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1.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534144

RESUMO

After trauma, the formed fracture hematoma within the fracture gap contains all the important components (immune/stem cells, mediators) to initiate bone regeneration immediately. Thus, it is of great importance but also the most susceptible to negative influences. To study the interaction between bone and immune cells within the fracture gap, up-to-date in vitro systems should be capable of recapitulating cellular and humoral interactions and the physicochemical microenvironment (eg, hypoxia). Here, we first developed and characterized scaffold-free bone-like constructs (SFBCs), which were produced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) using a macroscale mesenchymal condensation approach. SFBCs revealed permeating mineralization characterized by increased bone volume (µCT, histology) and expression of osteogenic markers (RUNX2, SPP1, RANKL). Fracture hematoma (FH) models, consisting of human peripheral blood (immune cells) mixed with MSCs, were co-cultivated with SFBCs under hypoxic conditions. As a result, FH models revealed an increased expression of osteogenic (RUNX2, SPP1), angiogenic (MMP2, VEGF), HIF-related (LDHA, PGK1), and inflammatory (IL6, IL8) markers after 12 and 48 hours co-cultivation. Osteogenic and angiogenic gene expression of the FH indicate the osteoinductive potential and, thus, the biological functionality of the SFBCs. IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MIP-1ß were detectable within the supernatant after 24 and 48 hours of co-cultivation. To confirm the responsiveness of our model to modifying substances (eg, therapeutics), we used deferoxamine (DFO), which is well known to induce a cellular hypoxic adaptation response. Indeed, DFO particularly increased hypoxia-adaptive, osteogenic, and angiogenic processes within the FH models but had little effect on the SFBCs, indicating different response dynamics within the co-cultivation system. Therefore, based on our data, we have successfully modeled processes within the initial fracture healing phase in vitro and concluded that the cross-talk between bone and immune cells in the initial fracture healing phase is of particular importance for preclinical studies. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374446

RESUMO

Adequate tissue engineered models are required to further understand the (patho)physiological mechanism involved in the destructive processes of cartilage and subchondral bone during rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therefore, we developed a human in vitro 3D osteochondral tissue model (OTM), mimicking cytokine-induced cellular and matrix-related changes leading to cartilage degradation and bone destruction in order to ultimately provide a preclinical drug screening tool. To this end, the OTM was engineered by co-cultivation of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-derived bone and cartilage components in a 3D environment. It was comprehensively characterized on cell, protein, and mRNA level. Stimulating the OTM with pro-inflammatory cytokines, relevant in RA (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6, macrophage migration inhibitory factor), caused cell- and matrix-related changes, resulting in a significantly induced gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase A, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor α in both, cartilage and bone, while the matrix metalloproteases 1 and 3 were only induced in cartilage. Finally, application of target-specific drugs prevented the induction of inflammation and matrix-degradation. Thus, we here provide evidence that our human in vitro 3D OTM mimics cytokine-induced cell- and matrix-related changes-key features of RA-and may serve as a preclinical tool for the evaluation of both new targets and potential drugs in a more translational setup.

3.
ALTEX ; 37(4): 561-578, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521037

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to establish an in vitro fracture hematoma (FH) model that mimics the in vivo situation of the human fracture gap in order to assess drug efficacy and effectiveness for the treatment of fracture healing disorders. Human peripheral blood and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) were coagulated to produce in vitro FH models, which were incubated in osteogenic medium under normoxia/hypoxia and analyzed for cell composition, gene expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion. To evaluate the model, we studied the impact of dexamethasone (impairing fracture healing) and deferoxamine (promoting fracture healing). Under hypoxic conditions, MSCs represented the predominant cell population, while the frequencies of leukocyte populations decreased. Marker gene expression of osteogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammation, migration and hypoxic adaptation increased significantly over time and compared to normoxia, while cytokine/chemokine secretion remained unchanged. Dexamethasone favored the frequency of immune cells compared to MSCs, suppressed osteogenic and pro-angiogenic gene expression, and enhanced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Conversely, deferoxamine favored the frequency of MSCs over that of immune cells and enhanced the expression of the osteogenic marker RUNX2 and markers of hypoxic adaptation. In summary, we demonstrate that hypoxia is an important factor for modeling the initial phase of fracture healing in vitro and that both fracture-healing disrupting and promoting substances can influence the in vitro model comparable to the in vivo situation. Therefore, we conclude that our model is able to mimic in part the human FH and could reduce the number of animal experiments in early preclinical studies.

