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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(1): 116-135, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965383

RESUMO

The high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) risk locus at chromosome 1p34.3 resides within a frequently amplified genomic region signifying the presence of an oncogene. Here, we integrate in silico variant-to-function analysis with functional studies to characterize the oncogenic potential of candidate genes in the 1p34.3 locus. Fine mapping of genome-wide association statistics identified candidate causal SNPs local to H3K27ac-demarcated enhancer regions that exhibit allele-specific binding for CTCF in HGSOC and normal fallopian tube secretory epithelium cells (FTSECs). SNP risk associations colocalized with eQTL for six genes (DNALI1, GNL2, RSPO1, SNIP1, MEAF6, and LINC01137) that are more highly expressed in carriers of the risk allele, and three (DNALI1, GNL2, and RSPO1) were upregulated in HGSOC compared to normal ovarian surface epithelium cells and/or FTSECs. Increased expression of GNL2 and MEAF6 was associated with shorter survival in HGSOC with 1p34.3 amplifications. Despite its activation of ß-catenin signaling, RSPO1 overexpression exerted no effects on proliferation or colony formation in our study of ovarian cancer and FTSECs. Instead, GNL2, MEAF6, and SNIP1 silencing impaired in vitro ovarian cancer cell growth. Additionally, GNL2 silencing diminished xenograft tumor formation, whereas overexpression stimulated proliferation and colony formation in FTSECs. GNL2 influences 60S ribosomal subunit maturation and global protein synthesis in ovarian cancer and FTSECs, providing a potential mechanism of how GNL2 upregulation might promote ovarian cancer development and mediate genetic susceptibility of HGSOC.

2.
Nature ; 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34875674

RESUMO

Breast cancers are complex ecosystems of malignant cells and tumour microenvironment1. The composition of these tumour ecosystems and interactions within them contribute to cytotoxic therapy response2. Efforts to build response predictors have not incorporated this knowledge. We collected clinical, digital pathology, genomic and transcriptomic profiles of pre-treatment biopsies of breast tumours from 168 patients treated with chemotherapy +/- HER2-targeted therapy prior to surgery. Pathology endpoints (complete response or residual disease) at surgery3 were then correlated with multi-omic features in these diagnostic biopsies. Here we show that response to treatment is modulated by the pre-treated tumour ecosystem, and its multi-omics landscape can be integrated in predictive models using machine learning. The degree of residual disease following therapy is monotonically associated with pre-therapy features, including tumour mutational and copy number landscapes, tumour proliferation, immune infiltration and T-cell dysfunction and exclusion. Combining these features into a multi-omic machine learning model predicted pathological complete response in an external validation cohort (75 patients) with an AUC of 0.87. In conclusion, response to therapy is determined by the baseline characteristics of the totality of the tumour ecosystem captured through data integration and machine learning. This approach could be used to develop predictors for other cancers.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844974

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epithelial tubo-ovarian cancer (EOC) has high mortality partly due to late diagnosis. Prevention is available but may be associated with adverse effects. A multifactorial risk model based on known genetic and epidemiological risk factors (RFs) for EOC can help identify women at higher risk who could benefit from targeted screening and prevention. METHODS: We developed a multifactorial EOC risk model for women of European ancestry incorporating the effects of pathogenic variants (PVs) in BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51C, RAD51D and BRIP1, a Polygenic Risk Score (PRS) of arbitrary size, the effects of RFs and explicit family history (FH) using a synthetic model approach. The PRS, PV and RFs were assumed to act multiplicatively. RESULTS: Based on a currently available PRS for EOC that explains 5% of the EOC polygenic variance, the estimated lifetime risks under the multifactorial model in the general population vary from 0.5% to 4.6% for the first to 99th percentiles of the EOC risk distribution. The corresponding range for women with an affected first-degree relative is 1.9%-10.3%. Based on the combined risk distribution, 33% of RAD51D PV carriers are expected to have a lifetime EOC risk of less than 10%. RFs provided the widest distribution, followed by the PRS. In an independent partial model validation, absolute and relative 5-year risks were well calibrated in quintiles of predicted risk. CONCLUSION: This multifactorial risk model can facilitate stratification, in particular among women with FH of cancer and/or moderate-risk and high-risk PVs. The model is available via the CanRisk Tool (www.canrisk.org).

