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1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862246

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Accurate response assessment during neoadjuvant systemic treatment (NST) poses a clinical challenge. Therefore, a minimally-invasive assessment of tumor response based on cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may be beneficial to guide treatment decisions. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We profiled 93 genes in tissue from 193 early breast cancer patients. Patient-specific assays were designed for 145 patients to track ctDNA during NST in plasma. ctDNA presence and levels were correlated with complete pathological response (pCR), residual cancer burden (RCB) as well as clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumor to identify potential proxies for ctDNA release. RESULTS: At baseline, ctDNA could be detected in 63/145 (43.4%) patients and persisted in 25/63 (39.7%) patients at mid-therapy (MT) and 15/63 (23.8%) patients at the end of treatment. ctDNA detection at MT was significantly associated with higher RCB (OR 0.062, 95% CI 0.01-0.48, P=0.0077).Out of 31 patients with detectable ctDNA at MT, 30 patients (96.8%) were non-responders (RCB II, n=8; RCB III, n=22) and only one patient responded to the treatment (RCB I). Considering all 145 patients with baseline (BL) plasma, none of the patients with RCB 0 and only 6.7% of patients with RCB I had ctDNA detectable at MT, while 30.6% and 29.6% of patients with RCB II/III, respectively, had a positive ctDNA result. CONCLUSION: Overall, our results demonstrate that the detection and persistence of ctDNA at MT may have the potential to negatively predict response to neoadjuvant treatment and identify patients who will not achieve pCR or be classified with RCB II/III.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830407

RESUMO

Due to its cost-efficiency, high resolution melting (HRM) analysis plays an important role in genotyping of candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Studies indicate that HRM analysis is not only suitable for genotyping individual SNPs, but also allows genotyping of multiple SNPs in one and the same amplicon, although with limited discrimination power. By targeting the three C>T SNPs rs527559815, rs547832288, and rs16906252, located in the promoter of the O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene within a distance of 45 bp, we investigated whether the discrimination power can be increased by coupling HRM analysis with pyrosequencing (PSQ). After optimizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions, PCR products subjected to HRM analysis could directly be used for PSQ. By analyzing oligodeoxynucleotide controls, representing the 36 theoretically possible variant combinations for diploid human cells (8 triple-homozygous, 12 double-homozygous, 12 double-heterozygous and 4 triple-heterozygous combinations), 34 out of the 36 variant combinations could be genotyped unambiguously by combined analysis of HRM and PSQ data, compared to 22 variant combinations by HRM analysis and 16 variant combinations by PSQ. Our approach was successfully applied to genotype stable cell lines of different origin, primary human tumor cell lines from glioma patients, and breast tissue samples.

3.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in combination with anti-HER2 treatment is standard of care in patients with early HER2 positive breast cancer. Preoperative radiological evaluation is mandatory for defining the extent of surgery. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between preoperative radiological and postoperative pathological tumor size in early HER2 positive patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab. In a patient population with HER2 positive breast cancer, who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and anti-HER2 treatment, the correlation between preoperative radiological and postoperative pathological tumor size was performed. Concordance of radiological and pathological tumor size was found in 55.7%, leading to more extensive breast surgery as required in 7 cases and to the underestimation of 6 neoplastic lesions before surgery, respectively. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy early HER2 positive breast cancer patients were included and retrospectively analysed. All preoperative radiological assessments as well as the tumor board decision on surgical extent and pathological evaluation were completed at the Medical University of Vienna. Preoperative radiological assessment of tumor size and lymph node status were compared with final histopathological findings. The correlation between different radiological modalities regarding tumor size was investigated. RESULTS: Concordance of radiological and pathological tumor size was found in 55.7 % (50% by sonography and 66.7% by MRI, respectively) of patients with a nonsignificant correlation of r = 0.31 (P = .08). Of the 39 patients with pathologic complete remission (pCR), 16 were also classified as radiological complete response (rCR) while 23 of those showed a radiological stable disease or partial response. In 6 patients, radiological assessment showed a CR but invasive cancer with a tumor size range from 7 to 36 mm was found in histopathological examination. Neither menopausal status (P= .69) nor BMI (P = .60) and age (P = .50) had an impact on the correlation between radiological and histopathological tumor size. Regarding lymph node status, a statistically significant association and clinically relevant correlation between radiological and histopathological evaluation was found (r = 0.66, P < .001). CONCLUSION: Concordance between radiology and histopathology was low regarding tumor size after NAC in combination with trastuzumab and pertuzumab, but significant regarding lymph node status.

