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1.
Thromb J ; 20(1): 32, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current study aims to identify the relationships between coagulation factors and plasma thrombin generation in a large population-based study by comparing individuals with a history of arterial or venous thrombosis to cardiovascular healthy individuals. METHODS: This study comprised 502 individuals with a history of arterial disease, 195 with history of venous thrombosis and 1402 cardiovascular healthy individuals (reference group) from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS). Calibrated Automated Thrombography was assessed and coagulation factors were measured by means of BCS XP Systems. To assess the biochemical determinants of TG variables, a multiple linear regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex and antithrombotic therapy, was conducted. RESULTS: The lag time, the time to form the first thrombin, was mainly positively associated with the natural coagulant and anti-coagulant factors in the reference group, i.e. higher factors result in a longer lag time. The same determinants were negative for individuals with a history of arterial or venous thrombosis, with a 10 times higher effect size. Endogenous thrombin potential, or area under the curve, was predominantly positively determined by factor II, VIII, X and IX in all groups. However, the effect sizes of the reported associations were 4 times higher for the arterial and venous disease groups in comparison to the reference group. CONCLUSION: This large-scale analysis demonstrated a stronger effect of the coagulant and natural anti-coagulant factors on the thrombin potential in individuals with a history of arterial or venous thrombosis as compared to healthy individuals, which implicates sustained alterations in the plasma coagulome in subjects with a history of thrombotic vascular disease, despite intake of antithrombotic therapy.

2.
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35628829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study aimed to analyze the effects of perinatal history on tear film properties and lid geometry in adults born preterm. METHODS: The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study (GPES) is a German prospective examination of adults born preterm and term aged 18 to 52 years with Keratograph® 5M and Schirmer test I. Main outcome measures were first non-invasive tear film break-up time (F-NITBUT), bulbar redness (BR), Schirmer test, and nasal palpebral angle measurement. The associations with gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), and BW percentile, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), ROP treatment, and other perinatal factors were evaluated using regression analyses. RESULTS: 489 eyes of 255 preterm and 277 eyes of 139 full-term individuals (aged 28.6 +/- 8.8 years, 220 females) were included. Of these, 33 participants (56 eyes) had a history of spontaneously regressed ROP and 9 participants (16 eyes) had a history of ROP treatment. After adjustment for age and sex, lower F-NITBUT (<20 s) was associated with ROP treatment (OR = 4.42; p = 0.025). Lower GA correlated with increased bulbar redness (B = -0.02; p = 0.011) and increased length of wetting in the Schirmer test (B = -0.69; p = 0.003). Furthermore, low GA was associated with narrowing of the nasal palpebral angle (B = 0.22; p = 0.011) adjusted for age and sex, but not when considering ROP in the multivariable model. CONCLUSION: Our analyses indicate that perinatal history affects ocular surface properties, tear production and lid geometry in adults born term and preterm. This might indicate that affected persons have a predisposition to diseases of the corneal surface such as the dry eye disease.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35456925

RESUMO

Neuroinflammation is a crucial process for the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), a major characteristic of glaucoma. High expression of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1) plays a detrimental role in inflammatory processes and is elevated in the retinas of glaucoma patients. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of the intravitreal injection of an anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (anti-HMGB1 Ab) in an experimental animal model of glaucoma. Two groups of Spraque Dawley rats received episcleral vein occlusion to chronically elevate intraocular pressure (IOP): (1) the IgG group, intravitreal injection of an unspecific IgG as a control, n = 5, and (2) the HMGB1 group, intravitreal injection of an anti-HMGB1 Ab, n = 6. IOP, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and the retinal flash response were monitored longitudinally. Post-mortem examinations included immunohistochemistry, microarray, and mass spectrometric analysis. RNFLT was significantly increased in the HMGB1 group compared with the IgG group (p < 0.001). RGC density showed improved neuronal cell survival in the retina in HMGB1 compared with the IgG group (p < 0.01). Mass spectrometric proteomic analysis of retinal tissue showed an increased abundance of RNA metabolism-associated heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), such as hnRNP U, D, and H2, in animals injected with the anti-HMGB1 Ab, indicating that the application of the antibody may cause increased gene expression. Microarray analysis showed a significantly decreased expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8, p < 0.05) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF, p < 0.01) in the HMGB1 group. Thus, these data suggest that intravitreal injection of anti-HMGB1 Ab reduced HMGB1-dependent inflammatory signaling and mediated RGC neuroprotection.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Proteína HMGB1 , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Pressão Intraocular , Proteômica , Ratos
4.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35273019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate whether anterior segment anatomy and axial length are associated with prematurity and perinatal factors in adults. METHODS: The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study examined adults born preterm and term aged 18-52 years. All participants underwent a prospective ophthalmic examination (optical biometry via a LenStar 900, Haag-Streit) in Germany. The associations between gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW) and BW percentile, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) occurrence, ROP treatment and other perinatal factors with the main outcome measures were evaluated by univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses. Main outcome measures were corneal radius, white-to-white distance, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness and axial length. RESULTS: The study involved 861 eyes of 438 preterm and full-term individuals (aged 28.6±8.7 years, 245 females,). After adjustment for age and gender, a steeper corneal radius was associated with lower GA (B=0.02; p<0.001) and a lower BW percentile (B=0.003; p<0.001). A smaller white-to-white distance was linked to lower GA (B=0.02; p<0.001), a lower BW percentile (B=0.004; p<0.001) and postnatal ROP occurrence (B=-0.26; p<0.001). Decreased axial length was associated with lower GA at birth (B=0.05; p=0.002) and pre-eclampsia (B=-0.34; p=0.015). ROP-treated eyes had a shallower anterior chamber depth (B=-0.63; p=0.001) and increased lens thickness (B=0.64, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our analyses in adults demonstrate that the corneal morphology is influenced by GA and BW percentile, while the anterior chamber depth and lens thickness are affected by ROP treatment, namely laser therapy and cryotherapy. The present study highlights that perinatal factors lead to lifelong sequelae of ocular shape.

6.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 239: 212-222, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35288076

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate associations of prematurity and associated factors with optic disc morphology in adulthood as long-term effects. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study (GPES) is a retrospective cohort study with a prospective ophthalmologic examination of adults (age 18-52 years) in Germany. In every participant, photography of optic discs was performed with a nonmydriatic fundus camera, and optic disc measurements were done manually. The vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), optic disc area, and torted and tilted discs were assessed and exploratively compared between individuals with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) with treatment, an ROP group without treatment and groups of individuals of different gestational ages (GAs) without ROP (GA ≤ 28 weeks, GA 29-32 weeks, GA 33-36 weeks, and GA ≥ 37 weeks [control group]). RESULTS: The present analysis included 743 eyes of 393 individuals born preterm and full-term (aged 28.4 ± 8.6 years, 223 females). The VCDR was significantly larger in subjects with a GA ≤28 weeks without ROP compared to the full-term control group (GA ≥37 weeks) (P = .002). Subjects with ROP without treatment also had a larger VCDR (P = .001), whereas those with ROP treatment showed a smaller VCDR than the full-term control group (P = .02). In addition, individuals with ROP treatment were more likely to have a torted disc than the full-term control group (P = .006). CONCLUSION: The present study provides evidence that individuals born extremely preterm have increased VCDR in adulthood. Furthermore, these results indicate that fetal origins affect optic disc morphology until adulthood, which might predispose the affected individual to degenerative optic nerve head diseases or being incorrectly diagnosed to glaucoma.


