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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 557: 357-366, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536916

RESUMO

Hydroxyapatite (Hap) has been shown to be an excellent sorbent for F- removal of elevated levels of fluoride in groundwater worldwide; however, the molecular mechanisms of this process have not been clearly addressed. Herein, we used 19F solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate F- sorption mechanisms by nanosized Hap combined with 1H NMR and 1H{19F} Rotational Echo DOble Resonance (REDOR) technology in addition to other characterization methods such as Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Nanoscale Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (NanoSIMS). Our experimental results showed that F- sorption mechanisms depend on solution pH and fluoride concentration ([F-]). At pH 7 and [F-] ≤ 50 mM, a single 19F NMR peak at -103 ppm was observed, which could be assigned to fluorapatite [Ca5(PO4)3F] (Fap) or fluoro-hydroxyapatite solid solution [Ca5(PO4)3Fx(OH)1-x; x = 0-1] (F-Hap). A simultaneous formation of fluorite (CaF2) precipitates (δF-19 = -108 ppm) was observed at higher [F-] (e.g., 100 mM), which was further confirmed by TEM and XRD analysis. The NanoSIMS and 1H{19F} REDOR analyses indicated that a dissolution-precipitation process was involved in the F- sorption on Hap. Our results strongly support the efficacy of Hap for F- removal even after several instances of regeneration, making it a cost-effective strategy for fluoride treatment.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 55(23): 12270-12280, 2016 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27934402

RESUMO

We report solid-state 27Al NMR spectroscopic results for the sulfate salt of the γ-Al13 Keggin cluster, γ-[AlO4Al12(OH)25(OH2)11][SO4]3·[H2O]14, that provide a spectroscopic signature for partial hydrolysis of this Keggin-type cluster. In 27Al multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectra, all 13 Al positions of the cluster are at least partially resolved and assigned with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the 27Al electric field gradients. The isotropic chemical shift of the single tetrahedral site, 75.7 ppm, is nearly identical to that reported for solutions from which the cluster crystallizes. Reflecting broadly similar coordination environments, the octahedral Al show mostly small variations in isotropic chemical shift (+7 to +11 ppm) and quadrupolar coupling constant (CQ; 6-7.5 MHz), except for one resonance that exhibits a much smaller CQ and another site with a larger value. DFT calculations show that deprotonation of a terminal water ligand, to form an η-OH group, causes a large reduction in the 27Al CQ, allowing assignment of a distinct, narrow peak for octahedral Al to this hydroxyl-terminated site. This result suggests a relationship between octahedral 27Al NMR line width and hydrolysis for solids prepared from Keggin-type clusters.

3.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 476: 230-239, 2016 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27232539

RESUMO

Investigation of commercially produced hydrolysis salts of aluminum by solid-state (27)Al NMR spectroscopy and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) reveals well-defined and distinct Al environments that can be related to physicochemical properties. (27)Al MAS and MQ-MAS NMR spectroscopic data show that the local structure of the solids is dominated by moieties that closely resemble the Al30 polyoxocation (Al30O8(OH)56(H2O)26(18+)), accounting for 72-85% of the total Al. These Al30-like clusters elute as several size fractions by SEC. Comparison of the SEC and NMR results indicates that the Al30-like clusters includes intact isolated clusters, moieties of larger polymers or aggregates, and possibly fragments resembling δ-Al13 Keggin clusters. The coagulation efficacy of the solids appears to correlate best with the abundance of intact Al30-like clusters and of smaller species available to promote condensation reactions.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(49): 14690-5, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26447456

RESUMO

Dibromobutadiyne is an extremely unstable compound that explodes at room temperature, even under inert atmosphere. This instability has limited the studies of dibromobutadiyne almost entirely to spectroscopic characterization. Here we report an approach to control the reactivity of dibromobutadiyne, via topochemical reaction in cocrystals, leading to the ordered polymer poly(dibromodiacetylene), PBDA. At low temperatures (-15 to -18 °C), dibromobutadiyne can form cocrystals with oxalamide host molecules containing either pyridyl or nitrile side groups, in which halogen bonds align the dibromobutadiyne monomers for topochemical polymerization. The cocrystals with the bis(nitrile) oxalamide host undergo complete ordered polymerization to PBDA, demonstrated by solid-state MAS-NMR, Raman, and optical absorption spectroscopy. Once formed, the polymer can be separated from the host; unlike the monomer, PBDA is stable at room temperature.

5.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(15): 8308-15, 2013 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23837616

RESUMO

Sorption reactions occurring at mineral/water interfaces are of fundamental importance in controlling the sequestration and bioavailability of nutrients and pollutants in aqueous environments. To advance the understanding of sorption reactions, development of new methodology is required. In this study, we applied novel (31)P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of phosphate sorption on aluminum hydroxides under different environmental conditions, including pH (4-10), concentration (0.1-10 mM), ionic strength (0.001-0.5 M), and reaction time (15 min-22 days). Under these conditions, the NMR results suggest formation of bidentate binuclear inner-sphere surface complexes was the dominant mechanism. However, it was found that surface wetting caused a small difference. A small amount (<3%) of monodentate mononuclear inner-sphere surface complexes was observed in addition to the majority of bidentate binuclear surface complexes on a wet paste sample prepared at pH 5, which was analyzed in situ by a double-resonance NMR technique, namely, (31)P{(27)Al} rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR). Additionally, we found that adsorbents can substantially impact phosphate sorption not only on the macroscopic sorption capacity but also on their (31)P NMR spectra. Very similar NMR peaks were observed for phosphate sorbed to gibbsite and bayerite, whereas the spectra for phosphate adsorbed to boehmite, corundum, and γ-alumina were significantly different. All of these measurements reveal that NMR spectroscopy is a useful analytical tool for studying phosphorus chemistry at environmental interfaces.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fosfatos/química
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 47(9): 4211-9, 2013 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23550510

RESUMO

In this research, the effects of glyphosate (GPS) on Zn sorption/precipitation on γ-alumina were investigated using a batch technique, Zn K-edge EXAFS, and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The EXAFS analysis revealed that, in the absence of glyphosate, Zn adsorbed on the aluminum oxide surface mainly as bidentate mononuclear surface complexes at pH 5.5, whereas Zn-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) precipitates formed at pH 8.0. In the presence of glyphosate, the EXAFS spectra of Zn sorption samples at pH 5.5 and 8.0 were very similar, both of which demonstrated that Zn did not directly bind to the mineral surface but bonded with the carboxyl group of glyphosate. Formation of γ-alumina-GPS-Zn ternary surface complexes was further suggested by (31)P solid state NMR data which indicated the glyphosate binds to γ-alumina via a phosphonate group, bridging the mineral surface and Zn. Additionally, we showed the sequence of additional glyphosate and Zn can influence the sorption mechanism. At pH 8, Zn-Al LDH precipitates formed if Zn was added first, and no precipitates formed if glyphosate was added first or simultaneously with Zn. In contrast, at pH 5.5, only γ-alumina-GPS-Zn ternary surface complexes formed regardless of whether glyphosate or Zn was added first or both were added simultaneously.


Assuntos
Absorciometria de Fóton/métodos , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Zinco/química , Glicina/química , Isótopos de Fósforo
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 46(21): 11670-7, 2012 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23043294

RESUMO

To better understand the sequestration of toxic metals such as nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn), and cobalt (Co) as layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases in soils, we systematically examined the presence of Al and the role of mineral dissolution during Zn sorption/precipitation on γ-Al(2)O(3) (γ-alumina) at pH 7.5 using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), synchrotron-radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD), and (27)Al solid-state NMR. The EXAFS analysis indicates the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates at Zn concentration ≥0.4 mM, and both HR-TEM and SR-XRD reveal that these precipitates are crystalline. These precipitates yield a small shoulder at δ(Al-27) = +12.5 ppm in the (27)Al solid-state NMR spectra, consistent with the mixed octahedral Al/Zn chemical environment in typical Zn-Al LDHs. The NMR analysis provides direct evidence for the existence of Al in the precipitates and the migration from the dissolution of γ-alumina substrate. To further address this issue, we compared the Zn sorption mechanism on a series of Al (hydr)oxides with similar chemical composition but differing dissolubility using EXAFS and TEM. These results suggest that, under the same experimental conditions, Zn-Al LDH precipitates formed on γ-alumina and corundum but not on less soluble minerals such as bayerite, boehmite, and gibbsite, which point outs that substrate mineral surface dissolution plays an important role in the formation of Zn-Al LDH precipitates.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Alumínio/química , Hidróxidos/química , Zinco/química , Adsorção , Precipitação Química , Cristalização , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Minerais/química , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X , Difração de Raios X
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 45(22): 9687-92, 2011 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21988151

RESUMO

Structural information is important for understanding surface adsorption mechanisms of contaminants on metal (hydr)oxides. In this work, a novel technique was employed to study the interfacial structure of arsenate oxyanions adsorbed on γ-alumina nanoparticles, namely, differential pair distribution function (d-PDF) analysis of synchrotron X-ray total scattering. The d-PDF is the difference of properly normalized PDFs obtained for samples with and without arsenate adsorbed, otherwise identically prepared. The real space pattern contains information on atomic pair correlations between adsorbed arsenate and the atoms on γ-alumina surface (Al, O, etc.). PDF results on the arsenate adsorption sample on γ-alumina prepared at 1 mM As concentration and pH 5 revealed two peaks at 1.66 Å and 3.09 Å, corresponding to As-O and As-Al atomic pair correlations. This observation is consistent with those measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, which suggests a first shell of As-O at 1.69 ± 0.01 Å with a coordination number of ~4 and a second shell of As-Al at ~3.13 ± 0.04 Å with a coordination number of ~2. These results are in agreement with a bidentate binuclear coordination environment to the octahedral Al of γ-alumina as predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculation.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio/química , Arseniatos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Adsorção , Modelos Moleculares , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 364(2): 455-61, 2011 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21944059

RESUMO

Systematic studies, combining batch experiments with NMR spectroscopic methods, are carried out for phosphate sorption on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)). It is found that phosphate sorption on TiO(2) decreases with increasing pH, whereas the phosphate uptake by TiO(2) increases with increasing ionic strength of the solution. In I ≤ 0.1 M, the sorption sharply increases and reaches a near maximum and then followed by little changes showing Langmuir-type behavior, whereas in I = 0.7 M, non-Langmuirian uptake becomes evident as equilibrium phosphate concentrations increase in solution. The sorption of phosphate on TiO(2) is rapid and mostly irreversible at pH 4.5 and 7.0. At pH 9.0, however, the phosphate sorption is initially reversible and followed by resorption of phosphate on TiO(2) at the system re-equilibration. (31)P{(1)H} cross-polarization and magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR spectra contain at least four main peaks which appear similar in position and width under all adsorption conditions, but vary in intensity with surface loading. The spectral characteristics of these peaks, including cross-polarization dynamics and chemical shift anisotropy obtained from spinning sideband analysis, suggest that they arise from distinct inner-sphere adsorption complexes, most of which are protonated. These results indicate that uptake of phosphate by TiO(2) occurs by formation of several types of surface complexes.

11.
Langmuir ; 26(7): 4753-61, 2010 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20180597

RESUMO

Interaction of phosphate with the surfaces of clays and metal oxyhydroxides is important for nutrient cycling in natural and agricultural systems. We examined the specific adsorption of phosphate to boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) by solid-state (31)P NMR spectroscopy, which yields evidence for the presence of two bridging bidentate surface complexes differing in protonation. For samples prepared along the sorption isotherm at pH 5, distinct phosphate environments are observed as two major peaks in (31)P NMR spectra (chemical shifts of 0 and -6 ppm) that show little change in relative intensity with adsorbate loading. Both peaks correspond to rigid phosphate in close proximity to H, as indicated by (31)P{(1)H} cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning (CP/MAS) data, and yield nearly identical (31)P{(27)Al} dephasing curves in rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiments. The REAPDOR results indicate that both phosphate environments have similar coordination to Al and are best fit by dephasing curves simulated for bridging bidentate configurations. The two resolved phosphate species exhibit distinct (31)P chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) and intensity variations with pH, the peak near 0 ppm being dominant at pH > 7. (31)P CSA's from quantum chemical calculations of hydrated bidentate cluster models with varying protonation state show that the CSA for monoprotonated phosphate is unique and closely matches that for the peak at -6 ppm. The CSA for the peak at 0 ppm is consistent with both di- and nonprotonated phosphate, but assignment to the latter is suggested based on the dominance of this peak in samples prepared at high pH and with trends in (31)P NMR chemical shifts.