4.
Br J Cancer ; 124(11): 1795-1802, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preoperative chemotherapy containing anthracyclines and taxanes is well established in early-stage breast cancer. Previous studies have suggested that the chemotherapy sequence may matter but definitive evidence is missing. ABCSG trial 34 evaluated the activity of the MUC1 vaccine tecemotide when added to neoadjuvant treatment; the study provided the opportunity for the second randomisation to compare two different anthracycline/taxane sequences. METHODS: HER2-negative early-stage breast cancer patients were recruited to this randomised multicentre Phase 2 study. Patients in the chemotherapy cohort (n = 311) were additionally randomised to a conventional or reversed sequence of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide and docetaxel. Residual cancer burden (RCB) with/without tecemotide was defined as primary study endpoint; RCB in the two chemotherapy groups was a key secondary endpoint. RESULTS: No significant differences in terms of RCB 0/I (40.1% vs. 37.2%; P = 0.61) or pathologic complete response (pCR) rates (24.3% vs. 25%, P = 0.89) were observed between conventional or reverse chemotherapy sequence. No new safety signals were reported, and upfront docetaxel did not result in decreased rates of treatment delay or discontinuation. CONCLUSION: Upfront docetaxel did not improve chemotherapy activity or tolerability; these results suggest that upfront neoadjuvant treatment with anthracyclines remains a valid option.

5.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(2): 212-222, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palbociclib added to endocrine therapy improves progression-free survival in hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative, metastatic breast cancer. The PALLAS trial aimed to investigate whether the addition of 2 years of palbociclib to adjuvant endocrine therapy improves invasive disease-free survival over endocrine therapy alone in patients with hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative, early-stage breast cancer. METHODS: PALLAS is an ongoing multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 study that enrolled patients at 406 cancer centres in 21 countries worldwide with stage II-III histologically confirmed hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer, within 12 months of initial diagnosis. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score of 0 or 1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) in permuted blocks of random size (4 or 6), stratified by anatomic stage, previous chemotherapy, age, and geographical region, by use of central telephone-based and web-based interactive response technology, to receive either 2 years of palbociclib (125 mg orally once daily on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle) with ongoing standard provider or patient-choice adjuvant endocrine therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor, with or without concurrent luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist), or endocrine therapy alone, without masking. The primary endpoint of the study was invasive disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients who started palbociclib or endocrine therapy. This report presents results from the second pre-planned interim analysis triggered on Jan 9, 2020, when 67% of the total number of expected invasive disease-free survival events had been observed. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02513394) and EudraCT (2014-005181-30). FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2015, and Nov 30, 2018, 5760 patients were randomly assigned to receive palbociclib plus endocrine therapy (n=2883) or endocrine therapy alone (n=2877). At the time of the planned second interim analysis, at a median follow-up of 23·7 months (IQR 16·9-29·2), 170 of 2883 patients assigned to palbociclib plus endocrine therapy and 181 of 2877 assigned to endocrine therapy alone had invasive disease-free survival events. 3-year invasive disease-free survival was 88·2% (95% CI 85·2-90·6) for palbociclib plus endocrine therapy and 88·5% (85·8-90·7) for endocrine therapy alone (hazard ratio 0·93 [95% CI 0·76-1·15]; log-rank p=0·51). As the test statistic comparing invasive disease-free survival between groups crossed the prespecified futility boundary, the independent data monitoring committee recommended discontinuation of palbociclib in patients still receiving palbociclib and endocrine therapy. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (1742 [61·3%] of 2840 patients on palbociclib and endocrine therapy vs 11 [0·3%] of 2903 on endocrine therapy alone), leucopenia (857 [30·2%] vs three [0·1%]), and fatigue (60 [2·1%] vs ten [0·3%]). Serious adverse events occurred in 351 (12·4%) of 2840 patients on palbociclib plus endocrine therapy versus 220 (7·6%) of 2903 patients on endocrine therapy alone. There were no treatment-related deaths. INTERPRETATION: At the planned second interim analysis, addition of 2 years of adjuvant palbociclib to adjuvant endocrine therapy did not improve invasive disease-free survival compared with adjuvant endocrine therapy alone. On the basis of these findings, this regimen cannot be recommended in the adjuvant setting. Long-term follow-up of the PALLAS population and correlative studies are ongoing. FUNDING: Pfizer.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem
6.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(1)2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375020

