Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 100
Filtrar
1.
Br J Cancer ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of various breast-cancer treatments on patients with a BRCA2 mutation has not been studied. We sought to estimate the impact of bilateral oophorectomy and other treatments on breast cancer-specific survival among patients with a germline BRCA2 mutation. METHODS: We identified 664 women with stage I-III breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation by combining five different datasets (retrospective and prospective). Subjects were followed for 7.2 years from diagnosis to death from breast cancer. Tumour characteristics and cancer treatments were patient-reported and derived from medical records. Predictors of survival were determined using Cox proportional hazard models, adjusted for other treatments and for prognostic features. RESULTS: The 10-year breast-cancer survival for ER-positive patients was 78.9% and for ER-negative patients was 82.3% (adjusted HR = 1.23 (95% CI, 0.62-2.45, p = 0.55)). The 10-year breast-cancer survival for women who had a bilateral oophorectomy was 89.1% and for women who did not have an oophorectomy was 59.0% (adjusted HR = 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.72, p = 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio for chemotherapy was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.65-1.53: p = 0.56). CONCLUSIONS: For women with breast cancer and a germline BRCA2 mutation, positive ER status does not predict superior survival. Oophorectomy is associated with a reduced risk of death from breast cancer and should be considered in the treatment plan.

2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has been shown to decrease with longer duration of oral contraceptive use. Although the effects of using oral contraceptives in the general population are well established (approximately 50% risk reduction in ovarian cancer), the estimated risk reduction in mutation carriers is much less precise because of potential bias and small sample sizes. In addition, only a few studies on oral contraceptive use have examined the associations of duration of use, time since last use, starting age, and calendar year of start with risk of ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate in more detail the associations of various characteristics of oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer, to provide healthcare providers and carriers with better risk estimates. STUDY DESIGN: In this international retrospective study, ovarian cancer risk associations were assessed using oral contraceptives data on 3989 BRCA1 and 2445 BRCA2 mutation carriers. Age-dependent-weighted Cox regression analyses were stratified by study and birth cohort and included breast cancer diagnosis as a covariate. To minimize survival bias, analyses were left truncated at 5 years before baseline questionnaire. Separate analyses were conducted for each aspect of oral contraceptive use and in a multivariate analysis, including all these aspects. In addition, the analysis of duration of oral contraceptive use was stratified by recency of use. RESULTS: Oral contraceptives were less often used by mutation carriers who were diagnosed with ovarian cancer (ever use: 58.6% for BRCA1 and 53.5% BRCA2) than by unaffected carriers (ever use: 88.9% for BRCA1 and 80.7% for BRCA2). The median duration of use was 7 years for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers who developed ovarian cancer and 9 and 8 years for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers with ovarian cancer, respectively. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, univariate analyses have shown that both a longer duration of oral contraceptive use and more recent oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduction in the risk of ovarian cancer. However, in multivariate analyses, including duration of use, age at first use, and time since last use, duration of oral contraceptive use proved to be the prominent protective factor (compared with <5 years: 5-9 years [hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.12]; >10 years [hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.73]; Ptrend=.008). The inverse association between duration of use and ovarian cancer risk persisted for more than 15 years (duration of ≥10 years; BRCA1 <15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.14-0.43]; BRCA1 >15 years since last use [hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.59]). Univariate results for BRCA2 mutation carriers were similar but were inconclusive because of limited sample size. CONCLUSION: For BRCA1 mutation carriers, longer duration of oral contraceptive use is associated with a greater reduction in ovarian cancer risk, and the protection is long term.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines often use predicted lifetime risk from birth to define criteria for making decisions regarding breast cancer screening rather than thresholds based on absolute 5-year risk from current age. METHODS: We used the Prospective Family Cohort Study of 14,657 women without breast cancer at baseline in which, during a median follow-up of 10 years, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We examined the performances of the IBIS and BOADICEA risk models when using alternative thresholds by comparing predictions based on 5-year risk with those based on lifetime risk from birth and remaining lifetime risk. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Using IBIS, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.63 to 0.68) and 0.56 (95% confidence interval = 0.54 to 0.59) for 5-year and lifetime risks, respectively (Pdiff<0.001). For equivalent sensitivities, the 5-year incidence almost always had higher specificities than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 20-39 years, 5-year risk performed better than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 40 years or more, receiver-operating characteristic curves were similar for 5-year and lifetime IBIS risk from birth. Classifications based on remaining lifetime risk were inferior to 5-year risk estimates. Results were similar using BOADICEA. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis shows that risk stratification using clinical models will likely be more accurate when based on predicted 5-year risk compared with risks based on predicted lifetime and remaining lifetime, particularly for women aged 20-39 years.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115784

