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1.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 17(3): 367-374, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089773

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Population based estimates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) frequency and health impact are incomplete. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risk factors for physician and sleep study diagnosed OSA among individuals in a state-based surveillance program. METHODS: Using questions inserted into the 2016 (n = 5,564) and 2017 (n = 10,884) South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we analyzed the prevalence of physician diagnosed OSA and associated comorbidities. The validated STOP-BANG questionnaire without neck circumference (STOP-BAG) defined populations at moderate risk (score 3-4) and high risk (score 5-7). Statistical analysis using weighted prevalence and means and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) thus reflect population estimates of disease burden. RESULTS: The population-based prevalence of physician diagnosed OSA in South Carolina was 9.7% (95% CI: 9.0-10.4). However, the populations with moderate risk (18.5%, 95% CI: 17.3-19.8) and high risk (25.5%, 95% CI: 23.9-27.1) for OSA, as determined by the STOP-BAG questionnaire, were much higher. Compared to those at low risk for OSA, those at high risk were more often diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke, asthma, skin cancer, other cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, depression, kidney disease, and diabetes (all P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: OSA is common and strongly associated with major comorbidities. As such, this public health crisis warrants more diagnostic and therapeutic attention. The STOP-BAG questionnaire provides a public health platform to monitor this disease.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Polissonografia , South Carolina , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 16(3): 441-449, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992406

RESUMO

None: In recent years, sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) has been recognized as a prevalent but under-diagnosed condition in adults and has prompted the need for new and better diagnostic and therapeutic options. To facilitate the development and availability of innovative, safe and effective SDB medical device technologies for patients in the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration collaborated with six SDB-related professional societies and a consumer advocacy organization to convene a public workshop focused on clinical investigations of SDB devices. Sleep medicine experts discussed appropriate definitions of terms used in the diagnosis and treatment of SDB, the use of home sleep testing versus polysomnography, clinical trial design issues in studying SDB devices, and current and future trends in digital health technologies for diagnosis and monitoring SDB. The panel's breadth of clinical expertise and experience across medical specialties provided useful and important insights regarding clinical trial designs for SDB devices.


Assuntos
Síndromes da Apneia do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Polissonografia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sono , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/terapia
4.
Sleep Med ; 15(7): 755-61, 2014 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24933083

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between sleep, time of exercise, and intensity of exercise in a large American sample. METHODS: The 2013 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America Poll was a cross-sectional study of 1000 adults stratified by age (23­60 years) and U.S. geographical region. Sleep outcomes included self-reported sleep quality, total sleep time, sleep latency, and waking unrefreshed. Exercise timing was characterized as morning (>8 h before bed), afternoon (4­8 h before bed), or evening (<4 h before bed). Exercise intensity was assessed with a modified version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, evening moderate or vigorous exercisers did not differ in any of the reported sleep metrics compared to non-exercisers. Morning vigorous exercisers had the most favorable sleep outcomes, including greater likelihood of reporting good sleep quality (OR = 1.88, p < .001) and lower likelihood of waking unrefreshed (OR = 0.56, p = .03). Most individuals who performed vigorous evening exercise believed that their sleep was of equal or better quality (97%) and duration (98%) on days they exercised. CONCLUSION: Evening exercise was not associated with worse sleep. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that sleep hygiene recommendations should not discourage evening exercise.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 10(4): 397-402, 2014 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24733985