5.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 94, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advancements in cancer therapeutics have resulted in increases in cancer-related survival; however, there is a growing clinical dilemma. The current balancing of survival benefits and future cardiotoxic harms of oncotherapies has resulted in an increased burden of cardiovascular disease in breast cancer survivors. Risk stratification may help address this clinical dilemma. This study is the first to assess the association between a coronary artery disease-specific polygenic risk score and incident coronary artery events in female breast cancer survivors. METHODS: We utilized the Studies in Epidemiology and Research in Cancer Heredity prospective cohort involving 12,413 women with breast cancer with genotype information and without a baseline history of cardiovascular disease. Cause-specific hazard ratios for association of the polygenic risk score and incident coronary artery disease (CAD) were obtained using left-truncated Cox regression adjusting for age, genotype array, conventional risk factors such as smoking and body mass index, as well as other sociodemographic, lifestyle, and medical variables. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 10.3 years (IQR: 16.8) years, 750 incident fatal or non-fatal coronary artery events were recorded. A 1 standard deviation higher polygenic risk score was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI 1.20, 1.47) for incident CAD. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that a coronary artery disease-specific polygenic risk score can risk-stratify breast cancer survivors independently of other established cardiovascular risk factors.

6.
Eur Urol ; 80(5): 661-669, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Predict Prostate is a freely available online personalised risk communication tool for men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Its accuracy has been assessed in multiple validation studies, but its clinical impact among patients has not hitherto been assessed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of the tool on patient decision-making and disease perception. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A multicentre randomised controlled trial was performed across eight UK centres among newly diagnosed men considering either active surveillance or radical treatment. A total of 145 patients were included between 2018 and 2020, with median age 67 yr (interquartile range [IQR] 61-72) and prostate-specific antigen 6.8 ng/ml (IQR 5.1-8.8). INTERVENTION: Participants were randomised to either standard of care (SOC) information or SOC and a structured presentation of the Predict Prostate tool. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Validated questionnaires were completed by assessing the impact of the tool on decisional conflict, uncertainty, anxiety, and perception of survival. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Mean Decisional Conflict Scale scores were 26% lower in the Predict Prostate group (mean = 16.1) than in the SOC group (mean = 21.7; p = 0.027). Scores on the "support", "uncertainty", and "value clarity" subscales all favoured Predict Prostate (all p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in anxiety scores or final treatment selection between the two groups. Patient perception of 15-yr prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival benefit from radical treatment were considerably lower and more accurate among men in the Predict Prostate group (p < 0.001). In total, 57% of men reported that the Predict Prostate estimates for PCSM were lower than expected, and 36% reported being less likely to select radical treatment. Over 90% of patients in the intervention group found it useful and 94% would recommend it to others. CONCLUSIONS: Predict Prostate reduces decisional conflict and uncertainty, and shifts patient perception around prognosis to be more realistic. This randomised trial demonstrates that Predict Prostate can directly inform the complex decision-making process in prostate cancer and is felt to be useful by patients. Future larger trials are warranted to test its impact upon final treatment decisions. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this national study, we assessed the impact of an individualised risk communication tool, called Predict Prostate, on patient decision-making after a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. Men were randomly assigned to two groups, which received either standard counselling and information, or this in addition to a structured presentation of the Predict Prostate tool. Men who saw the tool were less conflicted and uncertain in their decision-making, and recommended the tool highly. Those who saw the tool had more realistic perception about their long-term survival and the potential impact of treatment upon this. TAKE HOME MESSAGE: The use of an individualised risk communication tool, such as Predict Prostate, reduces patient decisional conflict and uncertainty when deciding about treatment for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. The tool leads to more realistic perceptions about survival outcomes and prognosis.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 29(11): 1595-1600, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267338