RESUMO

To improve cancer immunotherapy, a clearer understanding of key targets such as the immune checkpoint receptor PD-1 is essential. The PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab were recently approved by the FDA. The CC'-loop of PD-1 has been identified as a hotspot for drug targeting. Here, we investigate the influence of nivolumab and pembrolizumab on the molecular motion of the CC'-loop of PD-1. We performed molecular dynamics simulations on the complete extracellular domain of PD-1, in complex with PD-L1, and the blocking antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab. Conformations of the CC'-loop were analyzed unsupervised with the Daura et al. clustering algorithm and multidimensional scaling. Surprisingly, two conformations found were seen to correspond to the 'open' and 'closed' conformation of CC'-loop in apo-PD-1, already known from literature. Unsupervised clustering also surprisingly reproduced the natural ligand, PD-L1, exclusively stabilizing the 'closed' conformation, as also known from literature. Nivolumab, like PD-L1, was found to shift the equilibrium towards the 'closed' conformation, in accordance with the conformational selection model. Pembrolizumab, on the other hand, induced a third conformation of the CC'-loop which has not been described to date: Relative to the conformation 'open' the, CC'-loop turned 180° to form a new conformation which we called 'overturned'. We show that the combination of clustering and multidimensional scaling is a fast, easy, and powerful method in analyzing structural changes in proteins. Possible refined antibodies or new small molecular compounds could utilize the flexibility of the CC'-loop to improve immunotherapy.

