcus gallolyticus/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Endocardite/complicações , Evolução Fatal , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Sérvia
12.
J Cardiol ; 71(3): 291-298, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29055511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of infective endocarditis (IE) is changing. More aggressive forms with multiple IE cardiac lesions have become more frequent. This study sought to explore the relationship between contemporary causative microorganisms and IE cardiac lesions and to analyze the impact of multiple lesions on treatment choice. METHODS: In 246 patients hospitalized for IE between 2008 and 2015, cardiac lesions caused by IE were analyzed by echocardiography, classified according to the 2015 European Society of Cardiology guidelines and correlated with microbiological data. We defined a new parameter, the Echo IE Sum, to summarize all IE cardiac lesions in a single patient, enabling comprehensive comparisons between different etiologies and treatment strategies. RESULTS: Staphylococcus aureus was associated with the development of large vegetation (OR 2.442; 95% CI 1.220-4.889; p=0.012), non-HACEK bacteria with large vegetation (OR 13.662; 95% CI 2.801-66.639; p=0.001), perivalvular abscess or perivalvular pseudoaneurysm (OR 5.283; 95% CI 1.069-26.096; p=0.041), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) with leaflet abscess or aneurysm (OR 3.451; 95% CI 1.285-9.266, p=0.014), and perivalvular abscess or perivalvular pseudoaneurysm (OR 4.290; 95% CI 1.583-11.627; p=0.004). The Echo IE Sum significantly differed between different etiologies (p<0.001), with the highest value in non-HACEK and the lowest in streptococcal endocarditis. Patients operated for IE had a significantly higher Echo IE Sum vs those who were medically treated (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: None of the IE cardiac lesions is microorganism-specific. However, more severe lesions were caused by S. aureus, CoNS, and non-HACEK bacteria. The highest propensity to develop multiple lesions was shown by the non-HACEK group. Higher Echo IE Sum in patients sent to surgery emphasized the importance of multiple IE cardiac lesions on treatment choice and potential usage of Echo IE Sum in patient management.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Falso Aneurisma/microbiologia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Aneurisma Cardíaco/microbiologia , Pericárdio/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus
13.
J Cardiol ; 70(4): 323-328, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28336204

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relations of elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and cardiac ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients is uncertain. Therefore we designed the study with the following aims: (1) to analyze plasma concentrations of NT-pro-BNP in various subsets of HCM patients; (2) to reveal the correlations of NT-pro-BNP, myocardial ischemia, and diastolic dysfunction; (3) to assess predictors of the elevated plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 61 patients (mean age 48.9±16.3 years; 26 male) with asymmetric HCM plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were obtained. Standard transthoracic examination, tissue Doppler echocardiography with measurement of transthoracic coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in left anterior descending artery (LAD) was done. Mean natural logarithm value of NT-pro-BNP was 7.11±0.95pg/ml [median value 1133 (interquartile range 561-2442)pg/ml]. NT-pro-BNP was significantly higher in patients with higher NYHA class, in obstructive HCM, more severe mitral regurgitation, increased left atrial volume index (LAVI), presence of calcified mitral annulus, elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressure and in decreased CFVR. Levels of NT-pro-BNP significantly correlated with the ratio of E/e' (r=0.534, p<0.001), LV outflow tract gradient (r=0.503, p=0.024), LAVI (r=0.443, p<0.001), while inversely correlated with CFVR LAD (r=-0.569, p<0.001). When multivariate analysis was done only CFVR LAD and E/e' emerged as independent predictors of NT-pro-BNP. CONCLUSION: Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP were significantly higher in HCM patients with more advanced disease. Elevated NT-pro-BNP not only reflects the diastolic impairment of the LV, but it might also be the result of cardiac ischemia in patients with HCM.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Circulação Coronária , Diástole , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral , Análise Multivariada , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Echocardiography ; 34(3): 371-375, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28075037

