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1.
Allergy ; 2022 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Different treatments exist for allergic rhinitis (AR), including pharmacotherapy and allergen immunotherapy (AIT), but they have not been compared using direct patient data (i.e., "real-world data"). OBJECTIVE: To compare AR pharmacological treatments on (i) daily symptoms, (ii) frequency of use in co-medication, (iii) visual analogue scale (VAS) on allergy symptom control considering the minimal important difference (MID) and (iv) the effect of AIT. METHODS: We assessed the MASK-air® app data (May 2015 - December 2020) by users self-reporting AR (16-90 years). We compared eight AR medication schemes on reported VAS of allergy symptoms, clustering data by patient, and controlling for confounding factors. We compared (i) allergy symptoms between patients with and without AIT and (ii) different drug classes used in comedication. RESULTS: We analysed 269,837 days from 10,860 users. Most days (52.7%) involved medication use. Median VAS levels were significantly higher in co-medication than in monotherapy (including the fixed combination azelastine-fluticasone) schemes. In adjusted models, azelastine-fluticasone was associated with lower average VAS global allergy symptoms than all other medication schemes, while the contrary was observed for oral corticosteroids. AIT was associated with a decrease in allergy symptoms in some medication schemes. A difference larger than the MID compared to no treatment was observed for oral steroids. Azelastine-fluticasone was the drug class with the lowest chances of being used in co-medication (adjusted OR=0.75; 95%CI=0.71-0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Median VAS levels were higher in co-medication than in monotherapy. Patients with more severe symptoms report a higher treatment, which is currently not reflected in guidelines.

2.
Allergy ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are different levels of severity among patients who suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). In this study, the epidemiology of CRSwNP and severe CRswNP was estimated. METHODS: A retrospective claim data analysis was conducted on adult CRSwNP patients (ICD-10: J33), and those classified as severe CRSwNP patients with inadequate disease control (based upon combinations of previous and current treatments) between 2015 and 2019. Prevalence and incidence figures were calculated and extrapolated to the German population. In addition, baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: Overall, the 5-year prevalence of adult CRSwNP cases from 2015 to 2019 in Germany was 374,115 cases (about 5500 per million), with 12,989 (about 200 per million) patients being classified as severe CRSwNP with inadequate disease control, whereas 267,880 (about 3900 per million) patients were identified as having an incident CRSwNP diagnosis between 2016 and 2019. From the incident CRSwNP cohort, 80.55% had received at least one intranasal corticosteroid (INCS), 24.27% received at least 1 systemic corticosteroid (SCS), and 17.33% received at least one functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) within 12 months after their incident diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Severe CRSwNP with inadequate disease control affects about 200 per million people in Germany. INCS is the first-choice treatment for most CRSwNP patients; however, for patients with severe CRSwNP, SCS are prescribed more frequently and long-term effects of these should be further investigated, especially if despite treatment, adequate disease control cannot be achieved.

3.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(3): e12134, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35344300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: When the coronavirus pandemic 2019 (COVID-19) emerged, concerns were also raised regarding the safety of allergen immunotherapy (AIT). The German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI) conducted a survey to collect real-world data on the daily routine of administering subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) and sublingual AIT (SLIT) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A web-based retrospective survey using the online platform survio with 26 standardized questions was used to survey physicians treating allergic patients during the pandemic. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-five physicians who regularly offer and perform AIT in German-speaking countries responded to the questions. 70.4% of the respondents stated that they regularly initiated and dosed up SCIT for inhalant allergies (41.4% venom-SCIT, 73.6% SLIT), and 85.2% of the respondents stated that they continued SCIT for inhalant allergies during the maintenance phase in a regular way (59.1% venom-SCIT, 90.4% SLIT) in healthy patients without current symptoms indicating an infection with COVID-19. With regard to tolerability, there was no evidence for increased occurrence of adverse events in patients without current symptoms of COVID-19 infection during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study demonstrated adherence to national and international position papers of AIT during the COVID-19 pandemic in German-speaking countries. Besides, the survey has confirmed a good tolerability of AIT for both SCIT and SLIT.

4.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35315164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Only a small number of apps addressing allergic rhinitis (AR) patients have been evaluated. This makes their selection difficult. We aimed to introduce a new approach to market research for AR apps, based on the automatic screening of Apple App and Google Play stores. METHODS: A JavaScript programme was devised for automatic app screening, and applied in a market assessment of AR self-management apps. We searched the Google Play and Apple App stores of three countries (USA, UK and Australia) with the following search terms: "hay fever", "hayfever", "asthma", "rhinitis", "allergic rhinitis". Apps were eligible if symptoms were evaluated. Results obtained with the automatic programme were compared to those of a blinded manual search. As an example, we used the search to assess apps that can be used to design a combined medication score for AR. RESULTS: The automatic search programme identified 39 potentially eligible apps out of a total of 1593 retrieved apps. Each of the 39 apps was individually checked, with 20 being classified as relevant. The manual search identified 19 relevant apps (out of 6750 screened apps). Combining both methods, a total of 21 relevant apps were identified, pointing to a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 99% for the automatic method. Among these 21 apps, only two could be used for the combined symptom-medication score for AR. CONCLUSIONS: The programmed algorithm presented herein is able to continuously retrieve all relevant AR apps in the Apple App and Google Play stores, with high sensitivity and specificity. This approach has the potential to unveil the gaps and unmet needs of the apps developed so far.

5.
Allergy ; 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35258105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-medication is common among patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), but its dimension and patterns are unknown. This is particularly relevant since AR is understood differently across European countries, as reflected by rhinitis-related search patterns in Google Trends. This study aims to assess AR co-medication and its regional patterns in Europe, using real-world data. METHODS: We analysed 2015-2020 MASK-air® European data. We compared days under no medication, monotherapy and co-medication using the visual analogue scale (VAS) levels for overall allergic symptoms ('VAS Global Symptoms') and impact of AR on work. We assessed the monthly use of different medication schemes, performing separate analyses by region (defined geographically or by Google Trends patterns). We estimated the average number of different drugs reported per patient within 1 year. RESULTS: We analysed 222,024 days (13,122 users), including 63,887 days (28.8%) under monotherapy and 38,315 (17.3%) under co-medication. The median 'VAS Global Symptoms' was 7 for no medication days, 14 for monotherapy and 21 for co-medication (p < .001). Medication use peaked during the spring, with similar patterns across different European regions (defined geographically or by Google Trends). Oral H1 -antihistamines were the most common medication in single and co-medication. Each patient reported using an annual average of 2.7 drugs, with 80% reporting two or more. CONCLUSIONS: Allergic rhinitis medication patterns are similar across European regions. One third of treatment days involved co-medication. These findings suggest that patients treat themselves according to their symptoms (irrespective of how they understand AR) and that co-medication use is driven by symptom severity.

6.
Allergy ; 2022 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35174512

RESUMO

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and other eicosanoid pathway modifiers are among the most ubiquitously used medications in the general population. Their broad anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects are applied against symptoms of respiratory infections, including SARS-CoV-2, as well as in other acute and chronic inflammatory diseases that often coexist with allergy and asthma. However, the current pandemic of COVID-19 also revealed the gaps in our understanding of their mechanism of action, selectivity, and interactions not only during viral infections and inflammation, but also in asthma exacerbations, uncontrolled allergic inflammation, and NSAIDs-exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD). In this context, the consensus report summarizes currently available knowledge, novel discoveries, and controversies regarding the use of NSAIDs in COVID-19, and the role of NSAIDs in asthma and viral asthma exacerbations. We also describe here novel mechanisms of action of leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs), outline how to predict responses to LTRA therapy and discuss a potential role of LTRA therapy in COVID-19 treatment. Moreover, we discuss interactions of novel T2 biologicals and other eicosanoid pathway modifiers on the horizon, such as prostaglandin D2 antagonists and cannabinoids, with eicosanoid pathways, in context of viral infections and exacerbations of asthma and allergic diseases. Finally, we identify and summarize the major knowledge gaps and unmet needs in current eicosanoid research.

8.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 12(1): e12097, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35070270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected health care systems unexpectedly. However, data focusing on practical considerations experienced by health care professionals (HCPs) providing care to allergic patients is scarce. METHODS: Under the framework of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), a panel of experts in the field of immunotherapy developed a 42-question online survey, to evaluate real-life consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic in allergy practice. RESULTS: The respondents in the survey were 618. About 80% of HCPs indicated being significantly affected in their allergy practice. A face-to-face visit reduction was reported by 93% of HCPs and about a quarter completely interrupted diagnostic challenges. Patients with severe uncontrolled asthma (59%) and anaphylaxis (47%) were prioritized for in-person care. About 81% maintained an unaltered prescription of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthmatics. About 90% did not modify intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) in patients with allergic rhinitis. Nearly half of respondents kept biological prescriptions unmodified for asthma. About 50% of respondents kept their allergen immunotherapy (AIT) prescription patterns unchanged for respiratory allergies; 60% for insect venom allergies. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergies was initiated by 27%. About 20% kept carrying out up-dosing without modifications and 14% changed to more prolonged intervals. Telemedicine practice was increased. CONCLUSIONS: HCPs providing care to allergic patients were affected during the pandemic in diagnostic, management, and therapeutic approaches, including AIT for respiratory, insect-venom, and food allergies. Most HCPs maintained controller treatments for both asthma, and allergic rhinitis consistent with international recommendations, as well as biological agents in asthma. Remote tools are valuable in delivering allergy care.

10.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 22(2): 132-136, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067579

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to reflect on and discuss recent evidence of applicability of allergen exposure chambers (AEC) for allergen immunotherapy studies, especially focussing on validation of AECs, technical documentation and future perspectives. RECENT FINDINGS: Publications covered by this review summarize the historical background, current status of research use and validation of AEC systems. It describes identified unmet needs regarding comparability of AEC systems, reproducibility of clinical assessments and correlation of AEC-induced symptoms with scores under natural environmental exposure. Furthermore, new information on technical specifications, for example, dimensions, allergen dispersal and validation procedures is highlighted and future activities of the EAACI AEC task force group regarding harmonization of clinical endpoints are delineated. SUMMARY: AECs are in use for evaluation of allergic patients for over three decades now. As different systems largely vary regarding technical set up and standard assessments, detailed technical documentation must be available. To gain acceptance of regulatory authorities for pivotal immunotherapy trials conducted with the use of AEC system, harmonization of clinical assessments as well as documentation of correlation of clinical AEC outcomes with environmental exposure clinical scores is required.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos/uso terapêutico , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Fatores Imunológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
11.
Allergy ; 2022 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34978085

RESUMO

Allergic asthma (AA) is a common asthma phenotype, and its diagnosis requires both the demonstration of IgE-sensitization to aeroallergens and the causative role of this sensitization as a major driver of asthma symptoms. Therefore, a bronchial allergen challenge (BAC) would be occasionally required to identify AA patients among atopic asthmatics. Nevertheless, BAC is usually considered a research tool only, with existing protocols being tailored to mild asthmatics and research needs (eg long washout period for inhaled corticosteroids). Consequently, existing BAC protocols are not designed to be performed in moderate-to-severe asthmatics or in clinical practice. The correct diagnosis of AA might help select patients for immunomodulatory therapies. Allergen sublingual immunotherapy is now registered and recommended for controlled or partially controlled patients with house dust mite-driven AA and with FEV1 ≥ 70%. Allergen avoidance is costly and difficult to implement for the management of AA, so the proper selection of patients is also beneficial. In this position paper, the EAACI Task Force proposes a methodology for clinical BAC that would need to be validated in future studies. The clinical implementation of BAC could ultimately translate into a better phenotyping of asthmatics in real life, and into a more accurate selection of patients for long-term and costly management pathways.

13.
Allergy ; 77(4): 1094-1104, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology has developed a guideline to provide evidence-based recommendations for healthcare professionals to support the transitional care of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with allergy and/or asthma. The goal of this work was to ensure that the draft recommendations are also important for patients. METHODS: We surveyed patients aged 11-25 years with allergy and/or asthma and their parents across Europe between 17 February and 16 March 2020. The multilingual survey was distributed through national allergy and asthma patient organizations in Europe as well as through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1210 responses from 24 European countries were collected. There were 415 (34.3%) AYA and 795 (65.7%) parents. The majority of AYA (72.3%) and parents (81.9%) were female. Patients had a history of asthma (61.1%), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (54.1%), food allergy (53.8%), atopic eczema (42.6%) and anaphylaxis (28.8%). All recommendations achieved the median score of either 'important' or 'very important'. The least supported recommendations were the use of joint clinics with both paediatric and adult physicians attending and the use of web-based or mobile technologies for communication with the AYA. The most supported recommendation was checking that the AYA is knowledgeable and compliant with their prescribed medication. Qualitative analysis revealed conditional approval for some recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: There was agreement from patients and parents on the importance of the draft recommendations on transitional care for AYA with allergy and/or asthma and their parents. The recommendations now need to be implemented into clinical practice across Europe.


Assuntos
Anafilaxia , Asma , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Cuidado Transicional , Adolescente , Asma/epidemiologia , Asma/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Allergy ; 77(2): 454-468, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315190

RESUMO

One hundred and ten years after Noon's first clinical report of the subcutaneous application of allergen extracts, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) has evolved as the most important pillar of the treatment of allergic patients. It is the only disease-modifying treatment option available and the evidence for its clinical efficacy and safety is broad and undisputed. Throughout recent decades, more insights into the underlying mechanisms, in particular the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses, have been described. AIT is acknowledged by worldwide regulatory authorities, and following the regulatory guidelines for product development, AIT products are subject to a rigorous evaluation before obtaining market authorization. Knowledge and practice are anchored in international guidelines, such as the recently published series of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI). Innovative approaches continue to be further developed with the focus on clinical improvement by, for example, the usage of adjuvants, peptides, recombinants, modification of allergens, new routes of administration, and the concomitant use of biologicals. In addition, real-life data provide complementary and valuable information on the effectiveness and tolerability of this treatment option in the clinical routine. New mobile health technologies and big-data approaches will improve daily treatment convenience, adherence, and efficacy of AIT. However, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has also had some implications for the feasibility and practicability of AIT. Taken together, AIT as the only disease-modifying therapy in allergic diseases has been broadly investigated over the past 110 years laying the path for innovations and further improvement.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Allergol Select ; 5: 349-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34870079

RESUMO

Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (hay fever) is the most common chronic disease in all industrialized nations. Therapy consists essentially in the use of anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory drugs, which mostly show a good and quick effect. With allergen-specific immunotherapy, there is also a causal possibility of tolerance induction. There is currently a considerable undersupply, as those affected trivialize the symptoms and often have concerns about long-term drug therapy. There is also great interest in using non-medicinal measures to prevent and/or relieve allergic symptoms on the assumption that these are free from side effects. In this publication, we present non-drug methods for which clinical studies are available in the literature. The methods have varying degrees of effectiveness. An evidence-based comparative assessment between the methods is not possible. There are also hardly any studies in comparison to standard drug therapy. A large number of the interventions consist of allergen reduction, e.g., with air filters, or cleaning of the mucous membranes with nasal irrigation, etc., none of which should be seen as a substitute but as a supplement to drug therapy.

18.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 11(7): e12062, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MASK-air® is an app that supports allergic rhinitis patients in disease control. Users register daily allergy symptoms and their impact on activities using visual analog scales (VASs). We aimed to assess the concurrent validity, reliability, and responsiveness of these daily VASs. METHODS: Daily monitoring VAS data were assessed in MASK-air® users with allergic rhinitis. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlating daily VAS values with those of the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) VAS, the Control of Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma Test (CARAT) score, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Allergic Specific (WPAI-AS) Questionnaire (work and activity impairment scores). Intra-rater reliability was assessed in users providing multiple daily VASs within the same day. Test-retest reliability was tested in clinically stable users, as defined by the EQ-5D VAS, CARAT, or "VAS Work" (i.e., VAS assessing the impact of allergy on work). Responsiveness was determined in users with two consecutive measurements of EQ-5D-VAS or "VAS Work" indicating clinical change. RESULTS: A total of 17,780 MASK-air® users, with 317,176 VAS days, were assessed. Concurrent validity was moderate-high (Spearman correlation coefficient range: 0.437-0.716). Intra-rater reliability intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) ranged between 0.870 (VAS assessing global allergy symptoms) and 0.937 (VAS assessing allergy symptoms on sleep). Test-retest reliability ICCs ranged between 0.604 and 0.878-"VAS Work" and "VAS asthma" presented the highest ICCs. Moderate/large responsiveness effect sizes were observed-the sleep VAS was associated with lower responsiveness, while the global allergy symptoms VAS demonstrated higher responsiveness. CONCLUSION: In MASK-air®, daily monitoring VASs have high intra-rater reliability and moderate-high validity, reliability, and responsiveness, pointing to a reliable measure of symptom loads.

19.
Allergol Select ; 5: 251-259, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccinations against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are intended to induce an immune response to protect against infection/disease. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is thought to induce a (different) immune response, e.g., to induce tolerance to allergens. In this position paper we clarify how to use AIT in temporal relation to COVID-19 vaccination. Four SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are currently approved in the EU, and their possible immunological interactions with AIT are described together with practical recommendations for use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on the internationally published literature, this position paper provides specific recommendations for the use of AIT in temporal relation to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. RESULTS: AIT is used in 1) allergic rhinitis, 2) allergic bronchial asthma, 3) insect venom allergy, 4) food allergy (peanut). CONCLUSION: For the continuation of an ongoing AIT, we recommend an interval of 1 week before and after vaccination for subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). For sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) and oral immunotherapy (OIT), we recommend taking them up to the day before vaccination and a break of 2 - 7 days after vaccination. Initiation of a new SCIT, SLIT, or OIT should be delayed until 1 week after the day of the second vaccination. For SCIT, we generally recommend an interval of ~ 1 week to COVID-19 vaccination.

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