RESUMO

Guidelines endorse the use of chemoprevention for breast cancer risk reduction. This study examined the barriers and facilitators to chemoprevention use for Australian women at increased risk of breast cancer, and their clinicians. Surveys, based on the Theoretical Domains Framework, were mailed to 1,113 women at ≥16% lifetime risk of breast cancer who were enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer cohort study (kConFab), and their 524 treating clinicians. 725 women (65%) and 221 (42%) clinicians responded. Only 10 (1.4%) kConFab women had ever taken chemoprevention. 378 (52%) kConFab women, two (3%) breast surgeons and 51 (35%) family physicians were not aware of chemoprevention. For women, the strongest barriers to chemoprevention were side-effects (31%) and inadequate information (23%) which operate in the Theoretical Domains Framework domains of "beliefs about consequences" and "knowledge", respectively. Strongest facilitators related to tamoxifen's long-term efficacy (35%, "knowledge", "beliefs about consequences" and "goals" domains), staying healthy for family (13%, "social role" and "goals" domains) and abnormal breast biopsy (13%, "environmental context" domain). The strongest barrier for family physicians was insufficient knowledge (45%, "knowledge" domain) and for breast surgeons was medication side-effects (40%, "beliefs about consequences" domain). The strongest facilitators for both clinician groups related to clear guidelines, strong family history and better tools to select patients ("environmental context and resources" domain). Clinician knowledge and resources, and beliefs about the side-effect consequences of chemoprevention are key domains that could be targeted to potentially enhance uptake.