4.
Biofabrication ; 12(4): 045016, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598334

RESUMO

Understanding the pathophysiological processes of cartilage degradation requires adequate model systems to develop therapeutic strategies towards osteoarthritis (OA). Although different in vitro or in vivo models have been described, further comprehensive approaches are needed to study specific disease aspects. This study aimed to combine in vitro and in silico modeling based on a tissue-engineering approach using mesenchymal condensation to mimic cytokine-induced cellular and matrix-related changes during cartilage degradation. Thus, scaffold-free cartilage-like constructs (SFCCs) were produced based on self-organization of mesenchymal stromal cells (mesenchymal condensation) and (i) characterized regarding their cellular and matrix composition or secondly (ii) treated with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) for 3 weeks to simulate OA-related matrix degradation. In addition, an existing mathematical model based on partial differential equations was optimized and transferred to the underlying settings to simulate the distribution of IL-1ß, type II collagen degradation and cell number reduction. By combining in vitro and in silico methods, we aimed to develop a valid, efficient alternative approach to examine and predict disease progression and effects of new therapeutics.

5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013232

RESUMO

Both inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and anti-inflammatory treatment of RA with glucocorticoids (GCs) or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) negatively influence bone metabolism and fracture healing. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition with tofacitinib has been demonstrated to act as a potent anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in the treatment of RA, but its impact on the fundamental processes of bone regeneration is currently controversially discussed and at least in part elusive. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to examine the effects of tofacitinib on processes of bone healing focusing on recruitment of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) into the inflammatory microenvironment of the fracture gap, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. We performed our analyses under conditions of reduced oxygen availability in order to mimic the in vivo situation of the fracture gap most optimal. We demonstrate that tofacitinib dose-dependently promotes the recruitment of hMSCs under hypoxia but inhibits recruitment of hMSCs under normoxia. With regard to the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs, we demonstrate that tofacitinib does not inhibit survival at therapeutically relevant doses of 10-100 nM. Moreover, tofacitinib dose-dependently enhances osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and reduces osteoclast differentiation and activity. We conclude from our data that tofacitinib may influence bone healing by promotion of hMSC recruitment into the hypoxic microenvironment of the fracture gap but does not interfere with the cartilaginous phase of the soft callus phase of fracture healing process. We assume that tofacitinib may promote bone formation and reduce bone resorption, which could in part explain the positive impact of tofacitinib on bone erosions in RA. Thus, we hypothesize that it will be unnecessary to stop this medication in case of fracture and suggest that positive effects on osteoporosis are likely.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Janus Quinases/farmacologia , Janus Quinases/metabolismo , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipóxia Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Condrogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa 1 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Humanos , Janus Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214276, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947253

RESUMO

Fractures in horses-whether simple fractures with just one clean break, or incomplete greenstick with stress fractures, or complications such as shattered bones can all be either minimal or even catastrophic. Thus, improvement in fracture healing is a hallmark in equine orthopedics. The fracture healing process implements a complex sequence of events including the initial inflammatory phase removing damaged tissue, re-establishment of vessels and mesenchymal stromal cells, a soft and hard callus phase closing the fracture gap as well as the remodeling phase shaping the bone to a scar-free tissue. Detailed knowledge on processes in equine fracture healing in general and on the initial phase in particular is apparently very limited. Therefore, we generated equine in vitro fracture hematoma models (FH models) to study time-dependent changes in cell composition and RNA-expression for the most prominent cells in the FH model (immune cells, mesenchymal stromal cells) under conditions most closely adapted to the in vivo situation (hypoxia) by using flow cytometry and qPCR. In order to analyze the impact of mesenchymal stromal cells in greater detail, we also incubated blood clots without the addition of mesenchymal stromal cells under the same conditions as a control. We observed a superior survival capacity of mesenchymal stromal cells over immune cells within our FH model maintained under hypoxia. Furthermore, we demonstrate an upregulation of relevant angiogenic, osteogenic and hypoxia-induced markers within 48 h, a time well-known to be crucial for proper fracture healing.