Assuntos
Disco Óptico , Retinopatia da Prematuridade , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos , Retinopatia da Prematuridade/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 26: 101488, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35330588

RESUMO

Purpose: To report on 4 patients (3 adults, 1 child) with neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) treated with cenegermin 20 µg/ml (Oxervate®), a recombinant human nerve growth factor (rhNGF), which was authorized by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of neurotrophic keratopathy stage 2 and stage 3 of Mackie Classification in patients over 18 years of age. Observations: Three patients with neurotrophic keratopathy stage 2 and 1 patient with neurotrophic keratopathy stage 3, who were treated with cenegermin eye drops 6 times daily for 8 weeks, were observed. Two patients suffered from herpetic keratitis and 2 patients from neurotrophic keratopathy secondary to orbital radiation. In addition to closure of epithelial defects, an increase of corneal sensitivity and improvement of visual acuity has been shown in all treated patients at the end of therapy. One patient reported on neuralgic pain as a side effect. The corneal epithelium remained closed during the follow-up period of 11 weeks, 31 and 32 months after cessation of therapy in 3 patients, respectively. In one patient, corneal erosion recurred 4 weeks after completion of treatment due to recurrent HSV keratitis, which resolved after therapy adjustment and the corneal epithelium remained closed for 35 weeks. Conclusion: The cases presented suggest that treatment with cenegermin 20 µg/ml not only promotes corneal epithelial wound healing, but also significantly improves corneal sensitivity and visual acuity with minor side effects in adults and children.

9.
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd ; 239(2): 165-168, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês, Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35211938

RESUMO

Glaucoma is a group of chronic eye diseases that lead to degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons followed by irreversible loss of vision in the patient. Glaucoma is a disease that initially evolves asymptomatically with the first symptoms appearing only at an advanced stage of this eye disease. For this reason, it is always necessary to develop state-of-the-art technologies and methods for the identification and characterization of new, specific biomarkers for the early diagnosis of glaucoma. Therefore, the analysis of biological fluids, as in this case the tear fluid of patients, represents an attractive source to identify new specific as well as sensitive biomarkers in glaucoma. These biomarkers could be involved in the pathophysiological processes of glaucoma or possibly serve for diagnostic differentiation of various types of glaucoma.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Animais , Biomarcadores , Diferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Células Ganglionares da Retina
10.
Children (Basel) ; 9(2)2022 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35205001

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine whether prematurity and associated factors affect the anterior chamber angle (ACA) width in adulthood. METHODS: The Gutenberg Prematurity Eye Study (GPES) is a retrospective cohort study with a prospective ophthalmologic examination of adults (age 18-52 years) in Germany. All participants were examined with Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam HR, Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany) using linear regression analysis to assess the associations of ACA in the different sectors with gestational age (GA), birth weight, birth weight percentile, retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), ROP treatment, placental insufficiency, preeclampsia, and breastfeeding. RESULTS: In total, 516 eyes of 319 preterm and full-term individuals (aged 28.9 ± 8.8 years, 188 females) were examined. ROP treatment was associated with smaller ACA width in the nasal (B = -9.6 [95%CI: -14.7; -4.5] degree; p < 0.001) and temporal positions (B = -11.5 [95%CI: -17.7; -5.3] degree; p = 0.001), whereas non-treated individuals with ROP had an unaltered ACA width, as did individuals with low gestational age without ROP. CONCLUSION: Advanced stages of ROP following treatment with laser- and cryocoagulation lead to a smaller ACA width until adulthood, and hence may increase the risk of angle closure in later life.

11.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2022 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35199135