5.
Hum Reprod ; 35(8): 1864-1874, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604417

RESUMO

STUDY QUESTION: What is the impact of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, olaparib, alone or in combination with chemotherapy on the ovary in mice? SUMMARY ANSWER: Olaparib treatment, when administered alone, depletes primordial follicle oocytes, but olaparib does not exacerbate chemotherapy-mediated ovarian follicle loss in mice. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The ovary contains a finite number of oocytes stored within primordial follicles, which give rise to all mature ovulatory oocytes. Unfortunately, they are highly sensitive to exogenous DNA damaging insults, such as cytotoxic cancer treatments. Members of the PARP family of enzymes are central to the repair of single-strand DNA breaks. PARP inhibitors have shown promising clinical efficacy in reducing tumour burden, by blocking DNA repair capacity. Olaparib is a PARP1/2 inhibitor recently FDA-approved for treatment of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with metastatic breast cancer. It is currently being investigated as an adjunct to standard treatment at an earlier stage, potentially curable, BRCA1- and BRCA2-associated breast cancer which affects reproductive age women. Despite this, there is no preclinical or clinical information regarding the potential impacts of olaparib on the ovary or on female fertility. Unfortunately, it may be many years before clinical data on fertility outcomes for women treated with PARP inhibitors becomes available, highlighting the importance of rigorous preclinical research using animal models to establish the potential for new cancer therapies to affect the ovary in humans. We aimed to comprehensively determine the impact of olaparib alone, or following chemotherapy, on the ovary in mice. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: On Day 0, mice (n = 5/treatment group) were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of cyclophosphamide (75 mg/kg/body weight), doxorubicin (10 mg/kg), carboplatin (80 mg/kg), paclitaxel (7.5 mg/kg) or vehicle control. From Days 1 to 28, mice were administered subcutaneous olaparib (50 mg/kg) or vehicle control. This regimen is proven to reduce tumour burden in preclinical mouse studies and is also physiologically relevant for women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Adult female wild-type C57BL6/J mice at peak fertility (8 weeks) were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of chemotherapy, or vehicle, then either subcutaneous olaparib or vehicle for 28 days. Vaginal smears were performed on each animal for 14 consecutive days from Days 15 to 28 to monitor oestrous cycling. At 24 h after final treatment, ovaries were harvested for follicle enumeration and immunohistochemical analysis of primordial follicle remnants (FOXL2 expressing granulosa cells), DNA damage (γH2AX) and analysis of apoptosis by TUNEL assay. Serum was collected to measure circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations by ELISA. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Olaparib significantly depleted primordial follicles by 36% compared to the control (P < 0.05) but had no impact on other follicle classes, serum AMH, corpora lutea number (indicative of ovulation) or oestrous cycling. Primordial follicle remnants were rarely detected in control ovaries but were significantly elevated in ovaries from mice treated with olaparib alone (P < 0.05). Similarly, DNA damage denoted by γH2AX foci was completely undetectable in primordial follicles of control animals but was observed in ∼10% of surviving primordial follicle oocytes in mice treated with olaparib alone. These observations suggest that functional PARPs are essential for primordial follicle oocyte maintenance and survival. Olaparib did not exacerbate chemotherapy-mediated follicle depletion in the wild-type mouse ovary. LARGE SCALE DATA: N/A. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: This study was performed in mice, so the findings may not translate to women and further studies utilizing human ovarian tissue and sera samples should be performed in the future. Only one long-term time point was analysed, therefore olaparib-mediated follicle damage should be assessed at more immediate time points in the future to support our mechanistic findings. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Olaparib dramatically depleted primordial follicles and this could be attributed to loss of intrinsic PARP-mediated DNA repair mechanisms. Importantly, diminished ovarian reserve can result in premature ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Notably, the extent of follicle depletion might be enhanced in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and this is the subject of current investigations. Together, our data suggest that fertility preservation options should be considered for young women prior to olaparib treatment, and that human studies of this issue should be prioritized. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work was made possible through Victorian State Government Operational Infrastructure Support and Australian Government NHMRC IRIISS. This work was supported by funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC); (K.J.H. #1050130) (A.L.W. #1120300). K.A.P. is a National Breast Cancer Foundation Fellow (Australia-PRAC-17-004). K.A.P. is the Breast Cancer Trials (Australia) Study Chair for the OlympiA clinical trial sponsored by AstraZeneca, the manufacturer of olaparib. All other authors declare no competing financial or other interests.

6.
Nat Rev Cancer ; 20(8): 417-436, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528185

RESUMO

Despite decades of laboratory, epidemiological and clinical research, breast cancer incidence continues to rise. Breast cancer remains the leading cancer-related cause of disease burden for women, affecting one in 20 globally and as many as one in eight in high-income countries. Reducing breast cancer incidence will likely require both a population-based approach of reducing exposure to modifiable risk factors and a precision-prevention approach of identifying women at increased risk and targeting them for specific interventions, such as risk-reducing medication. We already have the capacity to estimate an individual woman's breast cancer risk using validated risk assessment models, and the accuracy of these models is likely to continue to improve over time, particularly with inclusion of newer risk factors, such as polygenic risk and mammographic density. Evidence-based risk-reducing medications are cheap, widely available and recommended by professional health bodies; however, widespread implementation of these has proven challenging. The barriers to uptake of, and adherence to, current medications will need to be considered as we deepen our understanding of breast cancer initiation and begin developing and testing novel preventives.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
7.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 4(1): pkz075, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32337492

