Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 192
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Br J Educ Psychol ; 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Weight bias is a pervasive problem for adolescents in school contexts. Despite evidence of negative attitudes towards students who are overweight, comparatively little research has examined whether teachers provide biased assessments of student work. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to experimentally test whether middle and high school teachers unfairly assess students who are overweight and perceive them to be less competent. SAMPLE: Participants included 133 teachers from first-ring suburban middle and high schools (Mteaching experience  = 16 years; 38% male). METHODS: Teachers evaluated the quality of a bogus student essay assignment accompanied by photographs that portrayed the student as either not overweight or overweight. Weight bias was assessed by having teachers grade the essay and provide perceptions of student sufficiency (perceived effort, need for tutoring, and overall success in school). Opinions about bias in grading for other teachers and self were also assessed. RESULTS: Essays for students who were overweight were judged to be similar in structural quality, but were assigned lower grades compared to their healthy weight counterparts. Further, teachers estimated that students who were overweight put forth more effort, needed more remedial assistance, and had lower overall grades in school. Teachers' beliefs about grading bias showed low levels of supposed bias among other teachers and a significantly lesser degree for themselves. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms prior research on anti-fat attitudes and provides new evidence of biased attitudes in school settings.

2.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 503, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: National deworming programmes rely almost exclusively on mass drug administration (MDA) to children to control morbidity caused by these parasitic infections. The provision of other interventions, consisting of preventive chemotherapy at high population level coverage together with water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH) and changes in risk behaviour, should enable sustainable control of soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomiasis and ultimately interrupt transmission. METHODS/DESIGN: Two interventions will be implemented by the project: (i) community-wide biannual albendazole and annual praziquantel treatment with a target of 80-90% treatment coverage ("expanded MDA"); and (ii) provision of WaSH with behaviour change communication (BCC), within the Wolaita zone, Ethiopia. The project has three study arms: (i) expanded community-wide MDA, WaSH and BCC; (ii) expanded community-wide MDA only; and (iii) annual school-based MDA (the current National STH/schistosomiasis Control Programme). The impact of these interventions will be evaluated through prevalence mapping at baseline and endline (after four rounds of MDA), combined with annual longitudinal parasitological surveillance in defined cohorts of people to monitor trends in prevalence and reinfection throughout the project. Treatment coverage and individual compliance to treatment will be monitored by employing fingerprint biometric technology and barcoded identification cards at treatment. WaSH utilisation will be evaluated through school and household level observations and annual WaSH assessment survey. Complementary qualitative surveys will explore practices, cultural and social drivers of risk behaviours, uptake of WaSH and treatment, and assessing the impact of the BCC. DISCUSSION: The study has the potential to define an 'End Game' for STH and schistosomiasis programmes through provision of multiple interventions. Interrupting transmission of these infections would eliminate the need for long-term repeated MDA, lead to sustained health improvements in children and adults, thereby allowing health systems to focus on other disease control priorities.

3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 437, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has set elimination (interruption of transmission) as an end goal for schistosomiasis. However, there is currently little guidance on the monitoring and evaluation strategy required once very low prevalence levels have been reached to determine whether elimination or resurgence of the disease will occur after stopping mass drug administration (MDA) treatment. METHODS: We employ a stochastic individual-based model of Schistosoma mansoni transmission and MDA impact to determine a prevalence threshold, i.e. prevalence of infection, which can be used to determine whether elimination or resurgence will occur after stopping treatment with a given probability. Simulations are run for treatment programmes with varying probabilities of achieving elimination and for settings where adults harbour low to high burdens of infection. Prevalence is measured based on using a single Kato-Katz on two samples per individual. We calculate positive predictive values (PPV) using PPV ≥ 0.9 as a reliable measure corresponding to ≥ 90% certainty of elimination. We analyse when post-treatment surveillance should be carried out to predict elimination. We also determine the number of individuals across a single community (of 500-1000 individuals) that should be sampled to predict elimination. RESULTS: We find that a prevalence threshold of 1% by single Kato-Katz on two samples per individual is optimal for predicting elimination at two years (or later) after the last round of MDA using a sample size of 200 individuals across the entire community (from all ages). This holds regardless of whether the adults have a low or high burden of infection relative to school-aged children. CONCLUSIONS: Using a prevalence threshold of 0.5% is sufficient for surveillance six months after the last round of MDA. However, as such a low prevalence can be difficult to measure in the field using Kato-Katz, we recommend using 1% two years after the last round of MDA. Higher prevalence thresholds of 2% or 5% can be used but require waiting over four years for post-treatment surveillance. Although, for treatment programmes where elimination is highly likely, these higher thresholds could be used sooner. Additionally, switching to more sensitive diagnostic techniques, will allow for a higher prevalence threshold to be employed.

