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1.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 78, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have empowered people to communicate and network at a global scale. However, there is lack of in-depth understanding of the use of ICTs for women's empowerment. This study examines how the concept empowerment is defined, utilized and measured in research studies, the existing evidence on the use of ICTs for women's empowerment and the gaps in knowledge at the global level. METHODS: The authors' conducted a scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley methodology. The search identified papers from ten databases, including Scopus, Embase, ABI Inform, Soc Index, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies, Springer Link, PsychInfo, Science Direct, and Academic Search Complete over the period of 2012-2018. Search criteria included articles that focused on women's empowerment and utilized technologies as interventions. Out of a total of 4481 articles that were initially identified, 51 were included. RESULTS: Technology played a variety of roles in supporting the development of women's capacities and resources. Results revealed the use of ICT interventions in the overarching areas of outreach (e.g., health promotion), education (e.g., health literacy opportunities), lifestyle (e.g., peer coaching and planning), prevention (e.g., screening opportunities), health challenges (e.g., intimate partner violence apps), and perceptions of barriers (i.e., uptake, utilization and ubiquity to ICTs for women). Despite the positive use of technology to support women in their daily lives, there was a lack of consensus regarding the definition and use of the term empowerment. The concept of empowerment was also inconsistently and poorly measured in individual studies making it difficult to determine if it was achieved. CONCLUSION: This scoping review provides a comprehensive review of current and emerging efforts to use ICTs to empower women. The findings suggest a need for collaborative efforts between researchers, program implementers and policy makers as well as the various communities of women to address the persistent gender disparities with respect to ICTs.

2.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e038818, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563618

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unfortunately, like many other health risks, smoking rate has been on the rise in developing countries. Half of current smokers in the world reside in only three countries of Asia that include India. Many smoking cessation interventions that were developed and successfully implemented in the context of developed countries have not been equally successful in South Asia. Hence, there is a dire need of culturally relevant smoking cessation interventions. We propose a scoping review with objectives to explore the extent and nature of interventions for smoking cessation and its associated factors in South Asian Region by systematically reviewing the available published and unpublished literature. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The review has been registered in Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) systematic reviews register and details are given in the Methodology section. The updated framework of JBI for scoping review methodology will be used as guide for conduct of this scoping review. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL plus, Proquest Theses and Dissertations, EBSCO Dentistry and Oral Sciences, and Wiley Cochrane Library), reference lists of selected studies and grey literature will be considered for inclusion in this review. The literature search is anticipated to be carried out in December-January 2020. Initially, two reviewers in consultation with a librarian will develop search syntax followed by search from the selected sources. Consequently, the reviewers will screen all the titles, abstracts and full articles to establish relevance of each study for inclusion. Factors associated with smoking cessation will be coded and categorised applying qualitative content analysis, while interventions extracted from the literature will be described with the stated level of effectiveness.

