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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433103

RESUMO

Each year diagnostic laboratories in the Netherlands profile thousands of individuals for heritable disease using next-generation sequencing (NGS). This requires pathogenicity classification of millions of DNA variants on the standard 5-tier scale. To reduce time spent on data interpretation and increase data quality and reliability, the nine Dutch labs decided to publicly share their classifications. Variant classifications of nearly 100,000 unique variants were catalogued and compared in a centralized MOLGENIS database. Variants classified by more than one center were labeled as "consensus" when classifications agreed, and shared internationally with LOVD and ClinVar. When classifications opposed (LB/B vs. LP/P), they were labeled "conflicting", while other nonconsensus observations were labeled "no consensus". We assessed our classifications using the InterVar software to compare to ACMG 2015 guidelines, showing 99.7% overall consistency with only 0.3% discrepancies. Differences in classifications between Dutch labs or between Dutch labs and ACMG were mainly present in genes with low penetrance or for late onset disorders and highlight limitations of the current 5-tier classification system. The data sharing boosted the quality of DNA diagnostics in Dutch labs, an initiative we hope will be followed internationally. Recently, a positive match with a case from outside our consortium resulted in a more definite disease diagnosis.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

3.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(8): e849, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The minimal critical region in 2q23.1 deletion syndrome comprises one gene only, that is, the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 5 (MBD5) gene. Since the phenotypes of patients with deletions, duplications or pathogenic variants of MBD5 show considerable overlap, the term MBD5-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (MAND) was proposed. These syndromes are characterized by intellectual disability, seizures of any kind and symptoms from the autism spectrum. In a very limited number of patients, MAND may be associated with regression starting either at early infancy or at midlife. METHODS: The present paper describes a severely intellectually disabled autistic female with therapy resistant complex partial epilepsy starting at her 16the with gradual cognitive and behavioral regression towards her sixth decade. RESULTS: Cognitive and behavioral regression occurred towards the patient's sixth decade. Exome sequencing disclosed a novel heterozygous pathogenic frameshift mutation of MBD5 that was considered to be causative for the combination of intellectual disability, treatment-resistant epilepsy and autism. CONCLUSION: The presented patient is the second with a pathogenic MBD5 mutation in whom the course of disease is suggestive of early onset dementia starting in her fifth decade. These findings stress the importance of exome sequencing, also in elderly intellectually disabled patients, particularly in those with autism.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 403-412, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303265

RESUMO

POU3F3, also referred to as Brain-1, is a well-known transcription factor involved in the development of the central nervous system, but it has not previously been associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report the identification of 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 disruptions, most of which are de novo variants. All individuals had developmental delays and/or intellectual disability and impairments in speech and language skills. Thirteen individuals had characteristic low-set, prominent, and/or cupped ears. Brain abnormalities were observed in seven of eleven MRI reports. POU3F3 is an intronless gene, insensitive to nonsense-mediated decay, and 13 individuals carried protein-truncating variants. All truncating variants that we tested in cellular models led to aberrant subcellular localization of the encoded protein. Luciferase assays demonstrated negative effects of these alleles on transcriptional activation of a reporter with a FOXP2-derived binding motif. In addition to the loss-of-function variants, five individuals had missense variants that clustered at specific positions within the functional domains, and one small in-frame deletion was identified. Two missense variants showed reduced transactivation capacity in our assays, whereas one variant displayed gain-of-function effects, suggesting a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. In bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) interaction assays, all the truncated POU3F3 versions that we tested had significantly impaired dimerization capacities, whereas all missense variants showed unaffected dimerization with wild-type POU3F3. Taken together, our identification and functional cell-based analyses of pathogenic variants in POU3F3, coupled with a clinical characterization, implicate disruptions of this gene in a characteristic neurodevelopmental disorder.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

6.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). METHODS: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. RESULTS: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. CONCLUSION: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum of CTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(9): 1872-1877, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207095