RESUMO

AIMS: Selection of patients who are viable candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), prediction of the response to CRT as well as an optimal definition of a favorable response, all require further exploration. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interplay between the prediction of the response to CRT and the definition of a favorable outcome. METHODS: Seventy patients who received CRT were included. All patients met current guideline criteria for CRT. Forty-three echocardiographic parameters were evaluated before CRT and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. M-mode, 2D echocardiography, and Doppler imaging were used to quantify left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, mitral regurgitation, right ventricular systolic function, pulmonary artery pressure, and myocardial mechanical dyssynchrony. The following definitions of a favorable CRT response were used: left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement more >5% acutely following CRT, LVEF improvement >20% at 12-month follow-up, and a LV end-systolic volume (LVESV) decrease >15% at 12-month follow-up. RESULTS: For the LVEF improvement >5%, the best predictor was isovolumetric relaxation time (IVRT; P=.035). For improvement of LVEF >20%, the best predictors were left ventricular stroke index (LVSI; P=.044) and left ventricular fractional shortening (LVFS; P=.031). For the drop in left ventricular systolic volume (LVESV >15%), the best predictor was septal-to-lateral wall delay (ΔT) (P=.043, RR=1.023, 95% CI for RR=1.001-1.045). CONCLUSION: The definition of a favorable CRT response influenced the optimal predictor variable(s). Standardization of defining a favorable response to CRT is needed to guide clinical decision making processes.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência da Valva Mitral/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular/fisiopatologia
15.
Exp Mol Pathol ; 100(1): 31-8, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657000

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Angiogenesis is the growth of both new vascular and lymphatic blood vessels from the existing vasculature. During this process, blood endothelial cells (BECs) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) express specific markers, which help their discrimination and easier identification. Since the coronary thrombi material aspirated from patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) proved as good angiogenesis model, we investigated the expression of CD34 and CD31 as BECs markers, and D2-40, LYVE-1 and VEGFR3 as LEC markers in this material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aspirated thrombi were stained immunohistochemically for CD34, CD31, D2-40, LYVE-1 and VEGFR3. Organizational patterns of immunopositive cells were graded as single cells, clusters or microvessels. Double immunofluorescence for CD31, D2-40, LYVE-1 and VEGRF3 was done. Thrombi were also graded as fresh (<1day old), lytic (1-5days old) and organized (>5days old). RESULTS: Serial sections of aspirated thrombi showed concordant BEC and LEC markers immunopositivity. Double immunoflorescence proved co-expression of CD31 and LEC markers on the same cells. Cells expressing LEC markers organized in clusters and microvessels were mainly present in lytic and organized thrombi. CONCLUSION: Co-expression of BEC and LEC markers on the same non-tumorous cell during thrombus neovascularization indicates existing in vivo plasticity of endothelial cells under non-tumorous pathological conditions. It also points that CD34 and CD31 on one hand, and D2-40, LYVE-1 and VEGFR3 immunostaining on the other hand, cannot solely be a reliable indicators whether vessel is lymphatic or not.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo , Molécula-1 de Adesão Celular Endotelial a Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptor 3 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Trombose/metabolismo
16.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 30(8): 1509-18, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25108390

RESUMO

Coronary microcirculatory function after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients with acute myocardial infarction is important determinant of infarct size (IS). Our aim was to investigate the utility of coronary flow reserve (CFR) and diastolic deceleration time (DDT) of the infarct artery (IRA) assessed by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography after pPCI for final IS prediction. In 59 patients, on the 2nd day after pPCI for acute anterior myocardial infarction, transthoracic Doppler analysis of IRA blood flow was done including measurements of CFR, baseline DDT and DDT during adenosine infusion (DDT adeno). Killip class, myocardial blush grade, resolution of ST segment elevation, peak creatine kinase-myocardial band and conventional echocardiographic parameters were determined. Single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging was done 6 weeks later to define final IS (percentage of myocardium with fixed perfusion abnormality). IS significantly correlated with CFR (r = -0.686, p < 0.01), DDT (r = -0.727, p < 0.01), and DDT adeno (r = -0.780, p < 0.01). CFR and DDT adeno in multivariate analysis remained independent IS predictors after adjustment for other covariates and offered incremental prognostic value in models based on conventional clinical, angiographic, electrocardiographic and enzymatic variables. In predicting large infarction (IS > 20 %), the best cut-off for CFR was <1.73 (sensitivity 65 %, specificity 96 %) and for DDT adeno ≤720 ms (sensitivity 81 %, specificity 96 %). CFR and DDT during adenosine are independent and powerful early predictors of final IS offering incremental prognostic information over conventional parameters of myocardial and microvascular damage and tissue reperfusion.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adenosina , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase Forma MB/sangue , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Imagem de Perfusão do Miocárdio/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sérvia , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasodilatadores
17.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 13: 73, 2014 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24708817