RESUMO

Individuals with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) may develop fibrofolliculomas, pneumothorax and/or renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Currently, all patients with pathogenic FLCN variants are recommended to have renal surveillance. It has however been suggested that some FLCN variants only cause pneumothorax, which would make surveillance unnecessary in certain cases. This review assesses this possibility. We provide an up-to-date analysis of clinical and genetic features of BHDS. The PUBMED database was systematically searched to find all articles describing patients with pathogenic FLCN variants. The relevant clinical and genetic features of these patients were recorded and analysed. The prevalence of pneumothorax, pulmonary cysts, RCC and characteristic skin lesions in BHDS were 50.9% (n = 1038), 91.9% (n = 720), 22.5% (n = 929) and 47.9% (n = 989), respectively. There was a higher prevalence of pneumothoraces (p < 0.0001) but lower prevalence of dermatological findings (p < 0.0001) in patients from East Asia compared to North America or Europe. Of the 194 pathogenic FLCN variants, 76 could be defined as 'pneumothorax-only'. Pneumothorax only pathogenic variants (POPVs) were distributed throughout the gene, and there were no statistical differences in variant type. The majority of POPVs (65/76) affected no more than three individuals. Individuals with 'POPVs' also tended to be younger (45 vs. 47 years, p < 0.05). Many apparent POPVs in the literature could result from variable expressivity, age-related penetrance and other confounding factors. We therefore recommend that all individuals found to carry a pathogenic FLCN variant be enroled in lifelong surveillance for RCC.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4198, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234117

RESUMO

Our study describes breast cancer risk loci using a cross-ancestry GWAS approach. We first identify variants that are associated with breast cancer at P < 0.05 from African ancestry GWAS meta-analysis (9241 cases and 10193 controls), then meta-analyze with European ancestry GWAS data (122977 cases and 105974 controls) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. The approach identifies four loci for overall breast cancer risk [1p13.3, 5q31.1, 15q24 (two independent signals), and 15q26.3] and two loci for estrogen receptor-negative disease (1q41 and 7q11.23) at genome-wide significance. Four of the index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) lie within introns of genes (KCNK2, C5orf56, SCAMP2, and SIN3A) and the other index SNPs are located close to GSTM4, AMPD2, CASTOR2, and RP11-168G16.2. Here we present risk loci with consistent direction of associations in African and European descendants. The study suggests that replication across multiple ancestry populations can help improve the understanding of breast cancer genetics and identify causal variants.


Assuntos
/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Locos de Características Quantitativas , /genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
Carcinogenesis ; 42(6): 785-793, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037709

RESUMO

Recently, ovarian cancer research has evolved considerably because of the emerging recognition that rather than a single disease, ovarian carcinomas comprise several different histotypes that vary by etiologic origin, risk factors, molecular profiles, therapeutic approaches and clinical outcome. Despite significant progress in our understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer, as well as important clinical advances, it remains the eighth most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide and the most fatal gynecologic cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the United States National Cancer Institute jointly convened an expert panel on ovarian carcinoma to develop consensus research priorities based on evolving scientific discoveries. Expertise ranged from etiology, prevention, early detection, pathology, model systems, molecular characterization and treatment/clinical management. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge and highlights expert consensus on future directions to continue advancing etiologic, epidemiologic and prognostic research on ovarian carcinoma.


Assuntos
Prova Pericial , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Congressos como Assunto , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Estados Unidos
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e2037657, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33704474

RESUMO

Importance: If magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mitigates overdiagnosis of prostate cancer while improving the detection of clinically significant cases, including MRI in a screening program for prostate cancer could be considered. Objective: To evaluate the benefit-harm profiles and cost-effectiveness associated with MRI before biopsy compared with biopsy-first screening for prostate cancer using age-based and risk-stratified screening strategies. Design, Setting, and Participants: This decision analytical model used a life-table approach and was conducted between December 2019 and July 2020. A hypothetical cohort of 4.48 million men in England aged 55 to 69 years were analyzed and followed-up to 90 years of age. Exposures: No screening, age-based screening, and risk-stratified screening in the hypothetical cohort. Age-based screening consisted of screening every 4 years with prostate-specific antigen between the ages of 55 and 69 years. Risk-stratified screening used age and polygenic risk profiles. Main Outcomes and Measures: The benefit-harm profile (deaths from prostate cancer, quality-adjusted life-years, overdiagnosis, and biopsies) and cost-effectiveness (net monetary benefit, from a health care system perspective) were analyzed. Both age-based and risk-stratified screening were evaluated using a biopsy-first and an MRI-first diagnostic pathway. Results were derived from probabilistic analyses and were discounted at 3.5% per annum. Results: The hypothetical cohort included 4.48 million men in England, ranging in age from 55 to 69 years (median, 62 years). Compared with biopsy-first age-based screening, MRI-first age-based screening was associated with 0.9% (1368; 95% uncertainty interval [UI], 1370-1409) fewer deaths from prostate cancer, 14.9% (12 370; 95% UI, 11 100-13 670) fewer overdiagnoses, and 33.8% (650 500; 95% UI, 463 200-907 000) fewer biopsies. At 10-year absolute risk thresholds of 2% and 10%, MRI-first risk-stratified screening was associated with between 10.4% (7335; 95% UI, 6630-8098) and 72.6% (51 250; 95% UI, 46 070-56 890) fewer overdiagnosed cancers, respectively, and between 21.7% fewer MRIs (412 100; 95% UI, 411 400-412 900) and 53.5% fewer biopsies (1 016 000; 95% UI, 1 010 000-1 022 000), respectively, compared with MRI-first age-based screening. The most cost-effective strategies at willingness-to-pay thresholds of £20 000 (US $26 000) and £30 000 (US $39 000) per quality-adjusted life-year gained were MRI-first risk-stratified screening at 10-year absolute risk thresholds of 8.5% and 7.5%, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In this decision analytical model of a hypothetical cohort, an MRI-first diagnostic pathway was associated with an improvement in the benefit-harm profile and cost-effectiveness of screening for prostate cancer compared with biopsy-first screening. These improvements were greater when using risk-stratified screening based on age and polygenic risk profile and may warrant prospective evaluation.


Assuntos
Biópsia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Idoso , Beneficência , Biópsia/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Inglaterra , Humanos , Tábuas de Vida , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/economia , Sobremedicalização , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Probabilidade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Incerteza
11.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(9): 1168-1176, 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) have been demonstrated to identify women of European, Asian, and Latino ancestry at elevated risk of developing breast cancer (BC). We evaluated the performance of existing PRSs trained in European ancestry populations among women of African ancestry. METHODS: We assembled genotype data for women of African ancestry, including 9241 case subjects and 10 193 control subjects. We evaluated associations of 179- and 313-variant PRSs with overall and subtype-specific BC risk. PRS discriminatory accuracy was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. We also evaluated a recalibrated PRS, replacing the index variant with variants in each region that better captured risk in women of African ancestry and estimated lifetime absolute risk of BC in African Americans by PRS category. RESULTS: For overall BC, the odds ratio per SD of the 313-variant PRS (PRS313) was 1.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23 to 1.31), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.571 (95% CI = 0.562 to 0.579). Compared with women with average risk (40th-60th PRS percentile), women in the top decile of PRS313 had a 1.54-fold increased risk (95% CI = 1.38-fold to 1.72-fold). By age 85 years, the absolute risk of overall BC was 19.6% for African American women in the top 1% of PRS313 and 6.7% for those in the lowest 1%. The recalibrated PRS did not improve BC risk prediction. CONCLUSION: The PRSs stratify BC risk in women of African ancestry, with attenuated performance compared with that reported in European, Asian, and Latina populations. Future work is needed to improve BC risk stratification for women of African ancestry.

12.
QJM ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538832

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: At least a third of patients go on to suffer a recurrence following a first spontaneous pneumothorax. Surgical intervention reduces the risk of recurrence and has been advocated as a primary treatment for pneumothorax. But surgery exposes patients to the risks of anaesthesia and in some cases can cause chronic pain. Risk stratification of patients to identify those most at risk of recurrence would help direct the most appropriate patients to early intervention. Many studies have addressed the role of thoracic computerised tomography (CT) in identifying those individuals at increased risk of recurrence, but a consensus is lacking. Our objective was to clarify whether CT provides valuable prognostic information for recurrent pneumothorax. METHODS: We conducted an exhaustive search of the literature for thoracic CT imaging and pneumothorax, and then performed a meta-analysis using a random effects model to estimate the common odds ratio and standard error. RESULTS: : Here we show by meta-analysis of data from 2475 individuals that emphysematous change on CT scan is associated with a significant increased odds ratio for recurrent pneumothorax ipsilateral to the radiological abnormality (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.51 to 4.13). CONCLUSIONS: : The association holds true for primary spontaneous pneumothorax when considering emphysematous changes including blebs and bullae. Features such as bullae at the azygoesophageal recess or increased Goddard score similarly predicted recurrent secondary pneumothorax, as shown by subgroup analysis. Our meta-analysis suggests that CT scanning has value in risk stratifying patients considering surgery for pneumothorax.

14.
Cancer Res ; 81(7): 1667-1680, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558336

RESUMO

Insights into oncogenesis derived from cancer susceptibility loci (SNP) hold the potential to facilitate better cancer management and treatment through precision oncology. However, therapeutic insights have thus far been limited by our current lack of understanding regarding both interactions of these loci with somatic cancer driver mutations and their influence on tumorigenesis. For example, although both germline and somatic genetic variation to the p53 tumor suppressor pathway are known to promote tumorigenesis, little is known about the extent to which such variants cooperate to alter pathway activity. Here we hypothesize that cancer risk-associated germline variants interact with somatic TP53 mutational status to modify cancer risk, progression, and response to therapy. Focusing on a cancer risk SNP (rs78378222) with a well-documented ability to directly influence p53 activity as well as integration of germline datasets relating to cancer susceptibility with tumor data capturing somatically-acquired genetic variation provided supportive evidence for this hypothesis. Integration of germline and somatic genetic data enabled identification of a novel entry point for therapeutic manipulation of p53 activities. A cluster of cancer risk SNPs resulted in increased expression of prosurvival p53 target gene KITLG and attenuation of p53-mediated responses to genotoxic therapies, which were reversed by pharmacologic inhibition of the prosurvival c-KIT signal. Together, our results offer evidence of how cancer susceptibility SNPs can interact with cancer driver genes to affect cancer progression and identify novel combinatorial therapies. SIGNIFICANCE: These results offer evidence of how cancer susceptibility SNPs can interact with cancer driver genes to affect cancer progression and present novel therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Animais , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/fisiologia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 246, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431812

RESUMO

Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cancer have typically adopted a handful of variants and found no relationship between 25(OH)D and cancer; however, issues of horizontal pleiotropy cannot be reliably addressed. Using a larger set of variants associated with 25(OH)D (74 SNPs, up from 6 previously), we perform a unified MR analysis to re-evaluate the relationship between 25(OH)D and ten cancers. Our findings are broadly consistent with previous MR studies indicating no relationship, apart from ovarian cancers (OR 0.89; 95% C.I: 0.82 to 0.96 per 1 SD change in 25(OH)D concentration) and basal cell carcinoma (OR 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04 to 1.28). However, after adjustment for pigmentation related variables in a multivariable MR framework, the BCC findings were attenuated. Here we report that lower 25(OH)D is unlikely to be a causal risk factor for most cancers, with our study providing more precise confidence intervals than previously possible.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Neoplasias/genética , Vitamina D/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Pigmentação/genética , Fatores de Risco , Queimadura Solar/genética
16.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(4): 453-461, 2021 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study of MBC identified 2 predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls in 3 stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1380 cases and 3620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1026 controls was used to validate variants with P values less than 1 × 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using linkage disequilibrium score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score and MBC. All statistical tests were 2-sided. RESULTS: The genome-wide association study identified 3 novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide statistical significance (P < 5 × 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen receptor-positive FBC. Men in the top quintile of genetic risk had a fourfold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 × 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic etiology with FBC and identifying a fourfold high-risk group of susceptible men.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/química , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Receptores de Estrogênio
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(3): 301-308, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10 470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16 942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race and ethnicity, age, and education level and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (2-sided Ptrend < .001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Paridade , Gravidez , Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Int J Cancer ; 148(6): 1338-1350, 2021 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976626