4.
J Parasitol ; 105(4): 587-597, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414949

RESUMO

A new species of medicinal leech, Macrobdella mimicus n. sp., is described from specimens collected in Maryland; this is the first description of a North American macrobdellid since 1975. Superficially, the new species resembles the well-known Macrobdella decora, as both species possess 4 accessory pores arranged symmetrically on the ventral surface, yet the new species is distinguished from M. decora in possessing 4-4½ annuli (rather than 3½) between the gonopores and 4 annuli (rather than 5 annuli) between the female gonopore and the first pair of accessory pores. Phylogenetic analyses, based on 2 mitochondrial and 2 nuclear loci for a set of closely related taxa, confirms the placement of the new species within the family Macrobdellidae and places it as the sister taxon to M. decora and M. diplotertia.

5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(3): 617-627, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287046

RESUMO

Control of schistosomiasis presently relies largely on preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel through mass drug administration (MDA) programs. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation has concluded five studies in four countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, and Tanzania) to evaluate alternative approaches to MDA. Studies involved four intervention years, with final evaluation in the fifth year. Mass drug administration given annually or twice over 4 years reduced average prevalence and intensity of schistosome infections, but not all villages that were treated in the same way responded similarly. There are multiple ways by which responsiveness to MDA, or the lack thereof, could be measured. In the analyses presented here, we defined persistent hotspots (PHS) as villages that achieved less than 35% reduction in prevalence and/or less than 50% reduction in infection intensity after 4 years of either school-based or community-wide MDA, either annually or twice in 4 years. By this definition, at least 30% of villages in each of the five studies were PHSs. We found no consistent relationship between PHSs and the type or frequency of intervention, adequacy of reported MDA coverage, and prevalence or intensity of infection at baseline. New research is warranted to identify PHSs after just one or a few rounds of MDA, and new adaptive strategies need to be advanced and validated for turning PHSs into responder villages.

7.
Clin J Pain ; 35(9): 786-793, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain is the most common symptom in chronic pancreatitis (CP) and has an extensive impact on patients' lives. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) provides information on sensitivity to pain and mechanisms that can help quantify pain and guide treatment. The aims of this study were (1) to explore sensitivity to pain in patients with CP using QST and (2) to associate patient and disease characteristics with QST results. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with painful CP and 28 healthy control participants completed a QST paradigm using static tests (muscle pressure stimulation and electrical skin stimulations) to unravel segmental and widespread hyperalgesia as a consequence of visceral pain. A dynamic conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm was used as a proxy of pain modulation from the brainstem to inhibit incoming nociceptive barrage, and questionnaires were used to gather information on pain experience and quality of life. RESULTS: Patients had impaired CPM compared with controls (18.0±29.3% vs. 30.9±29.3%, P=0.04) and were hypersensitive to pressure stimulation, specifically in the pancreatic (Th10) dermatome (P<0.001). The capacity of CPM was associated with clinical pain intensity (P=0.01) and (in the univariate analysis only) the use of opioids was associated with hyperalgesia to pressure stimulation (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity to pain in CP patients can be characterized by a simple bedside QST. Severe clinical pain in CP was associated with reduced CPM function and should be targeted in management.