RESUMO

Background: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) has been associated with approximately 50% breast cancer risk reduction among women with a pathogenic variant in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2), a finding that has recently been questioned. Methods: We estimated incidence rates of breast cancer and all cancers combined during 5 years of follow-up among participants selecting RRSO or ovarian cancer screening (OCS) among women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant or strong breast and/or ovarian cancer family history. Ovarian or fallopian tube or peritoneal cancer incidence rates were estimated for the OCS group. Breast cancer hazard ratios (HRs) for time-dependent RRSO were estimated using Cox regression with age time-scale (4943 and 4990 women-years in RRSO and OCS cohorts, respectively). All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The RRSO cohort included 925 participants, and 1453 participants were in the OCS cohort (381 underwent RRSO during follow-up), with 88 incident breast cancers diagnosed. Among BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers, a non-statistically significant lower breast cancer incidence was observed in the RRSO compared with the OCS cohort (HR = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.45 to 1.67; P = .67). No difference was observed in the overall population or among subgroups stratified by prior breast cancer history or menopausal status. Seven fallopian tube and four ovarian cancers were prospectively diagnosed in the OCS cohort, and one primary peritoneal carcinoma occurred in the RRSO cohort. Conclusions: These data suggest that RRSO might be associated with reduced breast cancer incidence among women with a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant, although the effect, if present, is small. This evolving evidence warrants a thorough discussion regarding the impact of RRSO on breast cancer risk with women considering this intervention.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 8, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) on breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is uncertain. Retrospective analyses have suggested a protective effect but may be substantially biased. Prospective studies have had limited power, particularly for BRCA2 mutation carriers. Further, previous studies have not considered the effect of RRSO in the context of natural menopause. METHODS: A multi-centre prospective cohort of 2272 BRCA1 and 1605 BRCA2 mutation carriers was followed for a mean of 5.4 and 4.9 years, respectively; 426 women developed incident breast cancer. RRSO was modelled as a time-dependent covariate in Cox regression, and its effect assessed in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. RESULTS: There was no association between RRSO and breast cancer for BRCA1 (HR = 1.23; 95% CI 0.94-1.61) or BRCA2 (HR = 0.88; 95% CI 0.62-1.24) mutation carriers. For BRCA2 mutation carriers, HRs were 0.68 (95% CI 0.40-1.15) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.69-1.64) for RRSO carried out before or after age 45 years, respectively. The HR for BRCA2 mutation carriers decreased with increasing time since RRSO (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99 for 5 years or longer after RRSO). Estimates for premenopausal women were similar. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence that RRSO reduces breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. A potentially beneficial effect for BRCA2 mutation carriers was observed, particularly after 5 years following RRSO. These results may inform counselling and management of carriers with respect to RRSO.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mutação , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Agências Internacionais , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco
10.
Cancer Res ; 80(1): 116-125, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578201