3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition is one of the most common problems among people living with HIV, contributing to premature death and the development of comorbidities within this population. In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the impacts of these often inter-related conditions appear in a series of fragmented and inconclusive studies. Thus, this review examines the pooled effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidities among adults living with HIV in SSA. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted from PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Scopus databases. All observational studies reporting the effects of undernutrition on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV in SSA were included. Heterogeneity between the included studies was assessed using the Cochrane Q-test and I2 statistics. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's and Begg's tests at a 5% significance level. Finally, a random-effects meta-analysis model was employed to estimate the overall adjusted hazard ratio. RESULTS: Of 4309 identified studies, 53 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Of these, 40 studies were available for the meta-analysis. A meta-analysis of 23 cohort studies indicated that undernutrition significantly (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.8, 2.4) increased the risk of mortality among adults living with HIV, while severely undernourished adults living with HIV were at higher risk of death (AHR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9, 2.8) as compared to mildly undernourished adults living with HIV. Furthermore, the pooled estimates of ten cohort studies revealed that undernutrition significantly increased the risk of developing tuberculosis (AHR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.7) among adults living with HIV. CONCLUSION: This review found that undernutrition has significant effects on mortality and morbidity among adults living with HIV. As the degree of undernutrition became more severe, mortality rate also increased. Therefore, findings from this review may be used to update the nutritional guidelines used for the management of PLHIV by different stakeholders, especially in limited-resource settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Morbidade , Prevalência , Tuberculose/etiologia
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e040302, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In line with the child survival and gender equality targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 3 and 5, we aimed to: (1) estimate the age and sex-specific mortality trends in child-related SDG indicators (ie, neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-five mortality rate (U5MR)) over the 1960s-2017 period, and (2) estimate the expected annual reduction rates needed to achieve the SDG-3 targets by projecting rates from 2018 to 2030. DESIGN: Group method of data handling-type artificial neural network (GMDH-type ANN) time series. METHODS: This study used an artificial intelligence time series (GMDH-type ANN) to forecast age-specific childhood mortality rates (neonatal and under-five) and sex-specific U5MR from 2018 to 2030. The data sets were the yearly historical mortality rates between 1960s and 2017, obtained from the World Bank website. Two scenarios of mortality trajectories were simulated: (1) status quo scenarios-assuming the current trend continues; and (2) acceleration scenarios-consistent with the SDG targets. RESULTS: At the projected rates of decline of 2.0% for NMR and 1.2% for U5MR, Nigeria will not achieve the child survival SDG targets by 2030. Unexpectedly, U5MR will begin to increase by 2028. To put Nigeria back on track, annual reduction rates of 7.8% for NMR and 10.7% for U5MR are required. Also, female U5MR is decreasing more slowly than male U5MR. At the end of SDG era, female deaths will be higher than male deaths (80.9 vs 62.6 deaths per 1000 live births). CONCLUSION: Nigeria is not likely to achieve SDG targets for child survival and gender equities because female disadvantages will worsen. A plausible reason for the projected increase in female mortality is societal discrimination and victimisation faced by female child. Stakeholders in Nigeria need to adequately plan for child health to achieve SDG targets by 2030. Addressing gender inequities in childhood mortality in Nigeria would require gender-sensitive policies and community mobilisation against gender-based discrimination towards female child.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 902, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following delivery by caesarean section, surgical site infection is the most common infectious complication. Despite a large number of caesarean sections performed at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, there was no study documenting the incidence of surgical site infection after caesarean section. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section at Debre-Markos Referral Hospital in Amhara region, North-west Ethiopia. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among 520 pregnant women who had a caesarean section between March 28, 2019 and August 31, 2019. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Data was entered using EpiData™ Entry Version 4.1 software and analyzed using R Version 3.6.1 software. A descriptive analysis was conducted using tables, interquartile ranges and median. The time to development of surgical site infection was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox regression model for bivariable and multivariable analyses was done. Adjusted Hazard Ratio (AHR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was reported to show the strength of association. RESULT: The mean age of the study cohort was 27.4 ± 4.8 years. The overall cumulative incidence of surgical site infection was 25.4% with an incidence of 11.7 (95% CI:9.8,13.9) per 1000 person/days. Not able to read and write (AHR = 1.30,95% CI:1.19,2.11), no antenatal care (AHR = 2.16, 95%CI:1.05,4.53), previous history of CS (AHR = 1.21, 95% CI:1.11,2.31), HIV positive (AHR = 1.39, 95% CI:1.21,2.57), emergency procedure (AHR = 1.13, 95% CI:1.11,2.43), vertical type of incision (AHR = 2.60, 95% CI:1.05,6.44), rupture of membrane (AHR = 1.50, 95% CI:1.31,1.64), multiple vaginal examination (AHR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.71, 3.20) were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that the incidence of surgical site infection following caesarean section was relatively high compared to previous studies. Not able to read and write, have no ante natal care, previous history of caesarean section, HIV, emergency surgery, vertical type of incision, rupture of membranes before caesarean section, and multiple vaginal examinations were significant predictors of surgical site infection in this study. Therefore, intervention programs should focus on and address the identified factors to minimize and prevent the infection rate after caesarean section.

6.
Infect Dis Ther ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tropical diseases are public health problems affecting hundreds of millions of people globally. However, the development of adequate, affordable, and accessible treatments is mostly neglected, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality that could otherwise be averted. Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan Leishmania parasite and transmitted by the bite of infected phlebotomine sandflies. No systematic review and meta-analysis has been done to identify the prevalence and risk factors of leishmaniasis to the authors' knowledge. Therefore, the objective was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of human leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. METHODS: Eleven studies conducted in all regions of Ethiopia, which were fully accessible, written in any language, and original articles done on prevalence and risk factors of leishmaniasis, were included. STATA™ version 11.1 was used for statistical analysis. Chi-square, I2, and p values were assessed to check heterogeneity. A random effects model with heterogeneity taken from an inverse-variance model was employed to estimate the pooled effect. Subgroup meta-analysis was computed to reduce random variations among each article's point prevalence, and Egger and funnel plots were used to check for publication bias. RESULTS: The highest proportion of human leishmaniasis was reported from a study done in Amhara region (39.1%), and the lowest was reported from a survey done in Tigray (2.3%). The overall pooled prevalence of leishmaniasis was 9.13% (95% CI 5-13.27). Subgroup analysis by region revealed moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 51.8%) in studies conducted in the Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). The presence of hyraxes and being male were associated with an increased risk of human leishmaniasis. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia remains high (9.13%), with significant risk factors being male and the presence of hyraxes within a 300-m radius of the sleeping area.

7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1613, 2020 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Child survival is a major concern in Nigeria, as it contributes 13% of the global under-five mortalities. Although studies have examined the determinants of under-five mortality in Nigeria, the comparative roles of social determinants of health at the different stages of early childhood development have not been concurrently investigated. This study, therefore, aimed to identify the social determinants of age-specific childhood (0-59 months) mortalities, which are disaggregated into neonatal mortality (0-27 days), post-neonatal mortality (1-11 months) and child mortality (12-59 months), and estimate the within-and between-community variations of mortality among under-five children in Nigeria. This study provides evidence to guide stakeholders in planning for effective child survival strategies in the Nigerian communities during the Sustainable Development Goals era. METHODS: Using the 2016/2017 Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, we performed multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis on data of a nationally representative sample of 29,786 (weighted = 30,960) live births delivered 5 years before the survey to 18,497 women aged 15-49 years and nested within 16,151 households and 2227 communities. RESULTS: Determinants of under-five mortality differ across the neonatal, post-neonatal and toddler/pre-school stages in Nigeria. Unexpectedly, attendance of skilled health providers during delivery was associated with an increased neonatal mortality risk, although its effect disappeared during post-neonatal and toddler/pre-school stages. Also, our study found maternal-level factors such as maternal education, contraceptive use, maternal wealth index, parity, death of previous children, and quality of perinatal care accounted for high variation (39%) in childhood mortalities across the communities. The inclusion of other compositional and contextual factors had no significant additional effect on childhood mortality risks across the communities. CONCLUSION: This study reinforces the importance of maternal-level factors in reducing childhood mortality, independent of the child, household, and community-level characteristics in the Nigerian communities. To tackle childhood mortalities in the communities, government-led strategies should prioritize implementation of community-based and community-specific interventions aimed at improving socioeconomic conditions of women. Training and continuous mentoring with adequate supervision of skilled health workers must be ensured to improve the quality of perinatal care in Nigeria.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240850, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, diabetes is a major public health burden that results in more than 3.2 million adult deaths per year. Currently, diabetes is increasingly becoming a major threat to global public health, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Although previous studies emphasized knowledge and health beliefs about diabetes among patients living with diabetes, there is minimal evidence about knowledge and perception of risk for developing diabetes at the community level. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception of diabetes mellitus and its associated factors among people in Debre Berhan town, northeast Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 423 participants. The study was carried out from 25 February to 10 March 2019. Data were collected using a structured pretested questionnaire through face-to-face interviews. Data were entered into Epi data V 3.1 and exported to SPSS V 24 for analysis. A variable with p< 0.2 in bivariable analysis was entered into multivariable logistic regression. During multivariate analysis, variables with a p value of ≤ 0.05 were considered significantly associated. RESULT: A total of 237 (56.02%) participants had good general knowledge about diabetes mellitus. In the multivariable analysis, participants who were single (AOR = 9.08, CI: 1.72-48), had a family history of diabetes (AOR = 2.83; CI: 1.10-7.24), and had exposure to health education (AOR = 3.27; CI: 2.02-5.31) were associated with good knowledge. In this study, few respondents (20.1%) felt that they had a higher risk of developing diabetes. Two-thirds of respondents (62.4%) saw diabetes is a serious disease. On the other hand, approximately 67% agreed to the perceived benefits of screening. CONCLUSION: Almost half of the Debre Berhan community was found to have inadequate knowledge of diabetes mellitus. Married, higher educational status, exposure to health education, and family history of diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with good knowledge. The perceived risk of developing diabetes was low at the community level, although many respondents felt that behavior change is important in the prevention of diabetes. Therefore, policy makers, healthcare managers, and healthcare workers need to work cooperatively to foster community knowledge towards diabetes mellitus.