7.
8.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 43-52, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune-based strategies represent a promising approach in breast cancer (BC) treatment. The glycoprotein mucin-1 (MUC-1) is overexpressed in more than 90% of BC patients, and is targeted by the cancer vaccine tecemotide. We have investigated the efficacy and safety of tecemotide when added to neoadjuvant standard-of-care (SoC) treatment in early BC patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 400 patients with HER2-early BC were recruited into this prospective, multicentre, randomised 2-arm academic phase II trial. Patients received preoperative SoC treatment (chemotherapy or endocrine therapy) with or without tecemotide. Postmenopausal women with oestrogen receptor (ER)+++, or ER++ and Ki67 < 14%, and G1,2 tumours ('luminal A' tumours) received 6 months of letrozole. Postmenopausal patients with triple-negative, ER-/+/++ and Ki67 ≥ 14%, and with G3 tumours, as well as premenopausal patients, received four cycles of epirubicin/cyclophosphamide plus four cycles of docetaxel. Primary end-point was residual cancer burden (RCB; 0/I versus II/III) at surgery. Secondary end-points included pathological complete response (pCR), safety, and quality of life. FINDINGS: We observed no significant difference in RCB 0/I rates between patients with (36.4%) and without (31.9%) tecemotide in the overall study population (p = 0.40) nor in endocrine and chemotherapy-treated subgroups (25.0% versus 13.3%, p = 0.17; 39.6% versus 37.8%, p = 0.75, respectively). The addition of tecemotide did not affect overall pCR rates (22.5% versus 17.4%, p = 0.23), MUC-1 expression, or tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes content. Tecemotide did not increase toxicity when compared to SoC therapy alone. INTERPRETATION: Neoadjuvant tecemotide is safe, but does not improve RCB or pCR rates in patients receiving standard neoadjuvant therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segurança do Paciente , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
9.
Breast ; 50: 64-70, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: STEPAUT, an Austrian non-interventional study, evaluated the safety and efficacy of everolimus plus exemestane in patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC) recurring/progressing on/after nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) in routine clinical practice. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- ABC progressing on/after NSAIs receiving everolimus plus exemestane in accordance with routine practice and the current version of Summary of Product Characteristics were eligible. Planned individual observation period corresponded to the duration of treatment until formal study end. RESULTS: Overall, 236 patients (median age: 65 years) were enrolled at 17 sites across Austria. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) in the overall population was 9.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.6-10.7 months). The mPFS (95% CI) in patients who received everolimus 10 and 5 mg was 9.9 months (7.3-11.5 months) and 8 months (4.7-10.7 months), respectively. The median time to progression was numerically longer in patients who had a therapy break (11.9 months, 95% CI: 10.0-14.6 months) versus those who did not have any therapy break (10.7 months, 95% CI: 8.9-12.6 months). Patients experienced grade 1 (53.7%), grade 2 (35.9%), grade 3 (9.9%), grade 4 (0.2%) adverse events (AEs). The most common AEs of any grade were stomatitis, mucositis (53.8%), rash, exanthema (29.7%), loss of appetite, nausea (28.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Real-world safety and efficacy data from STEPAUT were consistent with results from BOLERO-2, supporting everolimus plus exemestane as a suitable treatment option for HR+, HER2- ABC recurring/progressing on/after NSAIs.


Assuntos
Androstadienos/uso terapêutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Padrões de Prática Médica , Idoso , Áustria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pós-Menopausa , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo
12.
Cancer Med ; 8(4): 1875-1881, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821131