RESUMO

AIMS: To investigate the predictive ability of direct plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations as well as their ratio (aldosterone-to-renin (ARR)) for incident hypertension in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: Concentration of renin and aldosterone were measured by a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) using the fully-automated LIAISON® platform (DiaSorin) among 5,362 participants of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study, who were normotensive and had no clinically-overt CVD at baseline. During a follow-up period of five years, 18.6% (n = 996) developed a new-onset hypertension. Comparing extreme quartiles of biomarker distribution, the relative risk (RR) for incident arterial hypertension was found to be 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-2.00; p = 0.00015; Q1 vs Q4ref) for renin; 1.29 (95% CI 1.05-1.59, p = 0.018; Q4 vs Q1ref) for aldosterone and 1.70 (95%CI 1.33-2.12; p < 0.0001; Q4 vs Q1ref) for ARR after multivariable adjustment in men. In females, only high ARR was independently predictive for incident hypertension over five years (RR 1.29 (95% CI 1.04-1.62); p = 0.024). Even in the subgroup of individuals having biomarker concentrations within the reference range, high ARR was predictive for new-onset hypertension in men (RR 1.44 (95%CI 1.13-1.83); p = 0.003). Finally, synergistic effects of co-prevalent obesity and ARR on incident hypertension were also demonstrated, resulting in markedly higher risk estimates as seen for biomarker alone (RR of 2.70 (95% 2.05-3.6) for Q4 of ARR and having BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 vs low ARR (Q1ref) and normal weight; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Among normotensives from the general population ARR possesses a stronger predictive value for incident hypertension than renin or aldosterone alone. The prediction of arterial hypertension by ARR was even stronger in obese subjects. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: These findings may help in a better understanding of importance of aldosterone-renin imbalance for the development of new-onset hypertension among normotensive subject and identify individuals at greatest risk, who probably required more intensive preventive measures.

12.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 32, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective pilot study is to establish an initial database to register patients diagnosed with different types of childhood glaucoma and the set-up of a national registry for childhood glaucoma (ReCG) in Germany. 28 children with different types of diagnosed childhood glaucoma, who were admitted and treated at the Childhood Glaucoma Center of the University Medical Center Mainz, Germany were included. Main outcome measures were the type of childhood glaucoma, mean intraocular pressure (IOP) and genetic data of the patients. RESULTS: The documents and questionnaires for each individual included: informed consent form of the parents, medical history form of the child, patient's gestational history questionnaire and general anesthesia examination form. Primary congenital and secondary childhood glaucoma were revealed in 11 (39%) and 17 (61%) patients, respectively. The mean IOP measured with Perkins tonometer in all patients under general anesthesia at the time of inclusion was 17.5 ± 11.8 mmHg in the right and 17 ± 8.9 mmHg in the left eyes. In 33% of children with glaucoma mutations in the CYP1B1, FOXC1, LTBP2 and TEK genes were found. The development of specific questionnaires for childhood glaucoma provides detailed baseline data to establish a ReCG in Germany for the first time.


Assuntos
Glaucoma , Pressão Intraocular , Criança , Alemanha , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/genética , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
13.
Hepatol Commun ; 6(6): 1457-1466, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35122404

RESUMO

The prevalence of liver disease, and especially of advanced liver fibrosis, in the German population is poorly defined. The aim of the study was to explore liver enzymes and surrogate scores of hepatic steatosis and advanced hepatic fibrosis in a population-based cohort study in Germany. In the cross-sectional population-based Gutenberg Health study, data of 14,950 participants enrolled between 2007 and 2012 were captured and analyzed. The distribution of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), fatty liver index (FLI), and Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) score, as well as the underlying risk factors, were assessed by regression models. Elevated liver enzymes in this population-based sample were seen in 19.9% for ALT, 12.8% for AST, and 14% for GGT. Risk factors for liver disease included alcohol use and the presence of the metabolic syndrome, which were both risk factors associated with increased liver enzymes. The FLI suggested that 37.5% of the population exhibited hepatic steatosis and 1.1% of patients exhibited a FIB-4 above the upper cutoff, while 19.2% were in the intermediate range. Interestingly, advanced fibrosis was significantly more frequent in men compared with women (FIB-4: 1.5% vs. 0.6% [P < 0.0001]; NFS: 3.6% vs. 1.9% [P < 0.0001]). In addition, age was a relevant risk factor for exhibiting a noninvasive surrogate score suggestive of advanced fibrosis in the current study population. Conclusion: Elevated liver enzymes were seen in almost a fifth of the German population. At the population-based level, the prevalence of advanced fibrosis was estimated at 1% in Germany.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , gama-Glutamiltransferase
14.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 63(1): 40, 2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35089330

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular geometry. Methods: The Gutenberg Health Study is a population-based cohort study in Mainz, Germany. Study participants underwent a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including noncontact tonometry, objective refraction, optical biometry, and Scheimpflug imaging of the anterior segment at the first 5-year follow-up examination (in 2012-2017). Multivariable linear regression analysis was carried out to determine associations of IOP and geometric parameter of the human phakic eye, namely central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature, anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness, and axial length. In addition, the relationship of IOP and the anterior chamber angle (ACA) width was analyzed. Results: There were 6640 participants with phakia (age 57.3 ± 10.2 years, 49.1% women) that were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Mean IOP was 14.8 ± 2.9 mm Hg in the right eyes and 14.9 ± 2.9 mm Hg in the left eyes. IOP increased with higher CCT, greater posterior segment length, higher age (all P < 0.001), thicker lens (P = 0.003), and female sex (P = 0.05), whereas the ACD was not associated with higher IOP. The IOP increased with a narrower ACA in univariable analysis (P < 0.001), but not in adjusted analysis in subjects with an open angle. Conclusions: IOP values are related to ocular geometry, as shown in this population-based study on Caucasian subjects. Thus, knowledge of the architecture of the eye is an important factor when measuring IOP. Longitudinal evaluation will analyze whether some of these parameters are also risk factors for the development of glaucoma.


Assuntos
Câmara Anterior/fisiopatologia , Comprimento Axial do Olho/fisiopatologia , Glaucoma/fisiopatologia , Pressão Intraocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual , Comprimento Axial do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Glaucoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glaucoma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 24, 2022 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34991529

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial working conditions were previously analyzed using the first recruitment wave of the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort (n = 5000). We aimed to confirm the initial analysis using the entire GHS population at baseline (N = 15,010) and at the five-year follow-up. We also aimed to determine the effects of psychosocial working conditions at baseline on self-rated outcomes measured at follow-up. METHODS: At baseline, working GHS participants were assessed with either the Effort-Reward-Imbalance questionnaire (ERI) (n = 4358) or with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) (n = 4322); participants still working after five years received the same questionnaire again (ERI n = 3142; COPSOQ n = 3091). We analyzed the association between working conditions and the outcomes job satisfaction, general health, burnout, and satisfaction with life at baseline, at follow-up and also prospectively from baseline to follow-up using linear regression models. We examined the outcome variance explained by the models (R2) to estimate the predictive performance of the questionnaires. RESULTS: The models' R2 was comparable to the original baseline analyses at both t0 and t1 (R2 range: ERI 0.10-0.43; COPSOQ 0.10-0.56). However, selected scales of the regression models sometimes changed between assessment times. The prospective analysis showed weaker associations between baseline working conditions and outcomes after five years (R2 range: ERI 0.07-0.19; COPSOQ 0.07-0.24). This was particularly true for job satisfaction. After adjusting for the baseline levels of the outcomes, fewer scales still explained some of the variance in the distribution of the outcome variables at follow-up. The models using only data from t0 or t1 confirmed the previous baseline analysis. We observed a loss of explained variance in the prospective analysis models. This loss was greatest for job satisfaction, suggesting that this outcome is most influenced by short-term working conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Both the COPSOQ and ERI instruments show good criterion validity and adequately predict contemporaneously measured self-reported measurements of health and (occupational) well-being. However, the COPSOQ provides a more detailed picture of working conditions and might be preferable for improvment strategies in workplaces. Additional prospective research with shorter follow-up times would be beneficial for estimating dose-response relationships.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Satisfação no Emprego , Humanos , Recompensa , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 118(3): 904-912, 2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724298