9.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3727-3737, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116693

RESUMO

Background: With the onset of any novel condition, it is the "first" case identified that brings attention and sets into motion the machinery to respond - so it began with a first novel pneumonia case of unknown origin in Wuhan, China. Currently, the World Health Organization has declared SARS-CoV-2 (more commonly known as COVID-19) a public health emergency of international concern. It is projected that the path of COVID-19 could kill 50-80 million people and impacts the world's economy in its devastating global sweep. The surge is increasing on global and national levels, causing rapid loss of life, joblessness, deterioration of the healthcare systems, and both national and global economies. In Ethiopia, the first COVID-19 case was reported in March. Since then, the government has been taking different measures to prevent its spread. Locking down all schools, declared social distancing and hand hygiene, and restricting large gatherings were some of the Ethiopian government's actions. Objective: To determine knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 pandemic among quarantined adults in Tigrai region, Ethiopia. Methods: A total of 331 participants selected using a systematic random sampling method were included in the study. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire. After describing the variables using frequencies, means, and standard deviations, multivariable logistic regression determined factors associated with knowledge and chi-squared tests for attitudes and practices towards COVID-19. Results: The study participants were primarily males (70%) and mean age 30.5 (SD=11) years. The mean knowledge score was 8.73 (SD=2.64), with less than half 42.9% (95% CI: 37.5-48%) of the study participants were knowledgeable. Regarding the attitude questions, three-fourths of the participants believed that Ethiopia will control and win the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic. Nearly one-third of the participants replied that the Ethiopian government is handling this pandemic health crisis well. About half of the study participants reported that they had gone to crowded places in recent days, did not wear face mask when leaving home, and practiced preventive measures given by local health authorities. Knowledge score was statistically significantly associated with gender, age, and educational status of the study participants, whereas attitude and practices were significantly associated with educational status and knowledge of participants.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241341, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia about 25% of rural women are chronically malnourished. Non-pregnant and non-lactating women present an opportunity to implement strategies to correct maternal and child health status and to potentiate improved pregnancy outcomes in developing countries like Ethiopia. The determinant factors of chronic energy deficiency vary across settings and contexts; hence, it is important to identify local determinant factors in order to implement effective and efficient intervention strategies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the determinants of chronic energy deficiency of non-pregnant, non-lactating rural women within the reproductive age group (15-49 years), in rural kebeles of Dera district, North West Ethiopia, 2019. METHODS: A community based unmatched case control study was conducted. A total of 552 participants were involved and a multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the samples. Data was collected from January 15 to February 30, 2019 using face-to-face interviews and anthropometric assessments. EPI-info version 7 and SPSS™ version 23 were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between dependent and independent variables. Association was considered statistically significant at 95% CI with p-value < 0.05 in multivariable logistic regression. RESULT: A total of 548 non-pregnant, non-lactating women with 137 cases and 411 controls were included in the study with a response rate of 99.3%. High family size (AOR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.085, 3.275), low educational status (AOR = 3.389, 95% CI: 1.075, 10.683), inadequate meal frequency (AOR = 5.345, 95% CI: 2.266, 12.608), absence of home garden (AOR = 5.612, 95% CI: 3.177, 9.915) and absence of latrine facility (AOR = 6.365, 95% CI: 3.534, 11.462) were found positively associated with chronic energy deficiency. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Inadequate meal frequency, absence of home gardening, absence of latrine facility, high family size and educational status of illiterate were the determinants of chronic energy deficiency, thus indicating the imperative for a multi-sectoral approach with health, agriculture and education entities developing and delivering interventions.