RESUMO

We investigated the prevalence of germline BRCA mutations in a population-based cohort of Austrian women diagnosed with ovarian cancer and its association with family history of cancer. We prospectively collected family pedigrees of 443 Austrian ovarian cancer patients who had been tested for the presence of a germline BRCA or 2 mutations and correlated the familial breast and ovarian cancer burden with the prevalence of BRCA mutations and disease onset. The probability of carrying a gBRCA mutation in patients without family history of cancer is 14% (95% CI 9%-22%), as opposed to 45% (95% CI 31%-59%) of patients with at least one family member with ovarian cancer, and 47% (95% CI 40%-54%) if other relatives have developed breast cancer. If both breast and ovarian cancer are diagnosed in the family, the probability of carrying a germline BRCA1 or 2 mutations is 60% (95% CI 50%-68%). germline BRCA1 or mutations in families with ovarian cancer only are commonly located in the Ovarian Cancer Cluster Regions when compared to families with both breast and ovarian cancer (P = 0.001, and P = 0.020, respectively). While gBRCA mutation carriers with ovarian cancer do not have a significantly different age at onset than patients with a family history of cancer, gBRCA1 carriers in general have an earlier onset than gBRCA2 carriers (P = 0.002) and patients without a mutation (P = 0.006). The rate of germline BRCA1 or 2 mutations in ovarian cancer patients without a family history or breast or ovarian cancer is low. However, in women with additional family members affected, the prevalence is considerably higher than previously reported.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(3): 339-351, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30795951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer, treatment with adjuvant aromatase inhibitors is the standard of care, but it increases risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Results from the ABCSG-18 trial showed that use of denosumab as an adjuvant to aromatase inhibitor therapy significantly reduced clinical fractures. Disease-free survival outcomes from ABCSG-18 have not yet been reported. METHODS: Postmenopausal patients with early, hormone receptor-positive, non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the breast, who had completed their initial adjuvant treatment pathway (surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, or a combination) and were receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors, were enrolled at 58 trial centres in Austria and Sweden into this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial. With permuted block randomisation (block sizes 2 and 4, stratified by previous aromatase inhibitor use, total lumbar spine bone mineral density score at baseline, and type of centre), patients were assigned (1:1) to receive subcutaneous denosumab (60 mg) or matching placebo every 6 months during aromatase inhibitor therapy. The primary endpoint (previously reported) was the time to first clinical fracture after randomisation. The secondary endpoint reported here is disease-free survival (defined as time from randomisation to first evidence of local or distant metastasis, contralateral breast cancer, secondary carcinoma, or death from any cause) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with EudraCT (number 2005-005275-15) and ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT00556374), and is ongoing for long-term follow-up. FINDINGS: Between Dec 18, 2006, and July 22, 2013, 3425 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned; 1711 to the denosumab group and 1709 to the placebo group (with five others withdrawing consent). After a median follow-up of 73 months (IQR 58-95), 240 (14·0%) patients in the denosumab and 287 (16·8%) in the placebo group had disease-free survival events. Disease-free survival was significantly improved in the denosumab group versus the placebo group (hazard ratio 0·82, 95% CI 0·69-0·98, Cox p=0·0260; descriptive analysis, without controlling for multiplicity). In the denosumab group, disease-free survival was 89·2% (95% CI 87·6-90·8) at 5 years and 80·6% (78·1-83·1) at 8 years of follow-up, compared with 87·3% (85·7-89·0) at 5 years and 77·5% (74·8-80·2) and 8 years in the placebo group. No independently adjudicated cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw or confirmed atypical femoral fractures were recorded. The total number of adverse events was similar in the denosumab group (1367 [including 521 serious] adverse events) and the placebo group (1339 [515 serious]). The most common serious adverse events were osteoarthritis (62 [3·6%] of 1709 in the denosumab group vs 58 [3·4%] of 1690 in the placebo group), meniscus injury (23 [1·3%] vs 24 [1·4%]), and cataract (16 [0·9%] vs 28 [1·7%]). One (<0·1%) treatment-related death (due to pneumonia, septic kidney failure, and cardiac decompensation) occurred in the denosumab group. INTERPRETATION: Denosumab constitutes an effective and safe adjuvant treatment for patients with postmenopausal hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitor therapy. FUNDING: Amgen.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0200559, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genetic counseling and testing can be offered to individuals who are at high risk of carrying a breast cancer (BRCA) gene mutation. However, the content of genetic counseling could be difficult to understand due to complex medical information. The aim of this study was to investigate if comprehension can be improved with a new genetic counseling tool (NGCT hereafter; a tool that combines complex medical information with pictures, diagrams and tables) as compared to conventional oral-only genetic counseling (CGC). METHODS: 207 clients attended genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer at the Medical University of Vienna between February 2015 and February 2016. Seventy clients participated in this study and were allocated into two groups: the first 36 participants received conventional (oral only) genetic counseling (CGC) and the following 34 participants received genetic counseling using a new genetic counseling tool (NGCT), which combines complex information with pictures, diagrams and tables. After genetic counseling, all consenting participants were invited to complete a questionnaire with seven questions evaluating their comprehension of the medical information provided. RESULTS: Socio-demographic backgrounds were comparable in both groups. Correct responses were significantly higher in the NGCT group compared to the CGC group (p = 0.012). NGCT also statistically improves correct response of Q1 (p = 0.03) and Q7 (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: The NGCT leads to an overall better understanding of the content of a genetic counseling session than CGC alone.