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: This case-control study investigated whether variations within the APOE-ε gene were associated with having a convex facial profile (skeletal Class II) compared to exhibiting a straight or concave facial profile (Class I or Class III) among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Associations between the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and body mass index (BMI) scores for these OSA patients were also examined in the context of facial profile. METHOD: OSA patients with an AHI ≥ 15 were recruited from a sleep clinic and classified by facial and dental occlusal relationships based on a profile facial analysis, lateral photographs, and dental examination. Saliva was collected as a source of DNA. The APOE-ε1-4 allele-defining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs429358 and rs7412 were genotyped. A χ(2) analysis was used to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and for association analysis (significance at p < 0.05). ANOVA and Fisher exact test were also used. RESULT: Seventy-six Caucasian OSA patients participated in the study-25 Class II cases and 51 non-Class II cases. There was no association of the APOE-ε4 allele with facial profile among these OSA patients. Class II OSA patients had significantly lower BMIs (30.7 ± 5.78) than Class I (37.3 ± 6.14) or Class III (37.8 ± 6.17) patients (p < 0.001), although there was no statistical difference in AHI for Class II patients compared with other groups. CONCLUSION: OSA patients with Class II convex profile were more likely to have a lower BMI than those in other skeletal groups. In fact 20% of them were not obese, suggesting that a Class II convex profile may influence or be associated with OSA development independent of BMI.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ossos Faciais/patologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/genética , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/complicações , Má Oclusão/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/etiologia , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/patologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/etiologia , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/patologia
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 188(5): 613-20, 2013 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23992588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and studies have shown that there is a correlation between patient adherence and treatment outcomes. Newer CPAP machines can track adherence, hours of use, mask leak, and residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Such data provide a strong platform to examine OSA outcomes in a chronic disease management model. However, there are no standards for capturing CPAP adherence data, scoring flow signals, or measuring mask leak, or for how clinicians should use these data. METHODS: American Thoracic Society (ATS) committee members were invited, based on their expertise in OSA and CPAP monitoring. Their conclusions were based on both empirical evidence identified by a comprehensive literature review and clinical experience. RESULTS: CPAP usage can be reliably determined from CPAP tracking systems, but the residual events (apnea/hypopnea) and leak data are not as easy to interpret as CPAP usage and the definitions of these parameters differ among CPAP manufacturers. Nonetheless, ends of the spectrum (very high or low values for residual events or mask leak) appear to be clinically meaningful. CONCLUSIONS: Providers need to understand how to interpret CPAP adherence tracking data. CPAP tracking systems are able to reliably track CPAP adherence. Nomenclature on the CPAP adherence tracking reports needs to be standardized between manufacturers and AHIFlow should be used to describe residual events. Studies should be performed examining the usefulness of the CPAP tracking systems and how these systems affect OSA outcomes.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas , Cooperação do Paciente , Algoritmos , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/instrumentação , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/normas , Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 7(3): 241-5, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21677892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Commercial motor vehicle drivers are at an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) Medical Review Board has recommended that commercial motor vehicle drivers undergo testing for OSA if they have a positive Berlin Questionnaire or a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). We developed an online screening tool based on the Berlin Questionnaire for anonymous use by commercial drivers to assess their risk of OSA prior to their required FMCSA physicals. METHODS: We based the survey on the Berlin Sleep Questionnaire. The survey was hosted on the Truckers for a Cause Chapter of Alert Well and Keeping Energetic of the American Sleep Apnea Association (TFAC-AWAKE) organization website, and was promoted through the TFAC's XM radio, word of mouth, and trucking industry press contacts. RESULTS: A total of 595 individuals completed the survey. Of these, 55.9% were positive on the Berlin, 78.3% had either hypertension or obesity, 69.6% were obese, 47.6% had a BMI > 33 kg/m(2), and 20.5% reported falling asleep at stoplights. CONCLUSIONS: Some commercial drivers willingly assess their OSA risk anonymously online, and a majority of those who do so are obese, have positive Berlin screening questionnaires, and would be required to undergo polysomnography if recommendations made to the FMCSA became regulation. In contrast to reported behavior during actual Commercial Driver Medical Examinations physicals, some commercial drivers will report OSA symptoms if it is "safe" to do so. Sleep health professionals need expedient, non-punitive methods to keep commercial motor vehicle drivers healthy and driving and to raise drivers' awareness of the dangers of drowsy driving and unhealthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Comportamento Cooperativo , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Internet , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Masculino , Veículos Automotores , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 57(5): 761-89, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19484833

RESUMO

Sleep-related disorders are most prevalent in the older adult population. A high prevalence of medical and psychosocial comorbidities and the frequent use of multiple medications, rather than aging per se, are major reasons for this. A major concern, often underappreciated and underaddressed by clinicians, is the strong bidirectional relationship between sleep disorders and serious medical problems in older adults. Hypertension, depression, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease are examples of diseases that are more likely to develop in individuals with sleep disorders. Conversely, individuals with any of these diseases are at a higher risk of developing sleep disorders. The goals of this article are to help guide clinicians in their general understanding of sleep problems in older persons, examine specific sleep disorders that occur in older persons, and suggest evidence- and expert-based recommendations for the assessment and treatment of sleep disorders in older persons. No such recommendations are available to help clinicians in their daily patient care practices. The four sections in the beginning of the article are titled, Background and Significance, General Review of Sleep, Recommendations Development, and General Approach to Detecting Sleep Disorders in an Ambulatory Setting. These are followed by overviews of specific sleep disorders: Insomnia, Sleep Apnea, Restless Legs Syndrome, Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders, Parasomnias, Hypersomnias, and Sleep Disorders in Long-Term Care Settings. Evidence- and expert- based recommendations, developed by a group of sleep and clinical experts, are presented after each sleep disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia , Idoso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia
14.
Heart Fail Rev ; 14(3): 171-82, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18758945

RESUMO

Insomnia is highly prevalent in patients with chronic disease including chronic heart failure (CHF) and is a significant contributing factor to fatigue and poor quality of life. The pathophysiology of CHF often leads to fatigue, due to nocturnal symptoms causing sleep disruption, including cough, orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea, and nocturia. Inadequate cardiac function may lead to hypoxemia or poor perfusion of the cerebrum, skeletal muscle, or visceral body organs, which result in organ dysfunction or failure and may contribute to fatigue. Sleep disturbances negatively affect all dimensions of quality of life and is related to increased risk of comorbidities, including depression. This article reviews insomnia in CHF, cardiac medication side-effects related to sleep disturbances, and treatment options.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/complicações , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/complicações , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 17(7): 1191-9, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18710367

RESUMO

Sleep disorders affect women differently than they affect men and may have different manifestations and prevalences. With regard to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), variations in symptoms may cause misdiagnoses and delay of appropriate treatment. The prevalence of OSA appears to increase markedly after the time of menopause. Although OSA as defined by the numbers of apneas/hypopneas may be less severe in women, its consequences are similar and perhaps worse. Therapeutic issues related to gender should be factored into the management of OSA. The prevalence of insomnia is significantly greater in women than in men throughout most of the life span. The ratio of insomnia in women to men is approximately 1.4:1.0, but the difference is minimal before puberty and increases steadily with age. Although much of the higher prevalence of insomnia in women may be attributable to the hormonal or psychological changes associated with major life transitions, some of the gender differences may result from the higher prevalence of depression and pain in women. Insomnia's negative impact on quality of life is important to address in women, given the high relative prevalence of insomnia as well as the comorbid disorders in this population. Gender differences in etiology and symptom manifestation in narcolepsy remain understudied in humans. There is little available scientific information to evaluate the clinical significance and specific consequences of the diagnosis of narcolepsy in women. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is characterized by an urge to move the legs or other limbs during periods of rest or inactivity and may affect as much as 10% of the population. This condition is more likely to afflict women than men, and its risk is increased by pregnancy. Although RLS is associated with impaired quality of life, highly effective treatment is available.


Assuntos
Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono , Saúde da Mulher , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/diagnóstico , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/epidemiologia , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Intrínsecos do Sono/terapia
17.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 1(1): 61-82, 2005 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17561617

RESUMO

Sleep Medicine has only recently been recognized as a specialty of medicine. Its development is based on an increasing amount of knowledge concerning the physiology of sleep, circadian biology and the pathophysiology of sleep disorders. This review chronicles the major advances in sleep science over the past 70 years and the development of the primary organizations responsible for the emergence of Sleep Medicine as a specialty, sleep disorders as a public health concern and sleep science as an important area of research.


Assuntos
História da Medicina , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/história , Sono , Especialização , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/diagnóstico , Dopamina/metabolismo , Educação , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Licenciamento , Polissonografia/métodos , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/metabolismo , Transtorno do Comportamento do Sono REM/fisiopatologia , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/diagnóstico , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/metabolismo , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/fisiopatologia , Estados Unidos
18.
Clin Chest Med ; 25(2): 257-68, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15099887

RESUMO

Sleep and sleep disorders are different in several important ways between men and women. Because of pregnancy and menopause, women experience changes in sleep that may present as clinical problems. In clinical populations, women are more likely to present with insomnia than are men, although their sleep may be better preserved. The presentation of sleep apnea in women is distinct from that of men and is less likely to include a "classic" history of witnessed ap-nea or heavy snoring. More likely it presents with nonspecific symptoms, such as fatigue or mood disturbance. There are little data on the effects of different treatments for OSA between men and women. OHS is a syndrome that may be as common in women as in men. The role of hormones in its pathophysiology is not well-defined.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa/fisiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Síndrome das Pernas Inquietas/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
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