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J Biomed Opt ; 26(1)2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386709


SIGNIFICANCE: Deep-tissue penetration by x-rays to induce optical responses of specific molecular reporters is a new way to sense and image features of tissue function in vivo. Advances in this field are emerging, as biocompatible probes are invented along with innovations in how to optimally utilize x-ray sources. AIM: A comprehensive review is provided of the many tools and techniques developed for x-ray-induced optical molecular sensing, covering topics ranging from foundations of x-ray fluorescence imaging and x-ray tomography to the adaptation of these methods for sensing and imaging in vivo. APPROACH: The ways in which x-rays can interact with molecules and lead to their optical luminescence are reviewed, including temporal methods based on gated acquisition and multipoint scanning for improved lateral or axial resolution. RESULTS: While some known probes can generate light upon x-ray scintillation, there has been an emergent recognition that excitation of molecular probes by x-ray-induced Cherenkov light is also possible. Emission of Cherenkov radiation requires a threshold energy of x-rays in the high kV or MV range, but has the advantage of being able to excite a broad range of optical molecular probes. In comparison, most scintillating agents are more readily activated by lower keV x-ray energies but are composed of crystalline inorganic constituents, although some organic biocompatible agents have been designed as well. Methods to create high-resolution structured x-ray-optical images are now available, based upon unique scanning approaches and/or a priori knowledge of the scanned x-ray beam geometry. Further improvements in spatial resolution can be achieved by careful system design and algorithm optimization. Current applications of these hybrid x-ray-optical approaches include imaging of tissue oxygenation and pH as well as of certain fluorescent proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Discovery of x-ray-excited reporters combined with optimized x-ray scan sequences can improve imaging resolution and sensitivity.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 30: 101790, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344195


BACKGROUND: Hypoxic lesions often respond poorly to cancer therapies. Particularly, photodynamic therapy (PDT) consumes oxygen in treated tissues, which in turn lowers its efficacy. Tools for online monitoring of intracellular pO2 are desirable. METHODS: The pO2 changes were tracked during photodynamic therapy (PDT) with δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) in mouse skin, xenograft tumors, and human skin. ALA was applied either topically as Ameluz cream or systemically by injection. Mitochondrial pO2 was quantified by time-gated lifetime-based imaging of delayed fluorescence (DF) of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). RESULTS: pO2-weighted images were obtained with capture-times of several seconds, radiant exposures near 10 mJ/cm2, spatial resolution of 0.3 mm, and a broad dynamic range 1-50 mmHg, corresponding to DF lifetimes ≈20-2000 µs. The dose-rate effect on oxygen consumption was investigated in mouse skin. A fluence rate of 1.2 mW/cm2 did not cause any appreciable oxygen depletion, whereas 6 mW/cm2 and 12 mW/cm2 caused severe oxygen depletion after radiant exposures of only 0.4-0.8 J/cm2 and <0.2 J/cm2, respectively. Reoxygenation after PDT was studied too. With a 5 J/cm2 radiant exposure, the recovery times were 10-60 min, whereas with 2 J/cm2 they were only 1-6 min. pO2 distribution was spatially non-uniform at (sub)-millimeter scale, which underlines the necessity of tracking pO2 changes by imaging rather than point-detection. CONCLUSIONS: Time-gated imaging of PpIX DF seems to be a unique tool for direct online monitoring of pO2 changes during PDT with a promising potential for research purposes as well as for comparatively easy clinical translation to improve efficacy in PDT treatment.