RESUMO

Although physical activity is associated with lower breast cancer risk for average-risk women, it is not known if this association applies to women at high familial/genetic risk. We examined the association of recreational physical activity (self-reported by questionnaire) with breast cancer risk using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, which is enriched with women who have a breast cancer family history (N = 15,550). We examined associations of adult and adolescent recreational physical activity (quintiles of age-adjusted total metabolic equivalents per week) with breast cancer risk using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, and body mass index. We tested for multiplicative interactions of physical activity with predicted absolute breast cancer familial risk based on pedigree data and with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status. Baseline recreational physical activity level in the highest four quintiles compared with the lowest quintile was associated with a 20% lower breast cancer risk (HR, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.93). The association was not modified by familial risk or BRCA mutation status (P interactions >0.05). No overall association was found for adolescent recreational physical activity. Recreational physical activity in adulthood may lower breast cancer risk for women across the spectrum of familial risk. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that physical activity might reduce breast cancer risk by about 20% for women across the risk continuum, including women at higher-than-average risk due to their family history or genetic susceptibility.See related commentary by Niehoff et al., p. 23.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(1): 131-139, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) and ovarian cancer screening (OCS) are management options for women at increased risk of ovarian cancer. Long-term effects of these interventions on quality of life (QOL) are not well understood. METHODS: GOG-0199 is a prospective cohort study of women at increased ovarian cancer risk who chose either RRSO or OCS as their risk management intervention. At study entry, 6, 12, 24 and 60 months of follow-up, participants completed the QOL questionnaire, which included the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-36, the Impact of Events Scales, the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Endocrine Subscale, and the Sexual Activity Questionnaire. QOL measures were compared between the RRSO and OCS cohort at baseline and over time. RESULTS: Five-hundred-sixty-two participants in the RRSO cohort and 1,010 in the OCS completed the baseline and at least one follow-up questionnaire. At baseline, participants selecting RRSO reported lower health-related QOL (HRQOL), greater ovarian cancer-related stress, greater anxiety, and more depressive symptomatology, which improved during follow-up, especially for ovarian cancer-related stress. Screening was not found to adversely impact HRQOL. Hormone-related menopausal symptoms worsened and sexual functioning declined during follow-up in both cohorts, but more so among participants who underwent RRSO. CONCLUSIONS: HRQOL improved after surgery among women who chose RRSO and remained stable among participants undergoing screening. The adverse effects of RRSO and screening on short-term and long-term sexual activity and sexual functioning warrant consideration in the decision-making process for high-risk women.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/prevenção & controle , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/psicologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Qualidade de Vida , Salpingo-Ooforectomia/psicologia
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(2): 368-378, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption have been intensively studied in the general population to assess their effects on the risk of breast cancer, but very few studies have examined these effects in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Given the high breast cancer risk for mutation carriers and the importance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in DNA repair, better evidence on the associations of these lifestyle factors with breast cancer risk is essential. METHODS: Using a large international pooled cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted retrospective (5,707 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 3,525 BRCA2 mutation carriers) and prospective (2,276 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 1,610 BRCA2 mutation carriers) analyses of alcohol and tobacco consumption using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: For both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, none of the smoking-related variables was associated with breast cancer risk, except smoking for more than 5 years before a first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) when compared with parous women who never smoked. For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the HR from retrospective analysis (HRR) was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.39] and the HR from prospective analysis (HRP) was 1.36 (95% CI, 0.99-1.87). For BRCA2 mutation carriers, smoking for more than 5 years before an FFTP showed an association of a similar magnitude, but the confidence limits were wider (HRR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.01-1.55 and HRP = 1.30; 95% CI, 0.83-2.01). For both carrier groups, alcohol consumption was not associated with breast cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: The finding that smoking during the prereproductive years increases breast cancer risk for mutation carriers warrants further investigation. IMPACT: This is the largest prospective study of BRCA mutation carriers to assess these important risk factors.

13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(4): 418-422, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31584660

RESUMO

The performance of breast cancer risk models for women with a family history but negative BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation test results is uncertain. We calculated the cumulative 10-year invasive breast cancer risk at cohort entry for 14 657 unaffected women (96.1% had an affected relative) not known to carry BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations at baseline using three pedigree-based models (Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm, BRCAPRO, and International Breast Cancer Intervention Study). During follow-up, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Mutation testing was conducted independent of incident cancers. All models underpredicted risk by 26.3%-56.7% for women who tested negative but whose relatives had not been tested (n = 1363; 63 breast cancers). Although replication studies with larger sample sizes are needed, until these models are recalibrated for women who test negative and have no relatives tested, caution should be used when considering changing the breast cancer risk management intensity of such women based on risk estimates from these models.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Canadá/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
JNCI Cancer Spectr ; 3(4): pkz066, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853515