Assuntos
Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Ósseas/patologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Hematoma/terapia , Hipóxia/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biópsia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Hematoma/patologia , Cavalos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxigênio/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Acta Biomater ; 86: 171-184, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30616076

RESUMO

Although several biomaterials for bone regeneration have been developed in the last decades, clinical application of bone morphogenetic protein 2 is clinically only approved when applied on an absorbable bovine collagen I scaffold (ACS) (Helistat; ACS-H). In research, another ACS, namely Lyostypt (ACS-L) is frequently used as a scaffold in bone-linked studies. Nevertheless, until today, the influence of ACS alone on bone healing remains unknown. Unexpectedly, in vitro studies using ASC-H revealed a suppression of osteogenic differentiation and a significant reduction of cell vitality when compared to ASC-L. In mice, we observed a significant delay in bone healing when applying ACS-L in the fracture gap during femoral osteotomy. The results of our study show for the first time a negative influence of both ACS-H and ACS-L on bone formation demonstrating a substantial need for more sophisticated delivery systems for local stimulation of bone healing in both clinical application and research. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides evidence-based justification to promote the development and approval of more suitable and sophisticated delivery systems in bone healing research. Additionally, we stimulate researchers of the field to consider that the application of those scaffolds as a delivery system for new substances represents a delayed healing approach rather than a normal bone healing which could greatly impact the outcome of those studies and play a pivotal role in the translation to the clinics. Moreover, we provide impulses on underlying mechanism involving the roles of small-leucine rich proteoglycans (SLRP) for further detailed investigations.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/farmacologia , Consolidação da Fratura/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteotomia , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Regeneração Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Calo Ósseo/patologia , Calcificação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Cartilagem/patologia , Bovinos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Tamanho do Órgão , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Microtomografia por Raio-X
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(8)2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087255

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are stem cells of the connective tissue, possess a plastic phenotype, and are able to differentiate into various tissues. Besides their role in tissue regeneration, MSCs perform additional functions as a modulator or inhibitor of immune responses. Due to their pleiotropic function, MSCs have also gained therapeutic importance for the treatment of autoimmune diseases and for improving fracture healing and cartilage regeneration. However, the therapeutic/immunomodulatory mode of action of MSCs is largely unknown. Here, we describe that MSCs express the inhibitory receptor CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4). We show that depending on the environmental conditions, MSCs express different isoforms of CTLA-4 with the secreted isoform (sCTLA-4) being the most abundant under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the immunosuppressive function of MSCs is mediated mainly by the secretion of CTLA-4. These findings open new ways for treatment when tissue regeneration/fracture healing is difficult.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Adipogenia , Antígeno CTLA-4/análise , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Tolerância Imunológica , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Osteogênese
9.
Genes (Basel) ; 9(5)2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748516

RESUMO

Bone is a complex tissue with a variety of functions, such as providing mechanical stability for locomotion, protection of the inner organs, mineral homeostasis and haematopoiesis. To fulfil these diverse roles in the human body, bone consists of a multitude of different cells and an extracellular matrix that is mechanically stable, yet flexible at the same time. Unlike most tissues, bone is under constant renewal facilitated by a coordinated interaction of bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells. It is thus challenging to recreate bone in its complexity in vitro and most current models rather focus on certain aspects of bone biology that are of relevance for the research question addressed. In addition, animal models are still regarded as the gold-standard in the context of bone biology and pathology, especially for the development of novel treatment strategies. However, species-specific differences impede the translation of findings from animal models to humans. The current review summarizes and discusses the latest developments in bone tissue engineering and organoid culture including suitable cell sources, extracellular matrices and microfluidic bioreactor systems. With available technology in mind, a best possible bone model will be hypothesized. Furthermore, the future need and application of such a complex model will be discussed.

10.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 52, 2018 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29566745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The chemokine receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4 are involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis, a key feature of systemic sclerosis (SSc). It is hypothesized that immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (abs) against these two receptors are present in patients with SSc and are associated with clinical findings. METHODS: Anti-CXCR3 and anti-CXCR4 ab levels were measured in 449 sera from 327 SSc patients and in 234 sera from healthy donors (HD) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In SSc, ab levels were compared with clinical data in a cross-sectional and longitudinal setting. Protein expression of CXCR3 and CXCR4 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was analyzed in 17 SSc patients and 8 HD by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Anti-CXCR3 and anti-CXCR4 ab levels were different among SSc subgroups compared with HD and were highest in diffuse SSc patients. The ab levels strongly correlated with each other (r = 0.85). Patients with SSc-related interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) exhibited higher ab levels which negatively correlated with lung function parameters (e.g., r = -0.5 and r = -0.43 for predicted vital capacity, respectively). However, patients with deterioration of lung function showed lower anti-CXCR3/4 ab levels compared with those with stable disease. Frequencies and median fluorescence intensities (MFI) of CXCR3+ and CXCR4+ PBMCs were lower in SSc patients compared with HD and correlated with the severity of skin and lung fibrosis. They correlated with the severity of skin and lung fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-CXCR3/4 abs and their corresponding receptors are linked with the severity of SSc-ILD. Antibody levels discriminate patients with stable or decreasing lung function and could be used for risk stratification.


Assuntos
Progressão da Doença , Pneumopatias/sangue , Pulmão/fisiologia , Receptores CXCR3/sangue , Receptores CXCR4/sangue , Escleroderma Sistêmico/sangue , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Testes de Função Respiratória/tendências , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/epidemiologia
11.
J Gene Med ; 16(11-12): 352-63, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25382123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gene therapy appears to have the potential for achieving a long-term remedy for osteoarthritis (OA). However, there is a risk of adverse reactions, especially when using cytomegalovirus-controlled expression. To provide a safe application, we focused on the expression of therapeutic cytokines [e.g. interleukin (IL)-4] in a disease-responsive manner by use of the previously cloned Cox-2 promoter as 'genetic switch'. In the present study, we report the functionality of a controlled gene therapeutic system in an equine osteoarthritic cell model. METHODS: Different nonviral transfection reagents were tested for their efficiency on equine chondrocytes stimulated with equine IL-1ß or lipopolysaccharide to create an inflammatory environment. To optimize the transfection, we successfully redesigned the vector by excluding the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). The functionality of our Cox-2 promoter construct with respect to expressing IL-4 was proven at the mRNA and protein levels and the anti-inflammatory potential of IL-4 was confirmed by analyzing the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Nonviral transfection reagents yielded transfection rates from 21% to 44% with control vectors with and without IRES, respectively. Stimulation of equine chondrocytes resulted in a 20-fold increase of mRNA expression of IL-1ß. Such exogenous stimulation of chondrocytes transfected with pNCox2-IL4 led to an increase of IL-4 mRNA expression, whereas expression of inflammatory mediators decreased. The timely link between these events confirms the anti-inflammatory potential of synthesized IL-4. CONCLUSIONS: We consider that this approach has significant potential for translation into a useful anti-inflammation therapy. Molecular tools such as the described therapeutic plasmid pave the way for a local-controlled, self-limiting gene therapy.


Assuntos
Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Terapia Genética , Interleucina-4/biossíntese , Osteoartrite/terapia , Transfecção , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Condrócitos/imunologia , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Cavalos , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Osteoartrite/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
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