Assuntos
Recursos Audiovisuais , Neoplasias da Mama , Aconselhamento Genético/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Neoplasias Ovarianas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
Eur J Radiol ; 104: 1-7, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29857853

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Skin-sparing and nipple-sparing mastectomies (SSM; NSM) remove the breast's fibroglandular tissue (FGT), thereby reducing breast cancer risk. The postoperative presence of residual FGT (RFGT) is associated with remaining cancer risk. This study evaluated the role of MRI in the quantitative assessment of RFGT and its impact on the estimation of the remaining breast cancer risk. METHODS: The postoperative MRI scans (following EUSOMA recommendations) of 58 patients who had undergone SSM or NSM between 2003 and 2013, as well as preoperative MRI scans that were available in 25 of these patients, were retrospectively evaluated for the presence and location of RFGT by three radiologists. Two different observers quantitatively assessed the volume and percentage of retromamillary and other RFGT (RFGTrm and RFGTother) were assessed. The Fisher's exact test, the Student's t-test, and intraclass coherence were used to compare patient groups and to assess reproducibility. RESULTS: RFGT was found in 20% of all breasts and significantly more frequently after NSM than SSM (50% vs. 13%, p = .003). RFGTrm and RFGTother were more prevalent after NSM (p < 0.001; p = .127). RFGT ranged from 0.5 to 26% of the preoperative FGT, with higher percentages after NSM than SSM (p = .181). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence and percentage of RFGT found on MRI indicate a considerable remaining postoperative breast cancer risk in some women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Mamilos , Tratamentos com Preservação do Órgão , Mastectomia Profilática , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mamilos/diagnóstico por imagem , Mamilos/patologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pós-Operatório , Mastectomia Profilática/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
16.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 260, 2017 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast carcinogenesis is a multistep process involving genetic and epigenetic changes. Tumor tissues are frequently characterized by gene-specific hypermethylation and global DNA hypomethylation. Aberrant DNA methylation levels have, however, not only been found in tumors, but also in tumor-surrounding tissue appearing histologically normal. This phenomenon is called field cancerization. Knowledge of the existence of a cancer field and its spread are of clinical relevance. If the tissue showing pre-neoplastic lesions is not removed by surgery, it may develop into invasive carcinoma. METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of gene-specific and global DNA methylation changes in tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues in comparison to tumor tissues from the same breast cancer patients (n = 18) and normal breast tissues from healthy women (n = 4). Methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis was applied to determine methylation levels in the promoters of APC, BRCA1, CDKN2A (p16), ESR1, HER2/neu and PTEN, in CDKN2A exon 2 and in LINE-1, as indicator for the global DNA methylation extent. The methylation status of the ESR2 promoter was determined by pyrosequencing. RESULTS: Tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues frequently showed pre-neoplastic gene-specific and global DNA methylation changes. The APC promoter (p = 0.003) and exon 2 of CDKN2A (p < 0.001) were significantly higher methylated in tumors than in normal breast tissues from healthy women. For both regions, significant differences were also found between tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) and tumor and tumor-distant tissues (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively) from breast cancer patients. In addition, tumor-adjacent (p = 0.002) and tumor-distant tissues (p = 0.005) showed significantly higher methylation levels of CDKN2A exon 2 than normal breast tissues serving as control. Significant correlations were found between the proliferative activity and the methylation status of CDKN2A exon 2 in tumor (r = -0.485, p = 0.041) and tumor-distant tissues (r = -0.498, p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: From our results we can conclude that methylation changes in CDKN2A exon 2 are associated with breast carcinogenesis. Further investigations are, however, necessary to confirm that hypermethylation of CDKN2A exon 2 is associated with tumor proliferative activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Metilação de DNA , Receptor beta de Estrogênio/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Inibidor p16 de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina , Epigênese Genética , Éxons , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
17.
Breast ; 33: 153-158, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28395233

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The effect of obesity in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine the obesity-related effect on pathological complete response (pCR) and survival in women receiving full uncapped doses of NAC. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of all consecutive women who underwent anthracycline-taxane-based NAC for primary breast cancer between 2005 and 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna. Following the WHO criteria, women with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2 at baseline were considered obese, whereas those with a BMI <30 kg/m2 were considered non-obese. Those with dose reductions or dose capping were not eligible for study inclusion. Cox regression and logistic regression were performed. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze disease-free, progression-free, and overall survival. The pCR served as the main outcome measure. RESULTS: Among 120 women who received neoadjuvant epirubicin plus cyclophosphamide and docetaxel, 28 (23.3%) were obese and 92 (76.7%) were non-obese. In the multivariate logistic regression model that adjusted for potentially confounding variables, obesity had an independent positive predictive effect on pCR (OR 4.29, 95% CI, 1.42-13.91; p = 0.011), which was significant in the postmenopausal subgroup (OR 4.72, 95% CI, 1.47-15.84; p = 0.01). When comparing non-obese with obese women, we found that obese women experienced longer progression-free survival (HR 0.10, 95% CI, 8.448 × 10-4-0.81; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Obese women receiving full uncapped doses of anthracycline-taxane-based NAC have increased pCR and favorable progression-free survival. This could result from increased dose intensity with increased efficacy and toxicity.


Assuntos
Antraciclinas/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Hidrocarbonetos Aromáticos com Pontes/administração & dosagem , Obesidade/complicações , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/métodos , Ciclofosfamida/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Epirubicina/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Breast Care (Basel) ; 11(4): 238-239, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27721709
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(45): 73347-73369, 2016 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27689338

RESUMO

Overexpression of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in tumor tissues is considered a major cause of limited efficacy of anticancer drugs. Gene expression of ABC transporters is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including changes in the DNA methylation status. Most of the studies published so far only report promoter methylation levels for either ABCB1 or ABCG2, and data on the methylation status for ABCC1 are scarce. Thus, we determined the promoter methylation patterns of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in 19 human cancer cell lines. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the role of DNA methylation changes in acquisition of a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype, we also analyzed the promoter methylation patterns in drug-resistant sublines of the cancer cell lines GLC-4, SW1573, KB-3-1 and HL-60. In addition, we investigated if aberrant promoter methylation levels of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 occur in tumor and tumor-surrounding tissues from breast cancer patients.Our data indicates that hypomethylation of the ABCC1 promoter is not cancer type-specific but occurs in cancer cell lines of different origins. Promoter methylation was found to be an important mechanism in gene regulation of ABCB1 in parental cancer cell lines and their drug-resistant sublines. Overexpression of ABCC1 in MDR cell models turned out to be mediated by gene amplification, not by changes in the promoter methylation status of ABCC1. In contrast to the promoters of ABCC1 and ABCG2, the promoter of ABCB1 was significantly higher methylated in tumor tissues than in tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues from breast cancer patients.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ilhas de CpG , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variantes Farmacogenômicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 436, 2016 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic characteristics of clients claiming genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in Austria. Furthermore, changes of these parameters before and after Angelina Jolie's (AJ) disclosure of carrying a BRCA mutation were evaluated. METHODS: In this prospective, nonrandomized study 268 consecutive clients seeking genetic counseling for HBOC at the Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna, Austria between June 2012 and June 2014 were included. Socio-demographic data and source of information about HBOC and genetic counseling were evaluated. First, socio-demographic parameters were compared to the general Austrian population. Second, changes in these parameters after AJ's public disclosure of carrying a BRCA mutation were analyzed. RESULTS: Subjects were more frequent female, younger and higher educated in comparison to Austria's general population (p < 0.001). Furthermore, level of education in participants was higher before than after AJ's disclosure (p = 0.046). Most clients were informed about genetic counseling by physicians. As expected, after AJ's public announcement patients were more frequent advised to genetic counseling by social media (p = 0.043) and family or friends (p = 0.010) than before. CONCLUSIONS: In this present study we could demonstrate that particularly younger and female participants with high educational level attended significantly more often genetic counseling for HBOC. Increased presence of HBOC in media since AJ's disclosure of carrying a BRCA mutation had lead that information and awareness about HBOC was obtained by a wider audience from different social background.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Áustria , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Demografia , Escolaridade , Pessoas Famosas , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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