Assuntos
Hidróxido de Alumínio/química , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fosfatos/química , Modelos Moleculares
13.
Magn Reson Chem ; 47(12): 1062-70, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19821466

RESUMO

Pb-containing hydroxylapatite phases synthesized under aqueous conditions were investigated by X-ray diffraction and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to determine the Pb, Ca distribution. 31P and 1H magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR results indicate slight shifts of the isotropic chemical shift with increased Ca content and complex lineshapes at compositions with near equal amounts of Ca and Pb. 31P{207Pb} and 1H{207Pb} rotational-echo double resonance (REDOR) results for intermediate compositions show that resolved spectral features cannot be assigned simply in terms of local Ca, Pb configurations or coexisting phases. 207Pb MAS NMR spectra are easily obtained for these materials and contain well-resolved resonances for crystallographically unique A1 and A2 Pb sites. Splitting of the A1 and A2 207Pb resonances for pure hydroxyl-pyromorphite (Pb10(PO4)6(OH)2) compared to natural pyromorphite (Pb5(PO4)3Cl) suggests symmetry reduced from hexagonal. We find that 207Pb{1H} CP/MAS NMR is impractical in Pb-rich hydroxylapatites due to fast 207Pb relaxation.

14.
Chem Cent J ; 3: 10, 2009 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19689800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantum mechanical calculations were performed on a variety of uranium species representing U(VI), U(V), U(IV), U-carbonates, U-phosphates, U-oxalates, U-catecholates, U-phosphodiesters, U-phosphorylated N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), and U-2-Keto-3-doxyoctanoate (KDO) with explicit solvation by H2O molecules. These models represent major U species in natural waters and complexes on bacterial surfaces. The model results are compared to observed EXAFS, IR, Raman and NMR spectra. RESULTS: Agreement between experiment and theory is acceptable in most cases, and the reasons for discrepancies are discussed. Calculated Gibbs free energies are used to constrain which configurations are most likely to be stable under circumneutral pH conditions. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) is examined for the U-carbonate and U-catechol complexes. CONCLUSION: Results on the potential energy differences between U(V)- and U(IV)-carbonate complexes suggest that the cause of slower disproportionation in this system is electrostatic repulsion between UO2 [CO3]3(5-) ions that must approach one another to form U(VI) and U(IV) rather than a change in thermodynamic stability. Calculations on U-catechol species are consistent with the observation that UO2(2+) can oxidize catechol and form quinone-like species. In addition, outer-sphere complexation is predicted to be the most stable for U-catechol interactions based on calculated energies and comparison to 13C NMR spectra. Outer-sphere complexes (i.e., ion pairs bridged by water molecules) are predicted to be comparable in Gibbs free energy to inner-sphere complexes for a model carboxylic acid. Complexation of uranyl to phosphorus-containing groups in extracellular polymeric substances is predicted to favor phosphonate groups, such as that found in phosphorylated NAG, rather than phosphodiesters, such as those in nucleic acids.

15.
Magn Reson Chem ; 46(5): 408-17, 2008 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18306443

RESUMO

Solid-state NMR spectroscopy is a potentially powerful method for obtaining molecular level structural information crucial for understanding the specific relationship between calcite crystals and occluded organic molecules that are important in biomineralization and biomimetic materials. In this work, a method is developed based on cross-polarization/magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR to measure the heteronuclear distances and obtain structural information for large intracrystalline citrate defects in a synthetic calcite/citrate composite. Using compounds with well-characterized crystal structures, Mg(II) citrate and Sr(II) citrate, a correlation is established between T(IS), the CP time, and M(2) (IS), the van Vleck heteronuclear dipolar second moment, which contains distance and structural information. This correlation is supported by peak assignments obtained from calculations of the (13)C chemical shifts for crystalline Mg(II) citrate. On the basis of T(IS) (-1) versus M(2) (IS) correlation, measurement of T(IS) for carbonate ions associated with citrate defects in a calcite((13)C-enriched)/citrate coprecipitate yields an estimate for the distance between citrate and the nearest carbonate carbon that indicates close spatial proximity and provides useful constraints for future computational study. The applicability of T(IS) (-1) versus M(2) (IS) correlations to other weakly coupled spin-1/2 systems is discussed in terms of the effects of (1)H homonuclear dipolar coupling, using the CP kinetics of Zn(II) dihydroxybenzoate and kaolinite for comparison. The results suggest a limited range of correlation constants and indicate that quantitative information can be obtained from CP/MAS kinetics obtained under similar experimental conditions.

16.
Science ; 316(5832): 1726-9, 2007 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17525301

RESUMO

Despite the ubiquity of ferrihydrite in natural sediments and its importance as an industrial sorbent, the nanocrystallinity of this iron oxyhydroxide has hampered accurate structure determination by traditional methods that rely on long-range order. We uncovered the atomic arrangement by real-space modeling of the pair distribution function (PDF) derived from direct Fourier transformation of the total x-ray scattering. The PDF for ferrihydrite synthesized with the use of different routes is consistent with a single phase (hexagonal space group P6(3)mc; a = approximately 5.95 angstroms, c = approximately 9.06 angstroms). In its ideal form, this structure contains 20% tetrahedrally and 80% octahedrally coordinated iron and has a basic structural motif closely related to the Baker-Figgis delta-Keggin cluster. Real-space fitting indicates structural relaxation with decreasing particle size and also suggests that second-order effects such as internal strain, stacking faults, and particle shape contribute to the PDFs.

17.
J Am Chem Soc ; 128(12): 3912-3, 2006 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16551090

RESUMO

Using 103Rh[1H] cross-polarization (CP) methods, we have obtained solid-state 103Rh NMR spectra for diamagnetic Rh(III) compounds. The isotropic chemical shift and chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) are reported for a crystalline form of the dihydroxy-bridged Rh(III) dimer and for a salt of the oxo-centered acetate-bridged Rh(III) trimer, from analysis of conventional CP/MAS spectra. Comparison of the CP kinetics of the dimer with new crystal structure data suggests a strategy for predicting 103Rh CP/MAS properties in solids.

18.
Environ Sci Technol ; 39(12): 4533-9, 2005 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16047790

RESUMO

Dissolved organic ligands are well known to interact strongly with the calcite surface, altering precipitation and dissolution rates, crystal morphology, and possibly the ability of calcite to sequester metal contaminants. We show, using NMR spectroscopic techniques, that some of the citrate molecules present in a solution of precipitating calcite are incorporated structurally into the calcite crystal. Calcite grown by a seeded constant-addition method contains approximately 1 wt % coprecipitated citrate and yields 13C{1H} cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectra that contain broad peaks for citrate plus a signal from carbonate. Results from 13C{1H} heteronuclear correlation NMR experiments show that citrate is located in close spatial proximity to carbonate groups. In addition, calcite/citrate coprecipitates contain about 0.4 wt % excess water, which is not present as fluid inclusions, and some of which occurs as rigid structural water. These results suggestthat water and hydrogen-bonding interactions play a role in the interface between included organic molecules and the calcite host. Additional NMR data obtained for calcite coprecipitates of aspartic and glutamic acids suggest they are also incorporated structurally but at concentrations much lower than for citrate, whereas no evidence was found for phthalate incorporation.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio/química , Ácido Cítrico/química , Isótopos de Carbono , Precipitação Química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Água/química
19.
Inorg Chem ; 44(14): 4888-90, 2005 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15998009

RESUMO

A new aluminum hydroxide cluster with eight Al(III) ions linked together by a series of hydroxyl bridges as a sulfate salt has been synthesized from aqueous solution and characterized by X-ray crystallography and 27Al NMR spectroscopy.

20.
Science ; 308(5727): 1450-3, 2005 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15860592

RESUMO

Trivalent aluminum ions are important in natural bodies of water, but the structure of their coordination shell is a complex unsolved problem. In strong acid (pH < 3.0), Al(III) exists almost entirely as the octahedral Al(H2O)6(3+) ion, whereas in basic conditions (pH > 7), a tetrahedral Al(OH)(4- structure prevails. In the biochemically and geochemically critical pH range of 4.3 to 7.0, the ion structures are less clear. Other hydrolytic species, such as AlOH(aq)2+, exist and are traditionally assumed to be hexacoordinate. We show, however, that the kinetics of proton and water exchange on aqueous Al(III), coupled with Car-Parrinello simulations, support a five-coordinate Al(H2O)4OH2+ ion as the predominant form of AlOH(aq)2+ under ambient conditions. This result contrasts Al(III) with other trivalent metal aqua ions, for which there is no evidence for stable pentacoordinate hydrolysis products.

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