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is correlated positively with risk for breast cancer in observational studies, but observational studies are subject to reverse causation and confounding. The association with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unclear. We performed both observational Cox regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using data from various European cohort studies (observational) and publicly available cancer consortia (MR). These estimates were compared to World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) findings. In our observational analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for a one standard drink/day increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.04, 1.08) for breast cancer and 1.00 (0.92, 1.08) for EOC, both of which were consistent with previous WCRF findings. MR ORs per genetically predicted one standard drink/day increase estimated via 34 SNPs using MR-PRESSO were 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) for breast cancer and 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) for EOC. Stratification by EOC subtype or estrogen receptor status in breast cancers made no meaningful difference to the results. For breast cancer, the CIs for the genetically derived estimates include the point-estimate from observational studies so are not inconsistent with a small increase in risk. Our data provide additional evidence that alcohol intake is unlikely to have anything other than a very small effect on risk of EOC.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Causalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances
19.
Gynecol Oncol ; 160(2): 506-513, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are diagnosed after the disease has metastasized and survival in this group remains poor. Circulating proteins associated with the risk of developing EOC have the potential to serve as biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. We integrated large-scale genomic and proteomic data to identify novel plasma proteins associated with EOC risk. METHODS: We used the germline genetic variants most strongly associated (P <1.5 × 10-11) with plasma levels of 1329 proteins in 3301 healthy individuals from the INTERVAL study to predict circulating levels of these proteins in 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Association testing was performed by weighting the beta coefficients and standard errors for EOC risk from the OCAC study by the inverse of the beta coefficients from INTERVAL. RESULTS: We identified 26 proteins whose genetically predicted circulating levels were associated with EOC risk at false discovery rate < 0.05. The 26 proteins included MFAP2, SEMG2, DLK1, and NTNG1 and a group of 22 proteins whose plasma levels were predicted by variants at chromosome 9q34.2. All 26 protein association signals identified were driven by association with the high-grade serous histotype that comprised 58% of the EOC cases in OCAC. Regional genomic plots confirmed overlap of the genetic association signal underlying both plasma protein level and EOC risk for the 26 proteins. Pathway analysis identified enrichment of seven biological pathways among the 26 proteins (Padjusted <0.05), highlighting roles for Focal Adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR and Notch signaling. CONCLUSION: The identified proteins further illuminate the etiology of EOC and represent promising new EOC biomarkers for targeted validation by studies involving direct measurement of plasma proteins in EOC patient cohorts.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
Mod Pathol ; 34(1): 194-206, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724153

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are implicated in the progression of mucinous borderline tumors (MBOT) to mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Optimized immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TP53 has been established as a proxy for the TP53 mutation status in other ovarian tumor types. We aimed to confirm the ability of TP53 IHC to predict TP53 mutation status in ovarian mucinous tumors and to evaluate the association of TP53 mutation status with survival among patients with MBOT and MOC. Tumor tissue from an initial cohort of 113 women with MBOT/MOC was stained with optimized IHC for TP53 using tissue microarrays (75.2%) or full sections (24.8%) and interpreted using established criteria as normal or abnormal (overexpression, complete absence, or cytoplasmic). Cases were considered concordant if abnormal IHC staining predicted deleterious TP53 mutations. Discordant tissue microarray cases were re-evaluated on full sections and interpretational criteria were refined. The initial cohort was expanded to a total of 165 MBOT and 424 MOC for the examination of the association of survival with TP53 mutation status, assessed either by TP53 IHC and/or sequencing. Initially, 82/113 (72.6%) cases were concordant using the established criteria. Refined criteria for overexpression to account for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation improved concordance to 93.8% (106/113). In the expanded cohort, 19.4% (32/165) of MBOT showed evidence for TP53 mutation and this was associated with a higher risk of recurrence, disease-specific death, and all-cause mortality (overall survival: HR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.5-14.3, p = 0.0087). Within MOC, 61.1% (259/424) harbored a TP53 mutation, but this was not associated with survival (overall survival, p = 0.77). TP53 IHC is an accurate proxy for TP53 mutation status with refined interpretation criteria accounting for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors. TP53 mutation status is an important biomarker to identify MBOT with a higher risk of mortality.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Imuno-Histoquímica , Mutação , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto , Austrália , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/patologia , Neoplasias Císticas, Mucinosas e Serosas/terapia , América do Norte , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Reino Unido
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