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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202728


The prognosis of patients with oral squamous carcinoma (OSCC) largely depends on the stage at diagnosis, the 5-year survival rate being approximately 30% for advanced tumors. Early diagnosis, including the detection of lesions at risk for malignant transformation, is crucial for limiting the need for extensive surgery and for improving disease-free survival. Saliva has gained popularity as a readily available source of biomarkers (including cytokines) useful for diagnosing specific oral and systemic conditions. Particularly, the close interaction between oral dysplastic/neoplastic cells and saliva makes such fluid an ideal candidate for the development of non-invasive and highly accurate diagnostic tests. The present review has been designed to answer the question: "Is there evidence to support the role of specific salivary cytokines in the diagnosis of OSCC?" We retrieved 27 observational studies satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Among the most frequent cytokines investigated as candidates for OSCC biomarkers, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α are present at higher concentration in the saliva of OSCC patients than in healthy controls and may therefore serve as basis for the development of rapid tests for early diagnosis of oral cancer.

Biomarcadores , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Bucais/metabolismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Prognóstico
Metabolites ; 10(8)2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781584


The detection of salivary molecules associated with pathological and physiological alterations has encouraged the search of novel and non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for oral health evaluation. While genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic profiles of human saliva have been reported, its metabolic composition is a topic of research: metabolites in submandibular/sublingual saliva have never been analyzed systematically. In this study, samples of whole, parotid, and submandibular/sublingual saliva from 20 healthy donors, without dental or periodontal diseases, were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance. We identified metabolites which are differently distributed within the three saliva subtypes (54 in whole, 49 in parotid, and 36 in submandibular/sublingual saliva). Principal component analysis revealed a distinct cluster for whole saliva and a partial overlap for parotid and submandibular/sublingual metabolites. We found exclusive metabolites for each subtype: 2-hydroxy-3-methylvalerate, 3-methyl-glutarate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, 4-hydroxyphenyllactate, galactose, and isocaproate in whole saliva; caprylate and glycolate in submandibular/sublingual saliva; arginine in parotid saliva. Salivary metabolites were classified into standard and non-proteinogenic amino acids and amines; simple carbohydrates; organic acids; bacterial-derived metabolites. The identification of a salivary gland-specific metabolic composition in healthy people provides the basis to invigorate the search for salivary biomarkers associated with oral and systemic diseases.

Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019170


: Background: The aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been associated with several diseases, including cancer, inflammatory, and autoimmune conditions. Interest in salivary miRNAs as non-invasive tools for the diagnosis of malignancies and systemic diseases is rapidly increasing. The present systematic review was developed for answering the question: "Are salivary microRNAs reliable biomarkers for diagnosis of cancer and systemic diseases?" METHODS: The application of inclusion and exclusion criteria led to the selection of 11 papers. Critical appraisals and quality assessments of the selected studies were performed through the National Institute of Health "Study Quality Assessment Tool" and the classification of the Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. RESULTS: Seven studies reported statistically significant correlations between one or more salivary miRNAs and the investigated disease. The critical analysis allowed us to classify only two studies (18.2%) as having "good" quality, the rest being scored as "intermediate" (8; 73%) and "poor" (1; 9%). Evidence exists that salivary miR-940 and miR-3679-5p are reliable markers for pancreatic cancer and that miR140-5p and miR301a are promising molecules for the salivary diagnosis of gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies, possibly avoiding the risk of bias highlighted here, are necessary to consolidate these findings and to identify new reliable salivary biomarkers.

Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Inflamação/diagnóstico , MicroRNAs/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Saliva/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo