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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 246, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431812

RESUMO

Previous Mendelian randomization (MR) studies on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and cancer have typically adopted a handful of variants and found no relationship between 25(OH)D and cancer; however, issues of horizontal pleiotropy cannot be reliably addressed. Using a larger set of variants associated with 25(OH)D (74 SNPs, up from 6 previously), we perform a unified MR analysis to re-evaluate the relationship between 25(OH)D and ten cancers. Our findings are broadly consistent with previous MR studies indicating no relationship, apart from ovarian cancers (OR 0.89; 95% C.I: 0.82 to 0.96 per 1 SD change in 25(OH)D concentration) and basal cell carcinoma (OR 1.16; 95% C.I.: 1.04 to 1.28). However, after adjustment for pigmentation related variables in a multivariable MR framework, the BCC findings were attenuated. Here we report that lower 25(OH)D is unlikely to be a causal risk factor for most cancers, with our study providing more precise confidence intervals than previously possible.

2.
Mod Pathol ; 34(1): 194-206, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724153

RESUMO

TP53 mutations are implicated in the progression of mucinous borderline tumors (MBOT) to mucinous ovarian carcinomas (MOC). Optimized immunohistochemistry (IHC) for TP53 has been established as a proxy for the TP53 mutation status in other ovarian tumor types. We aimed to confirm the ability of TP53 IHC to predict TP53 mutation status in ovarian mucinous tumors and to evaluate the association of TP53 mutation status with survival among patients with MBOT and MOC. Tumor tissue from an initial cohort of 113 women with MBOT/MOC was stained with optimized IHC for TP53 using tissue microarrays (75.2%) or full sections (24.8%) and interpreted using established criteria as normal or abnormal (overexpression, complete absence, or cytoplasmic). Cases were considered concordant if abnormal IHC staining predicted deleterious TP53 mutations. Discordant tissue microarray cases were re-evaluated on full sections and interpretational criteria were refined. The initial cohort was expanded to a total of 165 MBOT and 424 MOC for the examination of the association of survival with TP53 mutation status, assessed either by TP53 IHC and/or sequencing. Initially, 82/113 (72.6%) cases were concordant using the established criteria. Refined criteria for overexpression to account for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation improved concordance to 93.8% (106/113). In the expanded cohort, 19.4% (32/165) of MBOT showed evidence for TP53 mutation and this was associated with a higher risk of recurrence, disease-specific death, and all-cause mortality (overall survival: HR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.5-14.3, p = 0.0087). Within MOC, 61.1% (259/424) harbored a TP53 mutation, but this was not associated with survival (overall survival, p = 0.77). TP53 IHC is an accurate proxy for TP53 mutation status with refined interpretation criteria accounting for intratumoral heterogeneity and terminal differentiation in ovarian mucinous tumors. TP53 mutation status is an important biomarker to identify MBOT with a higher risk of mortality.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 19095, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33154533

RESUMO

The vaginal microbiota is thought to play a role in modulating risk of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection. We examined the relationship between the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV infection in HIV-negative and HIV-positive women. We used 16S-rRNA sequencing to characterize the vaginal microbiota of two serial samples taken six months apart from 211 Nigerian women (67%, 142/211 HIV-positive and 33%, 69/211 HIV-negative) and evaluated the association between the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV infection using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models and linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to identify phylotypic biomarkers of persistent hrHPV infection. The high diversity microbiota, Community State Type IV-B, was the most prevalent in both HIV-negative (38% at baseline, 30% at the follow-up visit) and HIV-positive (27% at baseline, 35% at the follow-up visit) women. The relationship between the vaginal microbiota and persistent hrHPV was modified by HIV status. In HIV-negative women, women with Lactobacillus dominant microbiota had lower odds (OR: 0.35, 95% CI 0.14-0.89, p = 0.03) of persistent hrHPV compared to women with Lactobacillus deficient microbiota. While among HIV-positive women, the odds of being persistently infected with hrHPV was higher in women with Lactobacillus dominant microbiota (OR: 1.25, 95% CI 0.73-2.14 p = 0.41). This difference in effect estimates by HIV was statistically significant (p = 0.02). A high diversity vaginal microbial community with paucity of Lactobacillus species was associated with persistent hrHPV infection in HIV-negative women but not in HIV-positive women.