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance (IR) assessed by the Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) index in the acute phase of myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients was recently established as an independent predictor of intrahospital mortality. In this study we postulated that acute IR is a dynamic phenomenon associated with the development of myocardial and microvascular injury and larger final infarct size in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). METHODS: In 104 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI without diabetes, the HOMA index was determined on the 2nd and 7th day after pPCI. Worst-lead residual ST-segment elevation (ST-E) on postprocedural ECG, coronary flow reserve (CFR) determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography on the 2nd day after pPCI and fixed perfusion defect on single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) determined six weeks after pPCI were analyzed according to HOMA indices. RESULTS: IR was present in 55 % and 58 % of patients on day 2 and day 7, respectively. Incomplete post-procedural ST-E resolution was more frequent in patients with IR compared to patients without IR, both on day 2 (p = 0.001) and day 7 (p < 0.001). The HOMA index on day 7 correlated with SPECT-MPI perfusion defect (r = 0.331), whereas both HOMA indices correlated well with CFR (r = -0.331 to -0.386) (p < 0.01 for all). In multivariable backward logistic regression analysis adjusted for significant univariate predictors and potential confounding variables, IR on day 2 was an independent predictor of residual ST-E ≥ 2 mm (OR 11.70, 95% CI 2.46-55.51, p = 0.002) and CFR < 2 (OR = 5.98, 95% CI 1.88-19.03, p = 0.002), whereas IR on day 7 was an independent predictor of SPECT-MPI perfusion defect > 20% (OR 11.37, 95% CI 1.34-96.21, p = 0.026). CONCLUSION: IR assessed by the HOMA index during the acute phase of the first anterior STEMI in patients without diabetes treated by pPCI is independently associated with poorer myocardial reperfusion, impaired coronary microcirculatory function and potentially with larger final infarct size.


Assuntos
Circulação Coronária/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Doença Aguda , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 26(7): 775-82, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23643850

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, by noninvasive coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR), whether patients with asymmetric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), with or without left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, demonstrate significant regional differences of CFVR. METHODS: We evaluated 61 patients with HC (27 men; mean age 49 ± 16 years), including 20 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) and 41 patients without obstruction (HCM). The control group included 20 age- and sex-matched subjects. Transthoracic Doppler echocardiography CFVR of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the posterior descending coronary artery (PD) were performed, including calculation of relative CFVR as the ratio between CFVR LAD and CFVR PD. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, all the patients with HC had lower CFVR LAD (2.12 ± 0.53 vs 3.34 ± 0.67; P < .001) and CFVR PD (2.29 ± 0.49 vs 3.21 ± 0.65; P < .001). CFVR LAD in HOCM group in comparison with the HCM group was significantly lower (1.93 ± 0.42 vs 2.22 ± 0.55; P = .047), due to higher basal diastolic coronary flow velocities (0.40 ± 0.09 vs 0.33 ± 0.07 m/sec; P = .002), with similar hyperemic diastolic flow velocities (0.71 ± 0.16 vs 0.76 ± 0.19 m/sec; P = .330), respectively. There was no significant difference in CFVR PD between patients with HOCM and those with HCM (2.33 ± 0.46 vs 2.27 ± 0.50; P = .636), respectively. Relative CFVR was lower in the HOCM group compared with the HCM group (0.84 ± 0.16 vs 0.98 ± 0.14; P = .001). By multivariable regression analysis, left ventricular outflow tract gradient was the independent predictor of CFVR LAD (B = -0.24; P = .008) and relative CFVR (B = -0.34; P = .016). CONCLUSIONS: CFVR LAD and relative CFVR were significantly lower in patients with HOCM compared with patients with HCM. Regional differences of CFVR are present only in patients with significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, which suggests that obstruction per se, by increasing wall stress in basal conditions, leads to higher basal diastolic coronary flow velocities and results in lower CFVR in LAD compared with PD.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/fisiopatologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler , Microcirculação , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária , Circulação Coronária , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/diagnóstico por imagem , Obstrução do Fluxo Ventricular Externo/fisiopatologia
19.
Echocardiography ; 29(3): 267-75, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22118412

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the performance of echocardiographic parameters to predict response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). BACKGROUND: CRT reduces morbidity and mortality due to the proper selection of candidates for CRT. METHODS: The 12-month trial was performed on 70 optimally medicated patients with standard inclusion criteria: NYHA class III or IV heart failure, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%, and QRS ≥ 120 ms. All parameters were evaluated by conventional and tissue Doppler-based methods. Indicator of positive CRT response was more than 20% in improvement of LVEF. RESULTS: LVEF increased >20% in 42 patients. Out of 43 tested baseline echocardiographic parameters, 12 showed statistical difference between responders and nonresponders. Out of these 12 parameters, six (LVSV, LVSI, LVFS, RVd, VPMR, and PISA) had modest to moderately good ability to predict LVEF response with sensitivity ranging from 62.2% to 82.4%, and specificity ranging from 56.5% to 81.2%. For those parameters, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for positive response to CRT was ≤0.76. Multivariate regression analysis resulted in selection of LVSI and LVFS as possible predictive independent parameters for a good response. The cutoff value for LVSI was 38.7 mL/m(2) (P = 0.045) and for LVFS was 13% (P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: Contribution of LVSI and LVFS is to be confirmed in larger trials. Simplicity of their assessment by conventional echocardiography could be an argument for adding them to the inclusion criteria for CRT in severe heart failure patients.


Assuntos
Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Srp Arh Celok Lek ; 139(9-10): 591-8, 2011.
Artigo em Sérvio | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22069992

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atrioventricular (AV) junction ablation coupled with pacemaker implantation is an effective therapeutic option for rate control in atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). However, there is controversy regarding the long-term outcome of the procedure, since right ventricular stimulation can lead to left ventricular remodelling and HF. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine a 5-year outcome of the procedure on survival, HF control and myocardial function in patients with HF and uncontrolled AF. METHODS: All patients with AF and HF who underwent AV-junction ablation with pacemaker implantation in our institution were followed after the procedure. HF diagnosis was established if > or = 2 of the following criteria were present: 1) ejection fraction (EF) < or = 45%; 2) previous episode of congestive HF (CHF); 3) NYHA-class > or = 2; and 4) use of drug-therapy for HF. RESULTS: Study included 32 patients (25 males; 53.4 +/- 9.6 years). The mean heart rate was 121 +/- 25 bpm before and 75 +/- 10 bpm after ablation (p=0.001). Over the follow-up of 5.0 +/- 4.0 years nine patients (28.1%) died (five died suddenly, three of terminal CHF and one of stroke). After the procedure, CHF occurrence was reduced (p=0.001), as well as the annual number of hospitalizations (p=0.001) and the number of drugs for CHF (p=0.028). In addition, NYHA-class and EF were improved, from 3.3 +/- 0.7 to 1.6 +/- 0.8 (p<0.001) and from 39 +/- 11% to 51 +/- 10% (p<0.001), respectively. CONCLUSION: In HF patients with uncontrolled AF, 5-year mortality after AV-junction ablation and pacemaker implantation was 28%. In the majority of these patients good rate of AF and HF control were achieved, as well as the improvement of functional status and myocardial contractility.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Ablação por Cateter , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Marca-Passo Artificial , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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