9.
Acta Trop ; 197: 105049, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158344

RESUMO

The Kato-Katz (KK) technique is the mainstay mapping tool for the diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection, despite showing poor sensitivity in cases of low-intensity infections. As an alternative, a rapid point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen diagnostic test (POC-CCA) has been commercially developed that involves a simple urine assay to detect S. mansoni, rather than a stool-based parasitological examination. Although POC-CCA has proven to be a more sensitive test than KK, it is not yet clear how to interpret discordant results between the two tests, particularly for situations in which the KK result is positive and the POC-CCA result is negative. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the degree of diagnostic variability between different POC-CCA batches with respect to results obtained with KK. For this purpose, we collected urine and stool samples of school-aged children from areas of low and moderate endemicity in Brazil, and compared different POC-CCA batches results with those of KK-positive individuals. We found a statistically significant difference between the results obtained from various POC-CCA batches using the same urine samples, regardless of the degree of endemicity and the intensity of infection in positive KK samples. In addition, there was poor agreement between the KK and POC-CCA results in some batches of the rapid test, resulting in false negatives. These findings raise concerns around quality control checks of POC-CCA, especially in light of the high cost and increasing reliance on this new diagnostic method as control programs move towards a goal of elimination.

10.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(11): 3082-3093, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214691

RESUMO

Leeches (Hirudinida) comprise a charismatic, yet often maligned group of organisms. Despite their ecological, economic, and medical importance, a general consensus on the phylogenetic relationships of major hirudinidan lineages is lacking. This absence of a consistent, robust phylogeny of early-diverging lineages has hindered our understanding of the underlying processes that enabled evolutionary diversification of this clade. Here, we used an anchored hybrid enrichment-based phylogenomic approach, capturing hundreds of loci to investigate phylogenetic relationships among major hirudinidan lineages and their closest living relatives. Our results suggest that a dramatic reinterpretation of early leech evolution is warranted. We recovered Branchiobdellida as sister to a clade that includes all major lineages of hirudinidans, but found Acanthobdella to be nested within Oceanobdelliformes. These results cast doubt on the utility of Acanthobdella as a "missing link" used to explain the origin of blood-feeding in hirudineans. Further, our results support a deep divergence between predominantly marine and freshwater lineages, while not supporting the reciprocal monophyly of jawed and proboscis-bearing leeches. To sum up, our phylogenomic resolution of early-diverging leeches provides a necessary foundation for illuminating the evolution of host-symbiont associations and key adaptations that have allowed leeches to colonize a wide diversity of habitats worldwide.

11.
Med Teach ; 41(10): 1151-1159, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203731

RESUMO

Introduction: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of electronic recording with paper-based recording of clinical skills assessments for entry-level health professional students. Methods: A comprehensive database search was undertaken using AMED, CINAHL, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science on 12-16 June 2017, and updated 9 April 2018. Studies investigating electronic and paper-based recordings of clinical skills assessments of students in entry-level health professional programs were eligible for inclusion. Two independent researchers completed screening of studies for inclusion, quality assessments, and data extraction, with discrepancies resolved by consensus. Quality assessment was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program Diagnostic checklist. Results: From 2264 studies identified, five observational cohort studies were included. Published between 2006 and 2016, included studies investigated electronic and paper examinations of clinical skills assessments of students from medical, dentistry, and physical therapy programs. Electronic assessments were reported to be more time efficient than paper-based assessments with an added advantage of no missing data. Quality and quantity of quantitative and qualitative student feedback increased with electronic assessment compared to paper-based assessments. Conclusions: Electronic assessments were used successfully across a range of health professional programs, take significantly less time to complete and provide higher quality feedback to students. Future studies are needed with more robust psychometric testing and cost-effective analysis to inform the increasing uptake of electronic assessment tools in health professional training.