RESUMO

AIMS: Evidence suggests that peripheral vascular function is related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We evaluated the associations of non-invasive measures of flow-mediated dilatation and peripheral arterial tonometry with incident CVD and mortality. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a post-hoc analysis of the community-based Gutenberg Health Study, median age 55 years (25th/75th percentile 46/65) and 49.5% women, we measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (N=12 599) and fingertip peripheral arterial tonometry (N=11 125). After a follow-up of up to 11.7 years, we observed 595 incident CVD events, 106 cardiac deaths, and 860 deaths in total. Survival curves showed decreased event-free survival with higher mean brachial artery diameter and baseline pulse amplitude and better survival with higher mean flow-mediated dilatation and peripheral arterial tonometry ratio (all Plog rank <0.05). In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses only baseline pulse amplitude was inversely related to mortality [hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation increase, 0.86, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-0.94; P=0.0009]. After exclusion of individuals with prevalent CVD the association was no longer statistically significant in multivariable-adjusted models (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.02; P=0.11). None of the vascular variables substantially increased the C-index of a model comprising clinical risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, non-invasive measures of peripheral vascular structure and function did not reveal clinically relevant associations with incident CVD or mortality. Whether determination of pulse amplitude by peripheral arterial tonometry improves clinical decision-making in primary prevention needs to be demonstrated.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Rigidez Vascular , Artéria Braquial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Endotélio Vascular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
17.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(1): 443-449, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601897

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report visual and anatomical outcomes of chronic/refractory diabetic macular edema (DME) treated with intravitreal fluocinolone acetonide implant. SETTING: Retrospective, one arm, multicentric study. METHOD: Between 2013 and 2018, 27 consecutive eyes of 25 patients with chronic/refractory DME were treated with a fluocinolone acetonide intravitreal implant. Best registered visual acuity (BRVA), central retinal thickness (CRT), and Goldmann tonometry intraocular pressure (IOP) were assessed at 12 and 24 months. The need for IOP lowering treatment as well as top-up therapy during the follow-up were also assessed. RESULTS: The duration of DME prior to treatment in our study was 54 ± 24 months. The baseline mean BRVA of 0.7 ± 0.34 logMAR improved to 0.5 ± 0.3 (p = 0.01) at 12 months and 0.46 ± 0.3 (p = 0.04) at 24 months. At 12 months, BRVA improved in 14 eyes (52%), stabilized in 5 eyes (20%), and decreased in 3 eyes (11%). At 24 months, BRVA improved further in 6 eyes (24%), stabilized in 3 eyes (12%), and decreased in 6 eyes (24 %). Mean CRT decreased from 497 ± 176 to 349 ± 186 µm at 12 months (p = 0.0005) and to 267 ± 104 µm at 24 months (p = 0.001). Only five eyes required additional treatment for DME and only three eyes required treatment for raised IOP. DISCUSSION: Our results show that the visual and the anatomical improvements achieved by a single injection of a fluocinolone acetonide implant were maintained up to 24 months with minimal additional therapy even in eyes with a long and heavy history; however, IOP monitoring remains essential.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Retinopatia Diabética , Edema Macular , Retinopatia Diabética/tratamento farmacológico , Implantes de Medicamento/uso terapêutico , Fluocinolona Acetonida , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Injeções Intravítreas , Edema Macular/tratamento farmacológico , Retina , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 111(3): 272-283, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169342

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes in the general population and to investigate the associated cardiovascular burden and clinical outcome. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study sample comprised 15,010 individuals aged 35-74 years of the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Subjects were classified into euglycaemia, prediabetes and T2DM according to clinical and metabolic (HbA1c) information. The prevalence of prediabetes was 9.5% (n = 1415) and of T2DM 8.9% (n = 1316). Prediabetes and T2DM showed a significantly increased prevalence ratio (PR) for age, obesity, active smoking, dyslipidemia, and arterial hypertension compared to euglycaemia (for all, P < 0.0001). In a robust Poisson regression analysis, prediabetes was established as an independent predictor of clinically-prevalent cardiovascular disease (PRprediabetes 1.20, 95% CI 1.07-1.35, P = 0.002) and represented as a risk factor for asymptomatic cardiovascular organ damage independent of traditional risk factors (PR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08, P = 0.025). Prediabetes was associated with a 1.5-fold increased 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease compared to euglycaemia. In Cox regression analysis, prediabetes (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.76-2.51, P < 0.0001) and T2DM (HR 4.28, 95% CI 3.73-4.92, P < 0.0001) indicated for an increased risk of death. After adjustment for age, sex and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, only T2DM (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.63-2.20, P < 0.0001) remained independently associated with increased all-cause mortality. CONCLUSION: Besides T2DM, also prediabetes inherits a significant cardiovascular burden, which translates into poor clinical outcome and indicates the need for new concepts regarding the prevention of cardiometabolic disorders.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição de Poisson , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos
19.
Ophthalmologe ; 119(1): 13-19, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In medical studies digital learning is often achieved by the use of learning management platforms, such as Ilias. Lecture presentations and organizational documents are typical contents. Students use multiple, mostly external learning options for acquisition of knowledge and competences. We present our updated ophthalmology e­learning environment for medical students and its evaluation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of an ophthalmology e­learning platform for medical students, which considers prevalent learning habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The platform should provide and link a selection of internal and external learning resources following anatomical structures of the eye. For every subject area the platform provides a text with essential matters, clinical cases, lecture presentations, multiple choice questions for practice, links to corresponding chapters of a textbook and the appropriate AMBOSS learning cards (Amboss GmbH, Berlin, Germany). At the end of the semester an evaluation of the platform was carried out. Different statements were rated by the students on ordinal scales and analyzed. RESULTS: The platform was rated with 1.47 ± 0.54 (mean ± standard deviation; n = 107) on a German school grade scale (1 = best, 6 = worst). It was perceived as helpful for the individual learning with 1.62 ± 0.77 (1 = very helpful, 7 = not helpful at all). The structuring of the internal and external learning resources was rated as very good 1.44 ± 0.66 (1 = very good, 7 = very bad). The median for subjective amount of usage was 1-5 h (ordinal scale <1, 1-5, 6-10, 15-20, >20 h). CONCLUSION: It appears to be meaningful to specifically link external learning resources corresponding to the own curricular structure in order to provide medical students with a modern basis for learning in ophthalmology.


Assuntos
Instrução por Computador , Educação Médica , Oftalmologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Currículo , Hábitos , Humanos , Oftalmologia/educação
20.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 260(4): 1153-1160, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636993

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Retinal alterations in inherited metabolic diseases associated with neurodegeneration are poorly studied. The objective was to study retinal thickness, specifically the components of the ganglion cell complex (GCC)-nerve fiber layer (NFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and inner plexiform layer (IPL)-using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in two different diseases with potential dopaminergic depletion, phenylketonuria (PKU) and Gaucher disease type 3 (GD3). METHODS: Retinal layers in 19 patients with PKU, 15 patients with GD3, and 93 healthy individuals were measured using peripapillary ring scan and macular SD-OCT. Linear mixed models were computed including an adjustment for age, sex, and spherical equivalent. We calculated Spearman's rank correlations between retinal layer measurements and clinical and/or laboratory parameters. RESULTS: Thinning of total retinal thickness was found in the macular inner ring (p = 0.002), and outer ring (p = 0.012), sparing the fovea (p = 0.12) in PKU, while in GD3, all subfields were thinned (fovea p < 0.001, inner ring p = 0.047, outer ring 0.07). In both conditions, thinning was most evident in the NFL, GCL, and IPL, while OPL (outer plexiform layer) was thickened. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer measurements remained normal. GCL and IPL in PKU correlated with tyrosine serum concentration. CONCLUSION: Thinning of the NFL, GCL, and IPL, with thickened OPL, are both found in PKU and in GD3. Low dopamine concentrations in the retina might promote these effects. However, these data do not give evidence that retinal measurements can be used as a biomarker for disease severity in patients with GD3.


Assuntos
Doença de Gaucher , Fenilcetonúrias , Doença de Gaucher/complicações , Doença de Gaucher/diagnóstico , Humanos , Fibras Nervosas , Fenilcetonúrias/complicações , Fenilcetonúrias/diagnóstico , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos
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