RESUMO

De novo pathogenic variants in the human immunodeficiency virus enhancer type I binding protein 2 (HIVEP2) gene, a large transcription factor predominantly expressed in the brain have previously been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and dysmorphic features in nine patients. We describe the phenotype and genotype of two additional patients with novel de novo pathogenic HIVEP2 variants, who have previously unreported features, including hyperphagia and Angelman-like features. Exome sequencing was utilized in the investigation of the patients who had previously incurred a rigorous genetic workup for their neurodevelopmental delay, and in whom no genetic cause had been detected. Information pertaining to phenotype and genotype for new patients was collated along with data from previous reports, showing that the phenotypic spectrum of patients with HIVEP2 variants is broader than first noted. Additional characteristics are: an increased body mass index; and features of Angelman-like syndromes including: ID, limited speech, post-natal microcephaly, and hypotonia. Dysmorphic features vary between patients. As yet, no clear association between the type of gene aberration and phenotype can be concluded. HIVEP2-related ID needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with Angelman-like phenotypes and hyperphagia, and whole-exome sequencing should be considered in the genetic diagnostic armamentarium for patients with ID of inconclusive etiology.

8.
PLoS Genet ; 15(4): e1008088, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31034465

RESUMO

PIK3C2A is a class II member of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) family that catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) into PI(3)P and the phosphorylation of PI(4)P into PI(3,4)P2. At the cellular level, PIK3C2A is critical for the formation of cilia and for receptor mediated endocytosis, among other biological functions. We identified homozygous loss-of-function mutations in PIK3C2A in children from three independent consanguineous families with short stature, coarse facial features, cataracts with secondary glaucoma, multiple skeletal abnormalities, neurological manifestations, among other findings. Cellular studies of patient-derived fibroblasts found that they lacked PIK3C2A protein, had impaired cilia formation and function, and demonstrated reduced proliferative capacity. Collectively, the genetic and molecular data implicate mutations in PIK3C2A in a new Mendelian disorder of PI metabolism, thereby shedding light on the critical role of a class II PI3K in growth, vision, skeletal formation and neurological development. In particular, the considerable phenotypic overlap, yet distinct features, between this syndrome and Lowe's syndrome, which is caused by mutations in the PI-5-phosphatase OCRL, highlight the key role of PI metabolizing enzymes in specific developmental processes and demonstrate the unique non-redundant functions of each enzyme. This discovery expands what is known about disorders of PI metabolism and helps unravel the role of PIK3C2A and class II PI3Ks in health and disease.

9.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 758-766, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929739

RESUMO

By using exome sequencing and a gene matching approach, we identified de novo and inherited pathogenic variants in KDM3B in 14 unrelated individuals and three affected parents with varying degrees of intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD) and short stature. The individuals share additional phenotypic features that include feeding difficulties in infancy, joint hypermobility, and characteristic facial features such as a wide mouth, a pointed chin, long ears, and a low columella. Notably, two individuals developed cancer, acute myeloid leukemia and Hodgkin lymphoma, in childhood. KDM3B encodes for a histone demethylase and is involved in H3K9 demethylation, a crucial part of chromatin modification required for transcriptional regulation. We identified missense and truncating variants, suggesting that KDM3B haploinsufficiency is the underlying mechanism for this syndrome. By using a hybrid facial-recognition model, we show that individuals with a pathogenic variant in KDM3B have a facial gestalt, and that they show significant facial similarity compared to control individuals with ID. In conclusion, pathogenic variants in KDM3B cause a syndrome characterized by ID, short stature, and facial dysmorphism.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 914-924, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982611

RESUMO

Glypicans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that regulate growth-factor signaling during development and are thought to play a role in the regulation of morphogenesis. Whole-exome sequencing of the Australian family that defined Keipert syndrome (nasodigitoacoustic syndrome) identified a hemizygous truncating variant in the gene encoding glypican 4 (GPC4). This variant, located in the final exon of GPC4, results in premature termination of the protein 51 amino acid residues prior to the stop codon, and in concomitant loss of functionally important N-linked glycosylation (Asn514) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (Ser529) sites. We subsequently identified seven affected males from five additional kindreds with novel and predicted pathogenic variants in GPC4. Segregation analysis and X-inactivation studies in carrier females provided supportive evidence that the GPC4 variants caused the condition. Furthermore, functional studies of recombinant protein suggested that the truncated proteins p.Gln506∗ and p.Glu496∗ were less stable than the wild type. Clinical features of Keipert syndrome included a prominent forehead, a flat midface, hypertelorism, a broad nose, downturned corners of mouth, and digital abnormalities, whereas cognitive impairment and deafness were variable features. Studies of Gpc4 knockout mice showed evidence of the two primary features of Keipert syndrome: craniofacial abnormalities and digital abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that GPC4 is most closely related to GPC6, which is associated with a bone dysplasia that has a phenotypic overlap with Keipert syndrome. Overall, we have shown that pathogenic variants in GPC4 cause a loss of function that results in Keipert syndrome, making GPC4 the third human glypican to be linked to a genetic syndrome.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 164-178, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580808

RESUMO

SMARCC2 (BAF170) is one of the invariable core subunits of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling BAF (BRG1-associated factor) complex and plays a crucial role in embryogenesis and corticogenesis. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding other components of the BAF complex have been associated with intellectual disability syndromes. Despite its significant biological role, variants in SMARCC2 have not been directly associated with human disease previously. Using whole-exome sequencing and a web-based gene-matching program, we identified 15 individuals with variable degrees of neurodevelopmental delay and growth retardation harboring one of 13 heterozygous variants in SMARCC2, most of them novel and proven de novo. The clinical presentation overlaps with intellectual disability syndromes associated with other BAF subunits, such as Coffin-Siris and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndromes and includes prominent speech impairment, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features such as hypertrichosis, thick eyebrows, thin upper lip vermilion, and upturned nose. Nine out of the fifteen individuals harbor variants in the highly conserved SMARCC2 DNA-interacting domains (SANT and SWIRM) and present with a more severe phenotype. Two of these individuals present cardiac abnormalities. Transcriptomic analysis of fibroblasts from affected individuals highlights a group of differentially expressed genes with possible roles in regulation of neuronal development and function, namely H19, SCRG1, RELN, and CACNB4. Our findings suggest a novel SMARCC2-related syndrome that overlaps with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with variants in BAF-complex subunits.

14.
Epilepsia ; 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30525188

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy is highly prevalent among patients with intellectual disability (ID), and seizure control is often difficult. Identification of the underlying etiology in this patient group is important for daily clinical care. We assessed the diagnostic yield of whole exome sequencing (WES). In addition, we evaluated which clinical characteristics influence the likelihood of identifying a genetic cause and we assessed the potential impact of the genetic diagnosis on (antiepileptic) treatment strategy. METHODS: One hundred patients with both unexplained epilepsy and (borderline) ID (intelligence quotient ≤ 85) were included. All patients were evaluated by a clinical geneticist, a (pediatric) neurologist, and/or a specialist ID physician. WES analysis was performed in two steps. In step 1, analysis was restricted to the latest versions of ID and/or epilepsy gene panels. In step 2, exome analysis was extended to all genes (so-called full exome analysis). The results were classified according to the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines. RESULTS: In 58 patients, the diagnostic WES analysis reported one or more variant(s). In 25 of the 100 patients, these were classified as (likely) pathogenic, in 24 patients as variants of uncertain significance, and in the remaining patients the variant was most likely not related to the phenotype. In 10 of 25 patients (40%) with a (likely) pathogenic variant, the genetic diagnosis might have an impact on the treatment strategy in the future. SIGNIFICANCE: This study illustrates the clinical diagnostic relevance of WES for patients with both epilepsy and ID. It also demonstrates that implementing WES diagnostics might have impact on the (antiepileptic) treatment strategy in this population. Confirmation of variants of uncertain significance in (candidate) genes may further increase the yield.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 1045-1052, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526862

RESUMO

We describe six persons from three families with three homozygous protein truncating variants in PUS7: c.89_90del (p.Thr30Lysfs∗20), c.1348C>T (p.Arg450∗), and a deletion of the penultimate exon 15. All these individuals have intellectual disability with speech delay, short stature, microcephaly, and aggressive behavior. PUS7 encodes the RNA-independent pseudouridylate synthase 7. Pseudouridylation is the most abundant post-transcriptional modification in RNA, which is primarily thought to stabilize secondary structures of RNA. We show that the disease-related variants lead to abolishment of PUS7 activity on both tRNA and mRNA substrates. Moreover, pus7 knockout in Drosophila melanogaster results in a number of behavioral defects, including increased activity, disorientation, and aggressiveness supporting that neurological defects are caused by PUS7 variants. Our findings demonstrate that RNA pseudouridylation by PUS7 is essential for proper neuronal development and function.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Nanismo/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes/métodos , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA de Transferência/genética
17.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30481156

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the tumor suppressor gene MEN1 and can be diagnosed based on clinical, familial and/or genetic criteria. We present a family in which we found both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. Family description: In our proband we diagnosed MEN1. The mutation was not detected in her parents (DNA extracted from leucocytes). When her brother was found to harbor the same MEN1 mutation as our proband and, around the same time, their father was diagnosed with a neuroendocrine carcinoma, this tumour was investigated for the MEN1 mutation as well. In the histologic biopsy of this tumour the same MEN1 mutation was detected as previously found in his children. Re-analysis of his blood using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) showed a minimal, but consistently decreased signal for the MEN1 specific MLPA-probes. The deletion was confirmed in his son by high resolution array analysis. Based on the array data we concluded that the deletion was limited to the MEN1 gene and that the father had both germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first reported family with combined germline and somatic mosaicism for MEN1. This study illustrates that germline mosaicism is important to consider in apparently sporadic de novo MEN1 mutations, because of its particular importance for genetic counseling, specifically when evaluating the risk for family members and when considering the possibility of somatic mosaicism in the parent with germline mosaicism.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 786-793, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343942

RESUMO

PCGF2 encodes the polycomb group ring finger 2 protein, a transcriptional repressor involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and embryogenesis. PCGF2 is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), a multiprotein complex which controls gene silencing through histone modification and chromatin remodelling. We report the phenotypic characterization of 13 patients (11 unrelated individuals and a pair of monozygotic twins) with missense mutations in PCGF2. All the mutations affected the same highly conserved proline in PCGF2 and were de novo, excepting maternal mosaicism in one. The patients demonstrated a recognizable facial gestalt, intellectual disability, feeding problems, impaired growth, and a range of brain, cardiovascular, and skeletal abnormalities. Computer structural modeling suggests the substitutions alter an N-terminal loop of PCGF2 critical for histone biding. Mutant PCGF2 may have dominant-negative effects, sequestering PRC1 components into complexes that lack the ability to interact efficiently with histones. These findings demonstrate the important role of PCGF2 in human development and confirm that heterozygous substitutions of the Pro65 residue of PCGF2 cause a recognizable syndrome characterized by distinctive craniofacial, neurological, cardiovascular, and skeletal features.

19.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

20.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1442-1451, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224647

RESUMO

The etiological spectrum of ultra-rare developmental disorders remains to be fully defined. Chromatin regulatory mechanisms maintain cellular identity and function, where misregulation may lead to developmental defects. Here, we report pathogenic variations in MSL3, which encodes a member of the chromatin-associated male-specific lethal (MSL) complex responsible for bulk histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac) in flies and mammals. These variants cause an X-linked syndrome affecting both sexes. Clinical features of the syndrome include global developmental delay, progressive gait disturbance, and recognizable facial dysmorphism. MSL3 mutations affect MSL complex assembly and activity, accompanied by a pronounced loss of H4K16ac levels in vivo. Patient-derived cells display global transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in morphogenesis and cell migration. Finally, we use histone deacetylase inhibitors to rebalance acetylation levels, alleviating some of the molecular and cellular phenotypes of patient cells. Taken together, we characterize a syndrome that allowed us to decipher the developmental importance of MSL3 in humans.

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