RESUMO

Background: iPrevent is an online breast cancer (BC) risk management decision support tool. It uses an internal switching algorithm, based on a woman's risk factor data, to estimate her absolute BC risk using either the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS) version 7.02, or Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm version 3 models, and then provides tailored risk management information. This study assessed the accuracy of the 10-year risk estimates using prospective data. Methods: iPrevent-assigned 10-year invasive BC risk was calculated for 15 732 women aged 20-70 years and without BC at recruitment to the Prospective Family Study Cohort. Calibration, the ratio of the expected (E) number of BCs to the observed (O) number and discriminatory accuracy were assessed. Results: During the 10 years of follow-up, 619 women (3.9%) developed BC compared with 702 expected (E/O = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.05 to 1.23). For women younger than 50 years, 50 years and older, and BRCA1/2-mutation carriers and noncarriers, E/O was 1.04 (95% CI = 0.93 to 1.16), 1.24 (95% CI = 1.11 to 1.39), 1.13 (95% CI = 0.96 to 1.34), and 1.13 (95% CI = 1.04 to 1.24), respectively. The C-statistic was 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68 to 0.73) overall and 0.74 (95% CI = 0.71 to 0.77), 0.63 (95% CI = 0.59 to 0.66), 0.59 (95% CI = 0.53 to 0.64), and 0.65 (95% CI = 0.63 to 0.68), respectively, for the subgroups above. Applying the newer IBIS version 8.0b in the iPrevent switching algorithm improved calibration overall (E/O = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.98 to 1.15) and in all subgroups, without changing discriminatory accuracy. Conclusions: For 10-year BC risk, iPrevent had good discriminatory accuracy overall and was well calibrated for women aged younger than 50 years. Calibration may be improved in the future by incorporating IBIS version 8.0b.

15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 128, 2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (BC), but it is unclear whether these associations vary by a woman's familial BC risk. METHODS: Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we evaluated associations between alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and BC risk. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We examined whether associations were modified by familial risk profile (FRP), defined as the 1-year incidence of BC predicted by Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA), a pedigree-based algorithm. RESULTS: We observed 1009 incident BC cases in 17,435 women during a median follow-up of 10.4 years. We found no overall association of smoking or alcohol consumption with BC risk (current smokers compared with never smokers HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.85-1.23; consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week compared with non-regular drinkers HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.92-1.32), but we did observe differences in associations based on FRP and by estrogen receptor (ER) status. Women with lower FRP had an increased risk of ER-positive BC associated with consuming ≥ 7 drinks/week (compared to non-regular drinkers), whereas there was no association for women with higher FRP. For example, women at the 10th percentile of FRP (5-year BOADICEA = 0.15%) had an estimated HR of 1.46 (95% CI 1.07-1.99), whereas there was no association for women at the 90th percentile (5-year BOADICEA = 4.2%) (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.80-1.44). While the associations with smoking were not modified by FRP, we observed a positive multiplicative interaction by FRP (pinteraction = 0.01) for smoking status in women who also consumed alcohol, but not in women who were non-regular drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: Moderate alcohol intake was associated with increased BC risk, particularly for women with ER-positive BC, but only for those at lower predicted familial BC risk (5-year BOADICEA < 1.25). For women with a high FRP (5-year BOADICEA ≥ 6.5%) who also consumed alcohol, being a current smoker was associated with increased BC risk.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Neurosci ; 66: 259-261, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104961

