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Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3106, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308374


Immune responses need to be controlled tightly to prevent autoimmune diseases, yet underlying molecular mechanisms remain partially understood. Here, we identify biallelic mutations in three patients from two unrelated families in differentially expressed in FDCP6 homolog (DEF6) as the molecular cause of an inborn error of immunity with systemic autoimmunity. Patient T cells exhibit impaired regulation of CTLA-4 surface trafficking associated with reduced functional CTLA-4 availability, which is replicated in DEF6-knockout Jurkat cells. Mechanistically, we identify the small GTPase RAB11 as an interactor of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DEF6, and find disrupted binding of mutant DEF6 to RAB11 as well as reduced RAB11+CTLA-4+ vesicles in DEF6-mutated cells. One of the patients has been treated with CTLA-4-Ig and achieved sustained remission. Collectively, we uncover DEF6 as player in immune homeostasis ensuring availability of the checkpoint protein CTLA-4 at T-cell surface, identifying a potential target for autoimmune and/or cancer therapy.

Int Immunol ; 31(4): 239-250, 2019 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778577


The intrinsic immunosuppressive properties of regulatory T (Treg) cells can be harnessed for therapeutic approaches aiming at down-modulating harmful immune reactions. In this context, expanded type 1 Treg cells (Tr1 cells) specific for ovalbumin (ova-Tr1 cells) have been tested for clinical efficacy in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as refractory Crohn's disease (CD). The clinical use of these therapeutic products warrants exploration of their mechanism of action. Here, we identified a relationship between the CD activity index and the expression of lytic molecules by the ova-Tr1 cells administered in the previously reported First-in-Man study [Crohn's And Treg cells Study 1 (CATS1) study]. Accordingly, ova-Tr1 cells were found to carry granules containing high levels of lytic molecules, including multiple granzymes and granulysin. These cells displayed a T-cell receptor (TCR)-independent cytotoxic activity, which was preferentially directed toward myeloid cell lines and monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Upon contact with myeloid cells, ova-Tr1 cells induced their apoptosis via a perforin-independent and a granulysin/granzyme-dependent mechanism. As compared to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, ova-Tr1 cells required more time to lyse target cells and displayed a more gradual lytic activity over time. Notably, this activity was sustained over days resulting in the control of myeloid cell populations at a relatively low ratio. Our study reveals that ova-Tr1 cells are endowed with a sustained cytotoxic activity that relies on a unique combination of granulysin and granzymes and that preferentially eliminates myeloid target cells in a TCR-independent manner.

Blood ; 132(22): 2362-2374, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254128


ARPC1B is a key factor for the assembly and maintenance of the ARP2/3 complex that is involved in actin branching from an existing filament. Germline biallelic mutations in ARPC1B have been recently described in 6 patients with clinical features of combined immunodeficiency (CID), whose neutrophils and platelets but not T lymphocytes were studied. We hypothesized that ARPC1B deficiency may also lead to cytoskeleton and functional defects in T cells. We have identified biallelic mutations in ARPC1B in 6 unrelated patients with early onset disease characterized by severe infections, autoimmune manifestations, and thrombocytopenia. Immunological features included T-cell lymphopenia, low numbers of naïve T cells, and hyper-immunoglobulin E. Alteration in ARPC1B protein structure led to absent/low expression by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. This molecular defect was associated with the inability of patient-derived T cells to extend an actin-rich lamellipodia upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation and to assemble an immunological synapse. ARPC1B-deficient T cells additionally displayed impaired TCR-mediated proliferation and SDF1-α-directed migration. Gene transfer of ARPC1B in patients' T cells using a lentiviral vector restored both ARPC1B expression and T-cell proliferation in vitro. In 2 of the patients, in vivo somatic reversion restored ARPC1B expression in a fraction of lymphocytes and was associated with a skewed TCR repertoire. In 1 revertant patient, memory CD8+ T cells expressing normal levels of ARPC1B displayed improved T-cell migration. Inherited ARPC1B deficiency therefore alters T-cell cytoskeletal dynamics and functions, contributing to the clinical features of CID.

J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 142(5): 1589-1604.e11, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751004


BACKGROUND: The actin-interacting protein WD repeat-containing protein 1 (WDR1) promotes cofilin-dependent actin filament turnover. Biallelic WDR1 mutations have been identified recently in an immunodeficiency/autoinflammatory syndrome with aberrant morphology and function of myeloid cells. OBJECTIVE: Given the pleiotropic expression of WDR1, here we investigated to what extent it might control the lymphoid arm of the immune system in human subjects. METHODS: Histologic and detailed immunologic analyses were performed to elucidate the role of WDR1 in the development and function of B and T lymphocytes. RESULTS: Here we identified novel homozygous and compound heterozygous WDR1 missense mutations in 6 patients belonging to 3 kindreds who presented with respiratory tract infections, skin ulceration, and stomatitis. In addition to defective adhesion and motility of neutrophils and monocytes, WDR1 deficiency was associated with aberrant T-cell activation and B-cell development. T lymphocytes appeared to develop normally in the patients, except for the follicular helper T-cell subset. However, peripheral T cells from the patients accumulated atypical actin structures at the immunologic synapse and displayed reduced calcium flux and mildly impaired proliferation on T-cell receptor stimulation. WDR1 deficiency was associated with even more severe abnormalities of the B-cell compartment, including peripheral B-cell lymphopenia, paucity of B-cell progenitors in the bone marrow, lack of switched memory B cells, reduced clonal diversity, abnormal B-cell spreading, and increased apoptosis on B-cell receptor/Toll-like receptor stimulation. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies a novel role for WDR1 in adaptive immunity, highlighting WDR1 as a central regulator of actin turnover during formation of the B-cell and T-cell immunologic synapses.

Nat Immunol ; 17(12): 1352-1360, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776107


RASGRP1 is an important guanine nucleotide exchange factor and activator of the RAS-MAPK pathway following T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signaling. The consequences of RASGRP1 mutations in humans are unknown. In a patient with recurrent bacterial and viral infections, born to healthy consanguineous parents, we used homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing to identify a biallelic stop-gain variant in RASGRP1. This variant segregated perfectly with the disease and has not been reported in genetic databases. RASGRP1 deficiency was associated in T cells and B cells with decreased phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal-regulated serine kinase ERK, which was restored following expression of wild-type RASGRP1. RASGRP1 deficiency also resulted in defective proliferation, activation and motility of T cells and B cells. RASGRP1-deficient natural killer (NK) cells exhibited impaired cytotoxicity with defective granule convergence and actin accumulation. Interaction proteomics identified the dynein light chain DYNLL1 as interacting with RASGRP1, which links RASGRP1 to cytoskeletal dynamics. RASGRP1-deficient cells showed decreased activation of the GTPase RhoA. Treatment with lenalidomide increased RhoA activity and reversed the migration and activation defects of RASGRP1-deficient lymphocytes.

Actinas/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adolescente , Inibidores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Criança , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Dineínas/metabolismo , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Switching de Imunoglobulina/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/tratamento farmacológico , Células Jurkat , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Lenalidomida , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Linhagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Talidomida/análogos & derivados , Talidomida/farmacologia