4.
Gynecol Oncol ; 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33246661

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) are diagnosed after the disease has metastasized and survival in this group remains poor. Circulating proteins associated with the risk of developing EOC have the potential to serve as biomarkers for early detection and diagnosis. We integrated large-scale genomic and proteomic data to identify novel plasma proteins associated with EOC risk. METHODS: We used the germline genetic variants most strongly associated (P <1.5 × 10-11) with plasma levels of 1329 proteins in 3301 healthy individuals from the INTERVAL study to predict circulating levels of these proteins in 22,406 EOC cases and 40,941 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Association testing was performed by weighting the beta coefficients and standard errors for EOC risk from the OCAC study by the inverse of the beta coefficients from INTERVAL. RESULTS: We identified 26 proteins whose genetically predicted circulating levels were associated with EOC risk at false discovery rate < 0.05. The 26 proteins included MFAP2, SEMG2, DLK1, and NTNG1 and a group of 22 proteins whose plasma levels were predicted by variants at chromosome 9q34.2. All 26 protein association signals identified were driven by association with the high-grade serous histotype that comprised 58% of the EOC cases in OCAC. Regional genomic plots confirmed overlap of the genetic association signal underlying both plasma protein level and EOC risk for the 26 proteins. Pathway analysis identified enrichment of seven biological pathways among the 26 proteins (Padjusted <0.05), highlighting roles for Focal Adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR and Notch signaling. CONCLUSION: The identified proteins further illuminate the etiology of EOC and represent promising new EOC biomarkers for targeted validation by studies involving direct measurement of plasma proteins in EOC patient cohorts.

5.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 327, 2020 11 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have investigated the association of risk factors with breast cancer prognosis. However, the results have been conflicting and it has been challenging to establish causality due to potential residual confounding. Using a Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach, we aimed to examine the potential causal association between breast cancer-specific survival and nine established risk factors for breast cancer: alcohol consumption, body mass index, height, physical activity, mammographic density, age at menarche or menopause, smoking, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We conducted a two-sample MR analysis on data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) and risk factor summary estimates from the GWAS Catalog. The BCAC data included 86,627 female patients of European ancestry with 7054 breast cancer-specific deaths during 15 years of follow-up. Of these, 59,378 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and 13,692 were ER-negative breast cancer patients. For the significant association, we used sensitivity analyses and a multivariable MR model. All risk factor associations were also examined in a model adjusted by other prognostic factors. RESULTS: Increased genetic liability to T2DM was significantly associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.17, P value [P] = 0.003). There were no significant associations after multiple testing correction for any of the risk factors in the ER-status subtypes. For the reported significant association with T2DM, the sensitivity analyses did not show evidence for violation of the MR assumptions nor that the association was due to increased BMI. The association remained significant when adjusting by other prognostic factors. CONCLUSIONS: This extensive MR analysis suggests that T2DM may be causally associated with worse breast cancer-specific survival and therefore that treating T2DM may improve prognosis.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Herança Multifatorial , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etnologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Receptor ErbB-2/genética , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/genética , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
7.
Nat Genet ; 52(11): 1219-1226, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106634

RESUMO

Acquired mutations are pervasive across normal tissues. However, understanding of the processes that drive transformation of certain clones to cancer is limited. Here we study this phenomenon in the context of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) and the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs). We find that mutations are selected differentially based on exposures. Mutations in ASXL1 are enriched in current or former smokers, whereas cancer therapy with radiation, platinum and topoisomerase II inhibitors preferentially selects for mutations in DNA damage response genes (TP53, PPM1D, CHEK2). Sequential sampling provides definitive evidence that DNA damage response clones outcompete other clones when exposed to certain therapies. Among cases in which CH was previously detected, the CH mutation was present at tMN diagnosis. We identify the molecular characteristics of CH that increase risk of tMN. The increasing implementation of clinical sequencing at diagnosis provides an opportunity to identify patients at risk of tMN for prevention strategies.


Assuntos
/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos dos fármacos , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/efeitos da radiação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Evolução Clonal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Mutação , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Seleção Genética , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e042115, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ageing population and prevalence of long-term disorders with multimorbidity are a major health challenge worldwide. The associations between comorbid conditions and mortality risk are well established; however, few prospective community-based studies have reported on prior risk factors for incident hospital admissions with multimorbidity. We aimed to explore the independent associations for a range of demographic, lifestyle and physiological determinants and the likelihood of subsequent hospital incident multimorbidity. METHODS: We examined incident hospital admissions with multimorbidity in 25 014 men and women aged 40-79 in a British prospective population-based study recruited in 1993-1997 and followed up until 2019. The determinants of incident multimorbidity, defined as Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥3, were investigated using multivariable logistic regression models for the 10-year period 1999-2009 and repeated with independent measurements in a second 10-year period 2009-2019. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2009, 18 179 participants (73% of the population) had a hospital admission. Baseline 5-year and 10-year incident multimorbidities were observed in 6% and 12% of participants, respectively. Age per 10-year increase (OR 2.19, 95% CI 2.06 to 2.33) and male sex (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.47) predicted incident multimorbidity over 10 years. In the subset free of the most serious diseases at baseline, current smoking (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.60 to 2.15), body mass index >30 kg/m² (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.70) and physical inactivity (OR 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.29) were positively associated and plasma vitamin C (a biomarker of plant food intake) per SD increase (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.91) inversely associated with incident 10-year multimorbidity after multivariable adjustment for age, sex, social class, education, alcohol consumption, systolic blood pressure and cholesterol. Results were similar when re-examined for a further time period in 2009-2019. CONCLUSION: Age, male sex and potentially modifiable lifestyle behaviours including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were associated with increased risk of future incident hospital admissions with multimorbidity.

9.
Cancer Cell ; 38(4): 433-437, 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946774

RESUMO

Screening leads to meaningful reductions in deaths from cancers. However, reductions in all-cause mortality (ACM) are harder to demonstrate. Failure to demonstrate ACM benefit should not diminish advances in cancer screening. We consider how co-morbidities related to an aging and damaged soma can hinder achievement of ACM benefit.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976626

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is correlated positively with risk for breast cancer in observational studies, but observational studies are subject to reverse causation and confounding. The association with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unclear. We performed both observational Cox regression and two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses using data from various European cohort studies (observational) and publicly available cancer consortia (MR). These estimates were compared to World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) findings. In our observational analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for a one standard drink/day increase was 1.06 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 1.04, 1.08) for breast cancer and 1.00 (0.92, 1.08) for EOC, both of which were consistent with previous WCRF findings. MR ORs per genetically predicted one standard drink/day increase estimated via 34 SNPs using MR-PRESSO were 1.00 (0.93, 1.08) for breast cancer and 0.95 (0.85, 1.06) for EOC. Stratification by EOC subtype or estrogen receptor status in breast cancers made no meaningful difference to the results. For breast cancer, the CIs for the genetically derived estimates include the point-estimate from observational studies so are not inconsistent with a small increase in risk. Our data provide additional evidence that alcohol intake is unlikely to have anything other than a very small effect on risk of EOC.

11.
Gastroenterology ; 159(6): 2065-2076.e1, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits. RESULTS: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, PBONF = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, PBONF = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 622-635, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946763

RESUMO

Quantifying the functional effects of complex disease risk variants can provide insights into mechanisms underlying disease biology. Genome-wide association studies have identified 39 regions associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The vast majority of these variants lie in the non-coding genome, where they likely function through interaction with gene regulatory elements. In this study we first estimated the heritability explained by known common low penetrance risk alleles for EOC. The narrow sense heritability (hg2) of EOC overall and high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOCs) were estimated to be 5%-6%. Partitioned SNP heritability across broad functional categories indicated a significant contribution of regulatory elements to EOC heritability. We collated epigenomic profiling data for 77 cell and tissue types from Roadmap Epigenomics and ENCODE, and from H3K27Ac ChIP-seq data generated in 26 ovarian cancer and precursor-related cell and tissue types. We identified significant enrichment of risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in active regulatory elements marked by H3K27Ac in HGSOCs. To further investigate how risk SNPs in active regulatory elements influence predisposition to ovarian cancer, we used motifbreakR to predict the disruption of transcription factor binding sites. We identified 469 candidate causal risk variants in H3K27Ac peaks that are predicted to significantly break transcription factor (TF) motifs. The most frequently broken motif was REST (p value = 0.0028), which has been reported as both a tumor suppressor and an oncogene. Overall, these systematic functional annotations with epigenomic data improve interpretation of EOC risk variants and shed light on likely cells of origin.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Proteínas Correpressoras/genética , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Histonas/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Alelos , Sítios de Ligação , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Proteínas Correpressoras/metabolismo , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/diagnóstico , Cistadenocarcinoma Seroso/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Penetrância , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of male breast cancer (MBC) is poorly understood. In particular, the extent to which the genetic basis of MBC differs from female breast cancer (FBC) is unknown. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MBC identified two predisposition loci for the disease, both of which were also associated with risk of FBC. METHODS: We performed genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of European ancestry MBC case subjects and controls, in three stages. Associations between directly genotyped and imputed SNPs with MBC were assessed using fixed-effects meta-analysis of 1,380 cases and 3,620 controls. Replication genotyping of 810 cases and 1,026 controls was used to validate variants with P-values < 1 x 10-06. Genetic correlation with FBC was evaluated using LD score regression, by comprehensively examining the associations of published FBC risk loci with risk of MBC and by assessing associations between a FBC polygenic risk score (PRS) and MBC. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The GWAS identified three novel MBC susceptibility loci that attained genome-wide significance (P < 5 x 10-08). Genetic correlation analysis revealed a strong shared genetic basis with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive FBC. Males in the top quintile of genetic risk had a four-fold increased risk of breast cancer relative to those in the bottom quintile (odds ratio = 3.86, 95% confidence interval = 3.07 to 4.87, P = 2.08 x 10-30). CONCLUSIONS: These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of MBC, providing support for an overlapping genetic aetiology with FBC and identifying a four-fold high risk group of susceptible men.

16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 158(3): 702-709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641237

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prior studies of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and ovarian cancer survival have been limited by lack of hormone regimen detail and insufficient sample sizes. To address these limitations, a comprehensive analysis of 6419 post-menopausal women with pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinoma was conducted to examine the association between MHT use prior to diagnosis and survival. METHODS: Data from 15 studies in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium were included. MHT use was examined by type (estrogen-only (ET) or estrogen+progestin (EPT)), duration, and recency of use relative to diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the association between hormone therapy use and survival. Logistic regression and mediation analysis was used to explore the relationship between MHT use and residual disease following debulking surgery. RESULTS: Use of ET or EPT for at least five years prior to diagnosis was associated with better ovarian cancer survival (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.87). Among women with advanced stage, high-grade serous carcinoma, those who used MHT were less likely to have any macroscopic residual disease at the time of primary debulking surgery (p for trend <0.01 for duration of MHT use). Residual disease mediated some (17%) of the relationship between MHT and survival. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-diagnosis MHT use for 5+ years was a favorable prognostic factor for women with ovarian cancer. This large study is consistent with prior smaller studies, and further work is needed to understand the underlying mechanism.

17.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(6): 67002, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three billion people burn nonclean fuels for household purposes. Limited evidence suggests a link between household fuel use and gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between indoor burning of biomass, kerosene, and natural gas with the subsequent risk of GI cancers. METHODS: During the period 2004-2008, a total of 50,045 Iranian individuals 40-75 years of age were recruited to this prospective population-based cohort. Upon enrollment, validated data were collected on demographics, lifestyle, and exposures, including detailed data on lifetime household use of different fuels and stoves. The participants were followed through August 2018 with <1% loss. RESULTS: During the follow-up, 962 participants developed GI cancers. In comparison with using predominantly gas in the recent 20-y period, using predominantly biomass was associated with higher risks of esophageal [hazard ratio (HR): 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 3.50], and gastric HR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.01, 3.31) cancers, whereas using predominantly kerosene was associated with higher risk of esophageal cancer (HR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.10). Lifetime duration of biomass burning for both cooking and house heating (exclusive biomass usage) using heating-stoves without chimney was associated with higher risk of GI cancers combined (10-y HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.21), esophageal (10-y HR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.30), gastric (10-y HR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.23), and colon (10-y HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.54) cancers. The risks of GI cancers combined, esophageal cancer, and gastric cancer were lower when biomass was burned using chimney-equipped heating-stoves (strata difference p-values=0.001, 0.003, and 0.094, respectively). Duration of exclusive kerosene burning using heating-stoves without chimney was associated with higher risk of GI cancers combined (10-y HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.11), and esophageal cancer (10-y HR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.26). DISCUSSION: Household burning of biomass or kerosene, especially without a chimney, was associated with higher risk of some digestive cancers. Using chimney-equipped stoves and replacing these fuels with natural gas may be useful interventions to reduce the burden of GI cancers worldwide. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5907.


Assuntos
Culinária , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Características da Família , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/epidemiologia , Utensílios Domésticos , Adulto , Idoso , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/estatística & dados numéricos , Biomassa , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Calefação , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Querosene , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gás Natural , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Madeira
18.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1731-1738, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A polygenic hazard score (PHS), the weighted sum of 54 SNP genotypes, was previously validated for association with clinically significant prostate cancer and for improved prostate cancer screening accuracy. Here, we assess the potential impact of PHS-informed screening. METHODS: United Kingdom population incidence data (Cancer Research United Kingdom) and data from the Cluster Randomized Trial of PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer were combined to estimate age-specific clinically significant prostate cancer incidence (Gleason score ≥7, stage T3-T4, PSA ≥10, or nodal/distant metastases). Using HRs estimated from the ProtecT prostate cancer trial, age-specific incidence rates were calculated for various PHS risk percentiles. Risk-equivalent age, when someone with a given PHS percentile has prostate cancer risk equivalent to an average 50-year-old man (50-year-standard risk), was derived from PHS and incidence data. Positive predictive value (PPV) of PSA testing for clinically significant prostate cancer was calculated using PHS-adjusted age groups. RESULTS: The expected age at diagnosis of clinically significant prostate cancer differs by 19 years between the 1st and 99th PHS percentiles: men with PHS in the 1st and 99th percentiles reach the 50-year-standard risk level at ages 60 and 41, respectively. PPV of PSA was higher for men with higher PHS-adjusted age. CONCLUSIONS: PHS provides individualized estimates of risk-equivalent age for clinically significant prostate cancer. Screening initiation could be adjusted by a man's PHS. IMPACT: Personalized genetic risk assessments could inform prostate cancer screening decisions.

19.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol ; 17(11): 687-705, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555420

RESUMO

The European Collaborative on Personalized Early Detection and Prevention of Breast Cancer (ENVISION) brings together several international research consortia working on different aspects of the personalized early detection and prevention of breast cancer. In a consensus conference held in 2019, the members of this network identified research areas requiring development to enable evidence-based personalized interventions that might improve the benefits and reduce the harms of existing breast cancer screening and prevention programmes. The priority areas identified were: 1) breast cancer subtype-specific risk assessment tools applicable to women of all ancestries; 2) intermediate surrogate markers of response to preventive measures; 3) novel non-surgical preventive measures to reduce the incidence of breast cancer of poor prognosis; and 4) hybrid effectiveness-implementation research combined with modelling studies to evaluate the long-term population outcomes of risk-based early detection strategies. The implementation of such programmes would require health-care systems to be open to learning and adapting, the engagement of a diverse range of stakeholders and tailoring to societal norms and values, while also addressing the ethical and legal issues. In this Consensus Statement, we discuss the current state of breast cancer risk prediction, risk-stratified prevention and early detection strategies, and their implementation. Throughout, we highlight priorities for advancing each of these areas.

20.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 139, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PREDICT Prostate is an endorsed prognostic model that provides individualised long-term prostate cancer-specific and overall survival estimates. The model, derived from UK data, estimates potential treatment benefit on overall survival. In this study, we externally validated the model in a large independent dataset and compared performance to existing models and within treatment groups. METHODS: Men with non-metastatic prostate cancer and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) < 100 ng/ml diagnosed between 2000 and 2010 in the nationwide population-based Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe) were included. Data on age, PSA, clinical stage, grade group, biopsy involvement, primary treatment and comorbidity were retrieved. Sixty-nine thousand two hundred six men were included with 13.9 years of median follow-up. Fifteen-year survival estimates were calculated using PREDICT Prostate for prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and all-cause mortality (ACM). Discrimination was assessed using Harrell's concordance (c)-index in R. Calibration was evaluated using cumulative available follow-up in Stata (TX, USA). RESULTS: Overall discrimination of PREDICT Prostate was good with c-indices of 0.85 (95% CI 0.85-0.86) for PCSM and 0.79 (95% CI 0.79-0.80) for ACM. Overall calibration of the model was excellent with 25,925 deaths predicted and 25,849 deaths observed. Within the conservative management and radical treatment groups, c-indices for 15-year PCSM were 0.81 and 0.78, respectively. Calibration also remained good within treatment groups. The discrimination of PREDICT Prostate significantly outperformed the EAU, NCCN and CAPRA scores for both PCSM and ACM within this cohort overall. A key limitation is the use of retrospective cohort data. CONCLUSIONS: This large external validation demonstrates that PREDICT Prostate is a robust and generalisable model to aid clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suécia
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