RESUMO

We present a case of leptomeningeal metastatic disease to the cauda equina detected on Magnetic Resonance myelography. The heavy T2-weighting and small field-of-view of this MRI technique are designed to detect CSF leaks, but also provide exquisite detail of the cauda equina and any associated nodularity. Magnetic Resonance myelography thus shows promise as an adjunct to the MRI evaluation of patients with suspected leptomeningeal metastatic disease and other tumours affecting the cauda equina.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Carcinomatose Meníngea/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Meníngeas/diagnóstico por imagem , Mielografia/métodos , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Cauda Equina/diagnóstico por imagem , Cauda Equina/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Carcinomatose Meníngea/secundário , Carcinomatose Meníngea/cirurgia , Neoplasias Meníngeas/secundário , Neoplasias Meníngeas/cirurgia , Meninges/diagnóstico por imagem , Meninges/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/secundário , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral/cirurgia
17.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 52, 2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but it is not known if this association extends to women at familial or genetic risk. We examined the association between regular NSAID use and breast cancer risk using a large cohort of women selected for breast cancer family history, including 1054 BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We analyzed a prospective cohort (N = 5606) and a larger combined, retrospective and prospective, cohort (N = 8233) of women who were aged 18 to 79 years, enrolled before June 30, 2011, with follow-up questionnaire data on medication history. The prospective cohort was further restricted to women without breast cancer when medication history was asked by questionnaire. Women were recruited from seven study centers in the United States, Canada, and Australia. Associations were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, lifestyle factors, family history, and other medication use. Women were classified as regular or non-regular users of aspirin, COX-2 inhibitors, ibuprofen and other NSAIDs, and acetaminophen (control) based on self-report at follow-up of ever using the medication for at least twice a week for ≥1 month prior to breast cancer diagnosis. The main outcome was incident invasive breast cancer, based on self- or relative-report (81% confirmed pathologically). RESULTS: From fully adjusted analyses, regular aspirin use was associated with a 39% and 37% reduced risk of breast cancer in the prospective (HR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.33-1.14) and combined cohorts (HR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.57-0.71), respectively. Regular use of COX-2 inhibitors was associated with a 61% and 71% reduced risk of breast cancer (prospective HR = 0.39; 95% CI = 0.15-0.97; combined HR = 0.29; 95% CI = 0.23-0.38). Other NSAIDs and acetaminophen were not associated with breast cancer risk in either cohort. Associations were not modified by familial risk, and consistent patterns were found by BRCA1 and BRCA2 carrier status, estrogen receptor status, and attained age. CONCLUSION: Regular use of aspirin and COX-2 inhibitors might reduce breast cancer risk for women at familial or genetic risk.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 370-379, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30725480

RESUMO

Benign breast disease (BBD) is an established breast cancer (BC) risk factor, but it is unclear whether the magnitude of the association applies to women at familial or genetic risk. This information is needed to improve BC risk assessment in clinical settings. Using the Prospective Family Study Cohort, we used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of BBD with BC risk. We also examined whether the association with BBD differed by underlying familial risk profile (FRP), calculated using absolute risk estimates from the Breast Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) model. During 176,756 person-years of follow-up (median: 10.9 years, maximum: 23.7) of 17,154 women unaffected with BC at baseline, we observed 968 incident cases of BC. A total of 4,704 (27%) women reported a history of BBD diagnosis at baseline. A history of BBD was associated with a greater risk of BC: HR = 1.31 (95% CI: 1.14-1.50), and did not differ by underlying FRP, with HRs of 1.35 (95% CI: 1.11-1.65), 1.26 (95% CI: 1.00-1.60), and 1.40 (95% CI: 1.01-1.93), for categories of full-lifetime BOADICEA score <20%, 20 to <35%, ≥35%, respectively. There was no difference in the association for women with BRCA1 mutations (HR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58), women with BRCA2 mutations (HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.78-2.3) or for women without a known BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation (HR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.13-1.53) (pinteraction = 0.95). Women with a history of BBD have an increased risk of BC that is independent of, and multiplies, their underlying familial and genetic risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Mamárias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Doenças Mamárias/complicações , Doenças Mamárias/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(4): 504-517, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30799262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Independent validation is essential to justify use of models of breast cancer risk prediction and inform decisions about prevention options and screening. Few independent validations had been done using cohorts for common breast cancer risk prediction models, and those that have been done had small sample sizes and short follow-up periods, and used earlier versions of the prediction tools. We aimed to validate the relative performance of four commonly used models of breast cancer risk and assess the effect of limited data input on each one's performance. METHODS: In this validation study, we used the Breast Cancer Prospective Family Study Cohort (ProF-SC), which includes 18 856 women from Australia, Canada, and the USA who did not have breast cancer at recruitment, between March 17, 1992, and June 29, 2011. We selected women from the cohort who were 20-70 years old and had no previous history of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy or ovarian cancer, at least 2 months of follow-up data, and information available about family history of breast cancer. We used this selected cohort to calculate 10-year risk scores and compare four models of breast cancer risk prediction: the Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm model (BOADICEA), BRCAPRO, the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), and the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study model (IBIS). We compared model calibration based on the ratio of the expected number of breast cancer cases to the observed number of breast cancer cases in the cohort, and on the basis of their discriminatory ability to separate those who will and will not have breast cancer diagnosed within 10 years as measured with the concordance statistic (C-statistic). We did subgroup analyses to compare the performance of the models at 10 years in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers (ie, BRCA-positive women), tested non-carriers and untested participants (ie, BRCA-negative women), and participants younger than 50 years at recruitment. We also assessed the effect that limited data input (eg, restriction of the amount of family history and non-genetic information included) had on the models' performance. FINDINGS: After median follow-up of 11·1 years (IQR 6·0-14·4), 619 (4%) of 15 732 women selected from the ProF-SC cohort study were prospectively diagnosed with breast cancer after recruitment, of whom 519 (84%) had histologically confirmed disease. BOADICEA and IBIS were well calibrated in the overall validation cohort, whereas BRCAPRO and BCRAT underpredicted risk (ratio of expected cases to observed cases 1·05 [95% CI 0·97-1·14] for BOADICEA, 1·03 [0·96-1·12] for IBIS, 0·59 [0·55-0·64] for BRCAPRO, and 0·79 [0·73-0·85] for BRCAT). The estimated C-statistics for the complete validation cohort were 0·70 (95% CI 0·68-0·72) for BOADICEA, 0·71 (0·69-0·73) for IBIS, 0·68 (0·65-0·70) for BRCAPRO, and 0·60 (0·58-0·62) for BCRAT. In subgroup analyses by BRCA mutation status, the ratio of expected to observed cases for BRCA-negative women was 1·02 (95% CI 0·93-1·12) for BOADICEA, 1·00 (0·92-1·10) for IBIS, 0·53 (0·49-0·58) for BRCAPRO, and 0·97 (0·89-1·06) for BCRAT. For BRCA-positive participants, BOADICEA and IBIS were well calibrated, but BRCAPRO underpredicted risk (ratio of expected to observed cases 1·17 [95% CI 0·99-1·38] for BOADICEA, 1·14 [0·96-1·35] for IBIS, and 0·80 [0·68-0·95] for BRCAPRO). We noted similar patterns of calibration for women younger than 50 years at recruitment. Finally, BOADICEA and IBIS predictive scores were not appreciably affected by limiting input data to family history for first-degree and second-degree relatives. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that models that include multigenerational family history, such as BOADICEA and IBIS, have better ability to predict breast cancer risk, even for women at average or below-average risk of breast cancer. Although BOADICEA and IBIS performed similarly, further improvements in the accuracy of predictions could be possible with hybrid models that incorporate the polygenic risk component of BOADICEA and the non-family-history risk factors included in IBIS. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, Breast Cancer Research Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, Victorian Breast Cancer Research Consortium, Cancer Australia, National Breast Cancer Foundation, Queensland Cancer Fund, Cancer Councils of New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, and South Australia, and Cancer Foundation of Western Australia.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Calibragem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30150091

RESUMO

Globally, breast cancer is the most common female reproductive cancer. Although alkylating chemotherapy is not part of initial curative-intent treatment in women with other reproductive cancers, it is often used to treat women with curable breast cancer. Chemotherapy-associated ovarian failure (COF) is a potential consequence of this treatment and can cause infertility and increase the risk of cognitive impairment, cardiovascular disease and fractures from reduced bone mineral density. Although cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes is often effective for fertility preservation, this does not prevent COF and its associated complications. Randomised trials, predominantly of women undergoing alkylating chemotherapy for breast cancer, have shown evidence for the efficacy of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) in reducing the risk of COF. Concurrent GnRHa use should be considered for all premenopausal women planned to commence alkylating chemotherapy for curable cancer, regardless of their childbearing status, to further improve survivorship for women diagnosed with cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tratamento Conservador/métodos , Preservação da Fertilidade/métodos , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/fisiopatologia , Criopreservação/métodos , Feminino , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias dos Genitais Femininos/fisiopatologia , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/terapia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA