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Sci Adv ; 7(12)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731359


Three-dimensional (3D), submillimeter-scale constructs of neural cells, known as cortical spheroids, are of rapidly growing importance in biological research because these systems reproduce complex features of the brain in vitro. Despite their great potential for studies of neurodevelopment and neurological disease modeling, 3D living objects cannot be studied easily using conventional approaches to neuromodulation, sensing, and manipulation. Here, we introduce classes of microfabricated 3D frameworks as compliant, multifunctional neural interfaces to spheroids and to assembloids. Electrical, optical, chemical, and thermal interfaces to cortical spheroids demonstrate some of the capabilities. Complex architectures and high-resolution features highlight the design versatility. Detailed studies of the spreading of coordinated bursting events across the surface of an isolated cortical spheroid and of the cascade of processes associated with formation and regrowth of bridging tissues across a pair of such spheroids represent two of the many opportunities in basic neuroscience research enabled by these platforms.

Transl Neurosci ; 12(1): 76-82, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33623714


This study investigated dietary supplementation as a prophylactic for neuroinflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a preclinical model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received 30 days of supplementation with either water or two dietary supplements. The first consisted of high-dose omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA) (supplement A) along with vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The second had the same ingredients at different doses with an addition of cannabidiol (supplement B). Rats were subjected to an impact TBI and then euthanized 7 days post-injury and neuroinflammation quantified by histological detection of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of astrocyte activation, and CD68, a marker of microglial activity. There was a trend toward increased GFAP staining in injured, unsupplemented animals as compared to sham, unsupplemented animals, consistent with increased activation of astrocytes in response to trauma which was reversed by supplement A but not by supplement B. The pattern of CD68 staining across groups was similar to that of GFAP staining. There was a trend toward an increase in the injured unsupplemented group, relative to sham which was reversed by supplement A but not by supplement B. CD68 staining in injured animals was concentrated in the perivascular domain. The consistency between trends across different measures of neuroinflammation showing benefits of high-dose O3FA supplementation following TBI suggests that the observed effects are real. These findings are preliminary, but they justify further study to determine the functional benefits associated with improvements in histological outcomes and understand associated dose-response curves.

J Neurosci Methods ; 312: 154-161, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529411


BACKGROUND: Unbiased screening studies have repeatedly identified actin-related proteins as one of the families of proteins most influenced by neurotrauma. Nevertheless, the status quo model of cytoskeletal reorganization after neurotrauma excludes actin and incorporates only changes in microtubules and intermediate filaments. Actin is excluded in part because it is difficult to image with conventional techniques. However, recent innovations in fluorescent microscopy provide an opportunity to image the actin cytoskeleton at super-resolution resolution in living cells. This study applied these innovations to an in vitro model of neurotrauma. NEW METHOD: New methods are introduced for traumatizing neurons before imaging them with high speed structured illumination microscopy or lattice light sheet microscopy. Also, methods for analyzing structured illumination microscopy images to quantify post-traumatic neurite dystrophy are presented. RESULTS: Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons exhibited actin organization typical of immature neurons. Neurite dystrophy increased after trauma but was not influenced by jasplakinolide treatment. The F-actin content of dystrophies varied greatly from one dystrophy to another. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: In contrast to fixation dependent methods, these methods capture the evolution of the actin cytoskeleton over time in a living cell. In contrast to prior methods based on counting dystrophies, this quantification scheme parameterizes the severity of a given dystrophy as it evolves from a local swelling to an almost-perfect spheroid that threatens to transect the neurite. CONCLUSIONS: These methods can be used to investigate genetic factors and therapeutic interventions that modulate the course of neurite dystrophy after trauma.

Lesões Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia de Fluorescência/instrumentação , Microscopia de Fluorescência/métodos , Neuritos/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Citoesqueleto de Actina/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas
J Vis Exp ; (134)2018 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733307


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major clinical challenge with high morbidity and mortality. Despite decades of pre-clinical research, no proven therapies for TBI have been developed. This paper presents a novel method for pre-clinical neurotrauma research intended to complement existing pre-clinical models. It introduces human pathophysiology through the use of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hiPSCNs). It achieves loading pulse duration similar to the loading durations of clinical closed head impact injury. It employs a 96-well format that facilitates high throughput experiments and makes efficient use of expensive cells and culture reagents. Silicone membranes are first treated to remove neurotoxic uncured polymer and then bonded to commercial 96-well plate bodies to create stretchable 96-well plates. A custom-built device is used to indent some or all of the well bottoms from beneath, inducing equibiaxial mechanical strain that mechanically injures cells in culture in the wells. The relationship between indentation depth and mechanical strain is determined empirically using high speed videography of well bottoms during indentation. Cells, including hiPSCNs, can be cultured on these silicone membranes using modified versions of conventional cell culture protocols. Fluorescent microscopic images of cell cultures are acquired and analyzed after injury in a semi-automated fashion to quantify the level of injury in each well. The model presented is optimized for hiPSCNs but could in theory be applied to other cell types.

Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Humanos , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Estresse Mecânico
Sci Rep ; 6: 34097, 2016 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27671211


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity with limited therapeutic options. Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is an important component of TBI pathology. It is difficult to reproduce TAI in animal models of closed head injury, but in vitro stretch injury models reproduce clinical TAI pathology. Existing in vitro models employ primary rodent neurons or human cancer cell line cells in low throughput formats. This in vitro neuronal stretch injury model employs human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons (hiPSCNs) in a 96 well format. Silicone membranes were attached to 96 well plate tops to create stretchable, culture substrates. A custom-built device was designed and validated to apply repeatable, biofidelic strains and strain rates to these plates. A high content approach was used to measure injury in a hypothesis-free manner. These measurements are shown to provide a sensitive, dose-dependent, multi-modal description of the response to mechanical insult. hiPSCNs transition from healthy to injured phenotype at approximately 35% Lagrangian strain. Continued development of this model may create novel opportunities for drug discovery and exploration of the role of human genotype in TAI pathology.