11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(6): 1941-1949, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33039936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy is a frequent cause of acquired blindness worldwide. Various studies have reported the effects of glycemic control on the risk of diabetic retinopathy, but the results remain inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis was performed to determine the association between glycated hemoglobin A1C levels and diabetic retinopathy in Africa. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using the PubMed, African Journals Online, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Wiley Online Library from inception to June 11, 2020, for observational studies addressing the association of hemoglobin A1c levels with diabetic retinopathy. The I2 statistic was used to check heterogeneity across the included studies. A random-effects model was applied to estimate the pooled effect size (OR) and respective 95% confidence interval across studies. A funnel plot and Egger's regression test were used to determine the presence of publication bias. Sensitivity analysis was used to determine the effect of a single study on the overall estimation. All statistical analyses were performed using STATA™ Version 14 software. RESULT: A total of 23 articles with 18,099 study participants were included in this meta-analysis. In the present review, when HbA1c was analyzed as a categorical variable, poor glycemic control (HbA1c >7%) was associated with an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy when compared with good glycemic control (OR = 1.25; 95% CI; 1.14, 1.38). Similarly, when HbA1c was analyzed as a continuous variable, a higher HbA1c was associated with an increased risk of diabetic retinopathy (MD: 0.42, 95% CI; 0.11, 0.98). CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis indicated evidence for poor glycemic control as an independent risk factor for the development of diabetic retinopathy in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the authors suggest that clinicians should advise their patients with diabetes to maintain their HbA1c levels within the normal range.

13.
BMC Nutr ; 6: 52, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974038

RESUMO

Background: Despite continued efforts to address malnutrition, there is minimal reduction in the prevalence rates of stunting in developing countries, including Ethiopia. The association between nutritional and socioeconomic factors collected from a national survey in Ethiopia and stunting have not been rigorously analyzed. Therefore, this study aims to model the effect of nutritional and socioeconomic predictors using 2016 Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) data. Methods: This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2016 EDHS survey, which included 7909 children aged 6 to59 months. Descriptive statistics using frequency and percentage for categorical data and mean and standard deviation for metric data were conducted. Linearity, confounding, and multicollinearity were checked. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression were carried out. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. A receiver operative curve was built to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the model. Results: The study identified that 39.2% of children included in this analysis were stunted. Furthermore, 76.47, 84.27, and 92.62% of the children did not consume fruits and vegetables, legumes and lentils, or meat and its products, respectively. Children aged 24 months to 59 months were found to be at 9.71 times higher risk of being stunted compared to their younger counterparts aged 6-24 months (AOR: 9.71; CI: 8.07, 11.6 children). Those children weighing below 9.1 kg were at 27.86 odds of being stunted compared to those weighing 23.3 kg and above. Moreover, mothers with a height below 150 cm (AOR: 2.01; CI: 1.76, 2.5), living in a rural area (AOR: 1.3, CI: 1.09, 1.54), and being male (AOR: 1.4; CI: 1.26, 1.56) were factors associated with stunting. The predictive ability of the model was 77%: if a pair of observations with stunted and non-stunted children were taken, the model correctly ranks 77% of such pair of observations. Conclusion: The model indicates that being born male, being from a mother of short stature, living in rural areas, small child size, mother with mild anemia, father having no formal education or primary education only, having low child weight, and being 24-59 months of age increases the likelihood of stunting. On the other hand, being born of an overweight or obese mother decreases the likelihood of stunting.

14.
Pediatric Health Med Ther ; 11: 283-295, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922118

RESUMO

This review aimed primarily to investigate the current trends of overweight and obesity in school children in the African context, secondly to explore the contribution of home and school environments on the children's food choices and lastly suggesting measures for creating a healthier food environment. Despite the increase in overweight and obesity among school children, empirical evidence on their determinants in the African context is scarce, thus calls for consideration of home and school environments. A literature search was conducted between October and December 2018 using Medline (PubMed), Directory of Open Access Journals, Google Scholar, manual search and "grey" literature. This review included articles published between the 1st January 2008 and 30th June 2018. Out of 343 articles, 49 were included for the full text reading after meeting the inclusion criteria. Five reports from grey literature were also included. Results show that the prevalence of overweight and obesity among school children in Africa is increasing and ranges from <5% to >40% in the 10-year period in which the review was taken. High socio-economic status, urban residence and female gender predicted higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. Few reviewed articles on the contribution of home and school environments on children's food choices showed a shred of evidence, thus calls for further research to address this gap. This review found an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children in Africa. Therefore, further investigation of home and school environment is imperative to curb the increase in the magnitude of overweight and obesity.

15.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1303, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been available for more than a decade in Ethiopia, information regarding mortality rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children after antiretroviral therapy antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is very scarce. Thus, this study intends to determine the predictors of mortality among HIV-positive children receiving ART in Amhara Region. METHODS: A multicenter facility-based historical cohort study was conducted in 538 HIV-positive children on ART from January 2012 to February 2017. We employed a standardized data extraction tool, adapted from ART entry and follow-up forms. Descriptive analyses were summarized using the Kaplan-Meier survival curve and log rank test. Then, the Cox-proportional hazard regression model was employed to estimate the hazard of death up to five-years after ART initiation. Variables with p-values ≤0.25 in bivariable analysis were candidates to the multivariable analysis. Finally, variables with p-values < 0.05 were considered as significant variables. RESULTS: The cohort contributed a total follow-up time of 14,600 child-months, with an overall mortality rate of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.3, 4.3) per 100 child-years. This study also indicated that HIV-infected children presenting with opportunistic infections (OIs) (AHR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.04, 5.9), anemia (AHR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.7), severe immunodeficiency (AHR: 4.4, 95% CI: 1.7, 11.7), severe stunting (AHR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.4, 8.0), severe wasting (AHR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.3, 7.3), and advanced disease staging (III and IV) (AHR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 7.1) were at higher risk of mortality. CONCLUSION: A higher rate of mortality was observed in our study as compared to previous Ethiopian studies. HIV-positive children presenting with anemia, OIs, severe immunodeficiency, advanced disease staging (III and IV), severe stunting, and severe wasting were at higher risk of mortality.

16.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 118, 2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Undernutrition remains a major public health concern affecting both children and adolescents in Ethiopia. However, little attention has been given to the undernutrition of primary school-aged children, with their exclusion within national surveys. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine pooled estimate and determinant factors of undernutrition among primary school-aged children (6 to 15 years of age) in Ethiopia. METHOD: We systematically retrieved available articles on the prevalence of undernutrition in primary school-aged children in Ethiopia by using a number of computerized databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and Science Direct between September 1 and November 25, 2019. Two authors independently extracted relevant data using a standardized data extraction form. Heterogeneity among included studies was assessed with the Cochrane Q test statistics and Higgins I2 tests. The pooled estimates and determinant factors of school-aged undernutrition were assessed with random-effects model using Stata/se Version 14. RESULT: We have retrieved 30 eligible articles with pooled sample size of 16,642 primary school- aged children to determine the prevalence of undernutrition in Ethiopia. Hence, the pooled prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting were found to be 21.3% (95% CI: 17.0, 25.5), 18.2% (95% CI: 14.4, 22.0) and 17.7% (95% CI, 13.5, 21.8) respectively. Heterogeneity was assessed by doing subgroup analysis for study province/region. Thus, the highest prevalence of stunting was 27.6% (95% CI, 20.7, 34.5) and underweight 22.7% (95% CI, 19.2, 26.3) in Amhara Region while, in the instance of wasting, it was 19.3%(95% CI: 5.1, 33.4) in Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region. Maternal educational status (OR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.73), age of school-aged child (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.72) and sex of school-aged child (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85) were found to be significantly associated with stunting. Maternal educational status (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.9) and age of school-aged child (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.81, 4.14) were associated with thinness/wasting. Parasitic infection (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.73) were associated with underweight of school age children. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of stunting and underweight among primary school-aged children are moderately high while acute undernutrition (wasting) is more critical than under-five national average as reported in the 2016 Ethiopian Demography and Health Survey. Therefore, this finding warrants the need to design a school-aged children nutrition survey and expand school feeding programs to improve the nutritional status of primary school-aged children in the country. In addition, emphasis should be given to female school-aged children in the early school years, creating awareness for those mothers who lack formal education, and preventing and treating/deworming parasitic infection. Moreover, researchers must conduct research in province/regions which have not yet studied school aged children's nutritional status to date.

17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235544, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although respiratory distress is one of the major causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the globe, it is a particularly serious concern for nations like Ethiopia that have significant resource limitations. Additionally, few studies have looked at neonatal respiratory distress and its predictors in developing countries, and thus we sought to investigate this issue in neonates who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Black Lion Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted with 571 neonates from January 2013 to March 2018. Data were collected by reviewing patients' charts using a systematic sampling technique with a pretested checklist. The data was then entered using Epi-data 4.2 and analyzed with STATA 14. Median time, Kaplan-Meier survival estimation curves, and log-rank tests were then computed. Bivariable and multivariable Gompertz parametric hazard models were fitted to detect the determinants of respiratory distress. The hazard ratio with a 95% confidence interval was subsequently calculated. Variables with reported p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The proportion of neonates with respiratory distress among those admitted to the Black Lion Specialized Hospital neonatal intensive care unit was 42.9% (95%CI: 39.3-46.1%) The incidence rate was 8.1/100 (95%CI: 7.3, 8.9). Significant predictors of respiratory distress in neonates included being male [Adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 3.1)], born via caesarean section [AHR: 1.9 (95%CI: 1.6, 2.3)], home delivery [AHR: 2.9 (95%CI: 1.5, 5,2)], maternal diabetes mellitus (AHR: 2.3 (95%CI: 1.4, 3.6)), preterm birth [AHR: 2.9 (95%CI: 1.6, 5.1)], and having an Apgar score of less than 7 [AHR: 3.1 (95%CI: 1.8, 5.0)]. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the proportion of respiratory distress (RD) was high. Preterm birth, delivery by caesarean section, Apgar score < 7, sepsis, maternal diabetes mellitus, and home delivery were all significant predictors of this condition. Based on our findings this would likely include encouraging more hospital births, better control of diabetes in pregnancy, improved neonatal resuscitation and addressing ways to decrease the need for frequent caesarean sections.


Assuntos
Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Recém-Nascido , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Prognóstico , Transtornos Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
J Clin Transl Endocrinol ; 21: 100232, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685380

RESUMO

Background: Erectile dysfunction in men is a common underestimated complication of diabetes mellitus, which is becoming a significant public health problem both in developing and developed countries. Erectile dysfunction threatens the well-being of clients, hence determining its risk factors and controlling it at an early stage is vital to preventing serious consequences and the burden of the disease. Therefore, this study aimed to systematically evaluate erectile dysfunction risk factors in patients with diabetes mellitus in Africa. Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, African Journals Online, Wiley Online Library and Google Scholar were searched and complemented by manual searches. Egger's regression test was used to determine publication bias. The I2 statistic was used to check heterogeneity between the studies. DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model was applied to estimate pooled effect size, odds ratios, and 95% confidence interval across studies. STATA version 14 statistical software was used for the meta-analysis. Result: Overall, 17 studies with 6002 study participants were included to identify risk factors of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients. Duration of diabetes mellitus >10 years (AOR = 2.63; 95% CI 1.27, 5.43), age >40 years (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.51), peripheral neuropathy (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.51, 10.72), no physical exercise (AOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.49, 1.78), testosterone level <8 nmol/l (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.06, 12.86), and peripheral vascular disease (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI: 1.54-5.27) were significantly associated with erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients. Conclusions: This study found that long duration of diabetes mellitus, age >40 years, testosterone deficiency, peripheral neuropathy, not involved in physical exercise, peripheral vascular disease, were significantly associated with increased risk of erectile dysfunction among diabetic patients Therefore, situation-based interventions and country context-specific preventive strategies should be developed to decrease the risk factors of erectile dysfunction among patients with diabetes mellitus.

19.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234318, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to expand access to institutional delivery alone without quality of care do not guarantee better survival. However, little evidence documents the quality of childbirth care in Ethiopia, which limits our ability to improve quality. Therefore, this study assessed the quality of and barriers to routine childbirth care signal functions during intra-partum and immediate postpartum period. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed method study was conducted among 225 skilled birth attendants who attended 876 recently delivered women in primary level facilities. A multi stage sampling procedure was used for the quantitative phase whilst purposive sampling was used for the qualitative phase. The quantitative survey recruitment occurred in July to August 2018 and in April 2019 for the qualitative key informant interview and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). A validated quantitative tool from a previous validated measurement study was used to collect quantitative data, whereas an interview guide, informed by the literature and quantitative findings, was used to collect the qualitative data. Principal component analysis and a series of univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis were used to analyze the quantitative data. For the qualitative data, verbatim review of the data was iteratively followed by content analysis and triangulation with the quantitative results. RESULTS: This study showed that one out of five (20.7%, n = 181) mothers received high quality of care in primary level facilities. Primary hospitals (ß = 1.27, 95% CI:0.80,1.84, p = 0.001), facilities which had staff rotation policies (ß = 2.19, 95% CI:0.01,4.31, p = 0.019), maternal involvement in care decisions (ß = 0.92, 95% CI:0.38,1.47, p = 0.001), facilities with maternal and newborn health quality improvement initiatives (ß = 1.58, 95% CI:0.26, 3.43, p = 0.001), compassionate respectful maternity care training (ß = 0.08, 95% CI: 0.07,0.88, p = 0.021), client flow for delivery (ß = 0.19, 95% CI:-0.34, -0.04, p = 0.012), mentorship (ß = 0.02, 95% CI:0.01, 0.78, p = 0.049), and providers' satisfaction (ß = 0.16, 95% CI:0.03, 0.29, p = 0.013) were predictors of quality of care. This is complemented by qualitative research findings that poor quality of care during delivery and immediate postpartum related to: work related burnout, gap between providers' skill and knowledge, lack of enabling working environment, poor motivation scheme and issues related to retention, poor providers caring behavior, unable translate training into practice, mismatch between number of provider and facility client flow for delivery, and in availability of essential medicine and supplies. CONCLUSIONS: There is poor quality of childbirth care in primary level facilities of Tigray. Primary hospitals, facilities with staff rotation, maternal and newborn health quality improvement initiatives, maternal involvement in care decisions, training on compassionate respectful maternity care, mentorship, and high provider satisfaction were found to have significantly increased quality of care. However, client flow for delivery service is negatively associated with quality of care. Efforts must be made to improve the quality of care through catchment-based mentorship to increase providers' level of adherence to good practices and standards. More attention and thoughtful strategies are required to minimize providers' work-related burnout.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Instalações de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tocologia/normas , Tocologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermagem Obstétrica/normas , Enfermagem Obstétrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/normas , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto , Assistência Perinatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 473-480, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32547269

RESUMO

Background: Psychological distress is defined as a state of emotional suffering characterized by the combination of symptoms of depression and anxiety. It is more prevalent in school adolescents than in the general population. There are no published studies that reflect the current status of psychological distress among Ethiopian school adolescents. So, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among secondary students in Mekelle Town, North Ethiopia. Methods: A school-based cross-sectional study was done among 782 from May 15 to June 15, 2018. Stratified multistage sampling procedure was used to select study subjects. Data were collected using a pretested and structured self-administered questionnaire. Psychological distress was assessed using Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10). Binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors. Adjusted odds ratio with its 95% confidence interval was used to declare the statistical significance between psychological distress and associated factors. Results: A total of 845 students were enrolled in the study, with a response rate of 92.54%. The mean age of the participants was 16.24 years (SD=±1.17). Prevalence of psychological distress among the study participants was 34.9%. Being female [AOR = 2.30; 95% CI: (1.28, 4.12)], current alcohol use [AOR = 3.08; 95% CI: (1.64, 5.77)], physical fight [AOR = 2.99; 95% CI: (1.69-5.28)], contact sexual abuse [AOR=2.37; 95% CI: (1.23, 4.55)], non-contact sexual abuse [AOR = 1.91; 95% CI: (1.04, 3.49)], and being bullied [AOR = 1.81; 95% CI: (1.03, 3.29)] were significantly associated with psychological distress. Conclusion: The prevalence of psychological distress in this study was high. Therefore, it is recommended to strengthen the activities that help to reduce or ameliorate the major causes of psychological distress.

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