12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(2): e0007138, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730881

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Community Dialogue Approach is a promising social and behaviour change intervention, which has shown potential for improving health seeking behaviour. To test if this approach can strengthen prevention and control of schistosomiasis at community level, Malaria Consortium implemented a Community Dialogue intervention in four districts of Nampula province, Mozambique, between August 2014 and September 2015. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted before (N = 791) and after (N = 792) implementation of the intervention to assess its impact on knowledge, attitudes and practices at population level. At both baseline and endline, awareness of schistosomiasis was high at over 90%. After the intervention, respondents were almost twice as likely to correctly name a risk behaviour associated with schistosomiasis (baseline: 18.02%; endline: 30.11%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.91; 95% confidence interval: 1.14-2.58). Increases were also seen in the proportion of people who knew that schistosomiasis can be spread by infected persons and who could name at least one correct transmission route (baseline: 25.74%; endline: 32.20%; adjusted odds ratio: 1.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.84), those who knew that there is a drug that treats the disease (baseline: 29.20%, endline: 47.55%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.19; 95% confidence interval: 1.67-2.87) and those who stated that they actively protect themselves from the disease and cited an effective behaviour (baseline: 40.09%, endline: 59.30%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.40-3.28). The intervention did not appear to lead to a reduction in misconceptions. In particular, the belief that the disease is sexually transmitted continued to be widespread. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Given its overall positive impact on knowledge and behaviour at population level, Community Dialogue can play an important role in schistosomiasis prevention and control. The intervention could be further strengthened by better enabling communities to take suitable action and linking more closely with community governance structures and health system programmes.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Esquistossomose/prevenção & controle , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Características da Família , Humanos , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Esquistossomose/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Esquistossomose/psicologia
13.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(11): e0006957, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A pioneering strategy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the control of schistosomiasis was the concept of a height-based dose pole to determine praziquantel (PZQ) dosing in large-scale treatment campaigns. However, some recent studies have shown variable accuracy for the dose pole in terms of predicting correct mg/Kg dosing, particularly for treatment of adults. According to the WHO, 91 million adults in 52 countries are targeted to be treated by 2020. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study aimed to test the accuracy of the dose pole in determining PZQ dosage by comparing the number of tablets determined by the dose pole with the number of tablets determined according to total body weight. The analysis included height-for-weight data from 9,827 school-aged children (SAC) and adults from 42 villages in the province of Cabo Delgado in Mozambique. The results revealed that of the 7,596 SAC, 91.8% has received an appropriate dose (30-60mg/Kg), 6% received an insufficient dose (<30mg/Kg) and 2% an excessive dose (> 60mg/Kg). On the other hand, 13.7% out of 2,231 adults were treated inaccurately with 13.5% receiving an insufficient dose and 0.2% an excessive dose. When the percentage of insufficient dosing was disaggregated by gender, the frequency of adult females who were underdosed reached 18.3% versus 10.8% of adult males. Of note, Adult females aged 21-55 years were found to have an underdose frequency of 21.3%, compared to 11.8% of adult males in the same age range. The performance of a proposed modified dose pole was compared using the same dataset of adult Mozambicans. The results showed that the modified dose pole reduced the underdose frequency among adults from 13.5% to 10.4%, and subsequently increased the percentage of optimal dosing from 33.7% to 45.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the need to update the WHO-dose pole to avoid administration of insufficient PZQ doses to adults and therefore minimize the potential emergence of PZQ-resistant strains. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial registry under ISRTC number 14117624.

14.
Pancreas ; 47(10): 1262-1266, 2018 Nov/Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30286010

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Presentation of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) as acute pancreatitis (AP), association of chronic pancreatitis (CP) with PC, and role of inflammation in PC carcinogenesis are well recognized. We hypothesized that inflammatory changes associated with remote history of AP (≥2 years before PC diagnosis) would result in earlier age of PC diagnosis. METHODS: We evaluated PC patients prospectively enrolled in the Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Gene Environment Risk (PAGER) study at the University of Pittsburgh for history of pancreatitis and reviewed relevant medical records and imaging studies. Univariate and multivariable linear regression analyses evaluated the relationship between PC and remote history of AP. RESULTS: Among 790 patients with histologically confirmed PC, 114 (14.4%) had a history of pancreatitis (AP within 2 years of PC diagnosis in 69 [8.7%], remote history of AP in 28 [3.5%], CP in 4 [0.5%], and unknown duration of pancreatitis in 13 [1.6%]). After controlling for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol history, and diabetic status at diagnosis, patients with a remote history of AP were diagnosed on average 4.7 years earlier with PC when compared with PC patients without history of AP (P < 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Remote history of AP may accelerate carcinogenesis in PC.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(10): e0006717, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296257

RESUMO

Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) programmes are used to collect data which are required to assess the impact of current interventions on their progress towards achieving the World Health Organization (WHO) goals of morbidity control and elimination as a public health problem for schistosomiasis. Prevalence and intensity of infection data are typically collected from school-aged children (SAC) as they are relatively easy to sample and are thought to be most likely to be infected by schistosome parasites. However, adults are also likely to be infected. We use three different age-intensity profiles of infection for Schistosoma mansoni with low, moderate and high burdens of infection in adults to investigate how the age distribution of infection impacts the mathematical model generated recommendations of the preventive chemotherapy coverage levels required to achieve the WHO goals. We find that for moderate prevalence regions, regardless of the burden of infection in adults, treating SAC only may achieve the WHO goals. However, for high prevalence regions with a high burden of infection in adults, adult treatment is required to meet the WHO goals. Hence, we show that the optimal treatment strategy for a defined region requires consideration of the burden of infection in adults as it cannot be based solely on the prevalence of infection in SAC. Although past epidemiological data have informed mathematical models for the transmission and control of schistosome infections, more accurate and detailed data are required from M&E programmes to accurately determine the optimal treatment strategy for a defined region. We highlight the importance of collecting prevalence and intensity of infection data from a broader age-range, specifically the inclusion of adult data at baseline (prior to treatment) and throughout the treatment programme if possible, rather than SAC only, to accurately determine the treatment strategy for a defined region. Furthermore, we discuss additional epidemiological data, such as individual longitudinal adherence to treatment, that should ideally be collected in M&E programmes.

16.
J Parasitol ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30188243
17.
Health Technol Assess ; 22(41): 1-84, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30079863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine preloading means using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit date while smoking normally. The aim is to reduce the drive to smoke, thereby reducing cravings for smoking after quit day, which are the main cause of early relapse. A prior systematic review showed inconclusive and heterogeneous evidence that preloading was effective and little evidence of the mechanism of action, with no cost-effectiveness data. OBJECTIVES: To assess (1) the effectiveness, safety and tolerability of nicotine preloading in a routine NHS setting relative to usual care, (2) the mechanisms of the action of preloading and (3) the cost-effectiveness of preloading. DESIGN: Open-label randomised controlled trial with examination of mediation and a cost-effectiveness analysis. SETTING: NHS smoking cessation clinics. PARTICIPANTS: People seeking help to stop smoking. INTERVENTIONS: Nicotine preloading comprised wearing a 21 mg/24 hour nicotine patch for 4 weeks prior to quit date. In addition, minimal behavioural support was provided to explain the intervention rationale and to support adherence. In the comparator group, participants received equivalent behavioural support. Randomisation was stratified by centre and concealed from investigators. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was 6-month prolonged abstinence assessed using the Russell Standard. The secondary outcomes were 4-week and 12-month abstinence. Adverse events (AEs) were assessed from baseline to 1 week after quit day. In a planned analysis, we adjusted for the use of varenicline (Champix®; Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA) as post-cessation medication. Cost-effectiveness analysis took a health-service perspective. The within-trial analysis assessed health-service costs during the 13 months of trial enrolment relative to the previous 6 months comparing trial arms. The base case was based on multiple imputation for missing cost data. We modelled long-term health outcomes of smoking-related diseases using the European-study on Quantifying Utility of Investment in Protection from Tobacco (EQUIPT) model. RESULTS: In total, 1792 people were eligible and were enrolled in the study, with 893 randomised to the control group and 899 randomised to the intervention group. In the intervention group, 49 (5.5%) people discontinued preloading prematurely and most others used it daily. The primary outcome, biochemically validated 6-month abstinence, was achieved by 157 (17.5%) people in the intervention group and 129 (14.4%) people in the control group, a difference of 3.02 percentage points [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 6.41 percentage points; odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.62; p = 0.081]. Adjusted for use of post-quit day varenicline, the OR was 1.34 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.73; p = 0.028). Secondary abstinence outcomes were similar. The OR for the occurrence of serious AEs was 1.12 (95% CI 0.42 to 3.03). Moderate-severity nausea occurred in an additional 4% of the preloading group compared with the control group. There was evidence that reduced urges to smoke and reduced smoke inhalation mediated the effect of preloading on abstinence. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio at the 6-month follow-up for preloading relative to control was £710 (95% CI -£13,674 to £23,205), but preloading was dominant at 12 months and in the long term, with an 80% probability that it is cost saving. LIMITATIONS: The open-label design could partially account for the mediation results. Outcome assessment could not be blinded but was biochemically verified. CONCLUSIONS: Use of nicotine-patch preloading for 4 weeks prior to attempting to stop smoking can increase the proportion of people who stop successfully, but its benefit is undermined because it reduces the use of varenicline after preloading. If this latter effect could be overcome, then nicotine preloading appears to improve health and reduce health-service costs in the long term. Future work should determine how to ensure that people using nicotine preloading opt to use varenicline as cessation medication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN33031001. FUNDING: This project was funded by the NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 22, No. 41. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

19.
Pancreatology ; 2018 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29859674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple pathogenic genetic variants are associated with pancreatitis in patients of European (EA) and Asian ancestries, but studies on patients of African ancestry (AA) are lacking. We evaluated the prevalence of known genetic variations in African-American subjects in the US. METHODS: We studied prospectively enrolled controls (n = 238) and patients with chronic (CP) (n = 232) or recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) (n = 45) in the NAPS2 studies from 2000-2014 of self-identified AA. Demographic and phenotypic information was obtained from structured questionnaires. Ancestry and admixture were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). Genotyping was performed for pathogenic genetic variants in PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR and CTRC. Prevalence of disease-associated variants in NAPS2 subjects of AA and EA was compared. RESULTS: When compared with CP subjects of EA (n = 862), prevalence of established pathogenic genetic variants was infrequent in AA patients with CP, overall (29 vs. 8.19%, OR 4.60, 95% CI 2.74-7.74, p < 0.001), and after stratification by alcohol etiology (p < 0.001). On PCA, AA cases were more heterogeneous but distinct from EA subjects; no difference was observed between AA subjects with and without CP-associated variants. Of 19 A A patients with CP who had pathogenic genetic variants, 2 had variants in PRSS1 (R122H, R122C), 4 in SPINK1 (all N34S heterozygotes), 12 in CFTR (2 CFTRsev, 9 CFTRBD, 1 compound heterozygote with CFTRsev and CFTRBD), and 1 in CTRC (R254W). CONCLUSION: Pathogenic genetic variants reported in EA patients are significantly less common in AA patients. Further studies are needed to determine the complex risk factors for AA subjects with pancreatitis.

20.
Trends Parasitol ; 34(8): 637-639, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759934

RESUMO

Parasite natural history collections form vital scientific infrastructure that play a substantial role in increasing awareness of the importance of parasites to ecosystems, conservation assessments, science, and society. These collections support novel investigations that integrate across taxa, time, and space, and should be cultivated to advance organismal-based science. Promoting and supporting parasite collections will ensure their ongoing stability and accessibility.


Assuntos
Parasitos , Parasitologia/normas , Pesquisa/normas , Pesquisa/tendências , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA