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1.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260520916268, 2020 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370597

RESUMO

Evidence suggests an overlap between intimate partner violence (IPV) experience and perpetration. However, few studies in sub-Saharan Africa have investigated experience and perpetration of IPV among women and men within the same community. This study reports prevalence of past-year IPV experience and perpetration among women and men living in an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya, and factors associated with IPV. Data analyzed for this study involved a geographically distributed random sample of 273 women and 429 men who participated in a community survey. We approximated prevalence of IPV experience and perpetration and used logistic regression for estimating associations between individual-level factors and IPV. Women and men experienced similar levels of IPV, but a significantly higher proportion of men reported physical and sexual IPV perpetration. Witnessing violence between parents in childhood was associated with women's physical and sexual, and men's sexual IPV experience; and with women perpetrating emotional, and men perpetrating sexual IPV. Less equitable gender attitudes were associated with men's perpetration of physical IPV. More equitable gender knowledge was associated with women's experience of sexual IPV, and with men perpetrating IPV. Perceived skills to challenge gender inequitable practices were negatively associated with men perpetrating sexual IPV. In conclusion, we found IPV experience and perpetration were highly correlated, and that, contrary to commonly reported gender gaps, men and women experienced similar rates of IPV. We make suggestions for future research, including on IPV prevention interventions in areas with such IPV prevalence that would be beneficial for women and men and future generations.

2.
Trends Parasitol ; 36(5): 410-412, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32298628

RESUMO

Effective future control of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) requires an integrated and multisectoral approach, bringing together HIV, sexual and reproductive health, and reproductive rights sectors. In this article, an underappreciated but important connection between FGS and menstrual hygiene initiatives in Africa is highlighted.

4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1317, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa are disproportionally vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) harms. In western Kenya, where unprotected transactional sex is common, young females face higher rates of school dropout, often due to pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Staying in school has shown to protect girls against early marriage, teen pregnancy, and HIV infection. This study evaluates the impact of menstrual cups and cash transfer interventions on a composite of deleterious outcomes (HIV, HSV-2, and school dropout) when given to secondary schoolgirls in western Kenya, with the aim to inform evidence-based policy to improve girls' health, school equity, and life-chances. METHODS: Single site, 4-arm, cluster randomised controlled superiority trial. Secondary schools are the unit of randomisation, with schoolgirls as the unit of measurement. Schools will be randomised into one of four intervention arms using a 1:1:1:1 ratio and block randomisation: (1) menstrual cup arm; (2) cash transfer arm, (3) cups and cash combined intervention arm, or (4) control arm. National and county agreement, and school level consent will be obtained prior to recruitment of schools, with parent consent and girls' assent obtained for participant enrolment. Participants will be trained on safe use of interventions, with all arms receiving puberty and hygiene education. Annually, the state of latrines, water availability, water treatment, handwashing units and soap in schools will be measured. The primary endpoint is a composite of incident HIV, HSV-2, and all-cause school dropout, after 3 years follow-up. School dropout will be monitored each term via school registers and confirmed through home visits. HIV and HSV-2 incident infections and risk factors will be measured at baseline, mid-line and end-line. Intention to treat analysis will be conducted among all enrolled participants. Focus group discussions will provide contextual information on uptake of interventions. Monitoring for safety will occur throughout. DISCUSSION: If proved safe and effective, the interventions offer a potential contribution toward girls' schooling, health, and equity in low- and middle-income countries. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03051789 , 15th February 2017.


Assuntos
Redução do Dano , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Assistência Pública , Evasão Escolar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Herpes Genital/epidemiologia , Herpes Genital/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Projetos de Pesquisa
5.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(8): e376-e393, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Girls and women need effective, safe, and affordable menstrual products. Single-use products are regularly selected by agencies for resource-poor settings; the menstrual cup is a less known alternative. We reviewed international studies on menstrual cup leakage, acceptability, and safety and explored menstrual cup availability to inform programmes. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Popline, Cinahl, Global Health database, Emerald, Google Scholar, Science.gov, and WorldWideScience from database inception to May 14, 2019, for quantitative or qualitative studies published in English on experiences and leakage associated with menstrual cups, and adverse event reports. We also screened the Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience database from the US Food and Drug Administration for events related to menstrual cups. To be eligible for inclusion, the material needed to have information on leakage, acceptability, or safety of menstrual cups. The main outcome of interest was menstrual blood leakage when using a menstrual cup. Safety outcomes of interest included serious adverse events; vaginal abrasions and effects on vaginal microflora; effects on the reproductive, digestive, or urinary tract; and safety in poor sanitary conditions. Findings were tabulated or combined by use of forest plots (random-effects meta-analysis). We also did preliminary estimates on costs and environmental savings potentially associated with cups. This systematic review is registered on PROSPERO, number CRD42016047845. FINDINGS: Of 436 records identified, 43 studies were eligible for analysis (3319 participants). Most studies reported on vaginal cups (27 [63%] vaginal cups, five [12%] cervical cups, and 11 [25%] mixed types of cups or unknown) and 15 were from low-income and middle-income countries. 22 studies were included in qualitative or quantitative syntheses, of which only three were of moderate-to-high quality. Four studies made a direct comparison between menstrual cups and usual products for the main outcome of leakage and reported leakage was similar or lower for menstrual cups than for disposable pads or tampons (n=293). In all qualitative studies, the adoption of the menstrual cup required a familiarisation phase over several menstrual cycles and peer support improved uptake (two studies in developing countries). In 13 studies, 73% (pooled estimate: n=1144; 95% CI 59-84, I2=96%) of participants wished to continue use of the menstrual cup at study completion. Use of the menstrual cup showed no adverse effects on the vaginal flora (four studies, 507 women). We identified five women who reported severe pain or vaginal wounds, six reports of allergies or rashes, nine of urinary tract complaints (three with hydronephrosis), and five of toxic shock syndrome after use of the menstrual cup. Dislodgement of an intrauterine device was reported in 13 women who used the menstrual cup (eight in case reports, and five in one study) between 1 week and 13 months of insertion of the intrauterine device. Professional assistance to aid removal of menstrual cup was reported among 47 cervical cup users and two vaginal cup users. We identified 199 brands of menstrual cup, and availability in 99 countries with prices ranging US$0·72-46·72 (median $23·3, 145 brands). INTERPRETATION: Our review indicates that menstrual cups are a safe option for menstruation management and are being used internationally. Good quality studies in this field are needed. Further studies are needed on cost-effectiveness and environmental effect comparing different menstrual products. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, Department for International Development, and Wellcome Trust.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 105(2): 388-401, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125353

RESUMO

High-dose ivermectin, co-administered for 3 days with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), killed mosquitoes feeding on individuals for at least 28 days posttreatment in a recent trial (IVERMAL), whereas 7 days was predicted pretrial. The current study assessed the relationship between ivermectin blood concentrations and the observed mosquitocidal effects against Anopheles gambiae s.s. Three days of ivermectin 0, 300, or 600 mcg/kg/day plus DP was randomly assigned to 141 adults with uncomplicated malaria in Kenya. During 28 days of follow-up, 1,393 venous and 335 paired capillary plasma samples, 850 mosquito-cluster mortality rates, and 524 QTcF-intervals were collected. Using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling, we show a consistent correlation between predicted ivermectin concentrations and observed mosquitocidal-effects throughout the 28-day study duration, without invoking an unidentified mosquitocidal metabolite or drug-drug interaction. Ivermectin had no effect on piperaquine's PKs or QTcF-prolongation. The PK/PD model can be used to design new treatment regimens with predicted mosquitocidal effect. This methodology could be used to evaluate effectiveness of other endectocides.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/farmacocinética , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Artemisininas/farmacocinética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Inseticidas/farmacocinética , Ivermectina/farmacologia , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Adulto , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010408, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30546869

RESUMO

Background: Lack of menstrual knowledge, poor access to sanitary products and a non-facilitating school environment can make it difficult for girls to attend school. In India, interventions have been developed to reduce the burden of menstruation for school girls by government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs). We sought to identify challenges related to menstruation, and facilitators of menstrual management in schools in three states in India. Methods: Surveys were conducted among menstruating school girls in class 8-10 (above 12 years of age) of 43 government schools selected through stratified random sampling in three Indian states (Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Tamil Nadu) in 2015. For comparison, ten model schools supported by NGOs or UNICEF with a focussed menstrual hygiene education program were selected purposely in the same states to represent the better-case scenario. We examined awareness about menarche, items used for menstruation, and facilitators on girls' experience of menstruation in regular schools and compared with model schools. Factors associated with school absence during menstruation were explored using multivariate analysis. Findings: More girls (mean age 14.1 years) were informed about menstruation before menarche in model schools (56%, n = 492) than in regular schools (36%, n = 2072, P < 0.001). Girls reported menstruation affected school attendance (6% vs 11% in model vs regular schools respectively, P = 0.003) and concentration (40% vs 45%, P = 0.1) and was associated with pain (31% vs 38%, P = 0.004) and fear of stain or smell (11% vs 16%, P = 0.002). About 45% of girls reported using disposable pads in both model and regular schools, but only 55% and 29% of pad-users reported good disposal facilities, respectively (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, reported absenteeism during menstruation was significantly lower in Tamil Nadu (adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24, 0.14-0.40) and Maharashtra (APR 0.56, CI = 0.40-0.77) compared to Chhattisgarh, and halved in model compared to regular schools (APR 0.50, CI = 0.34-0.73). Pain medication in school (APR 0.71, CI = 0.51-0.97) and use of disposable pads (APR 0.57, CI = 0.42-0.77) were associated with lower absenteeism and inadequate sanitary facilities with higher absenteeism during menstruation. Conclusions: Menstrual hygiene education, accessible sanitary products, pain relief, and adequate sanitary facilities at school would improve the schooling-experience of adolescent girls in India.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/provisão & distribução , Setor Público , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(7): 1112-1119, 2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30590537

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is being considered for mass drug administration for malaria, due to its ability to kill mosquitoes feeding on recently treated individuals. In a recent trial, 3-day courses of 300 and 600 mcg/kg/day were shown to kill Anopheles mosquitoes for at least 28 days post-treatment when fed patients' venous blood using membrane feeding assays. Direct skin feeding on humans may lead to higher mosquito mortality, as ivermectin capillary concentrations are higher. We compared mosquito mortality following direct skin and membrane feeding. METHODS: We conducted a mosquito feeding study, nested within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 141 adults with uncomplicated malaria in Kenya, comparing 3 days of ivermectin 300 mcg/kg/day, ivermectin 600 mcg/kg/day, or placebo, all co-administered with 3 days of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. On post-treatment day 7, direct skin and membrane feeding assays were conducted using laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. Mosquito survival was assessed daily for 28 days post-feeding. RESULTS: Between July 20, 2015, and May 7, 2016, 69 of 141 patients participated in both direct skin and membrane feeding (placebo, n = 23; 300 mcg/kg/day, n = 24; 600 mcg/kg/day, n = 22). The 14-day post-feeding mortality for mosquitoes fed 7 days post-treatment on blood from pooled patients in both ivermectin arms was similar with direct skin feeding (mosquitoes observed, n = 2941) versus membrane feeding (mosquitoes observed, n = 7380): cumulative mortality (risk ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.03, P = .69) and survival time (hazard ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.91-1.02, P = .19). Results were consistent by sex, by body mass index, and across the range of ivermectin capillary concentrations studied (0.72-73.9 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Direct skin feeding and membrane feeding on day 7 resulted in similar mosquitocidal effects of ivermectin across a wide range of drug concentrations, suggesting that the mosquitocidal effects seen with membrane feeding accurately reflect those of natural biting. Membrane feeding, which is more patient friendly and ethically acceptable, can likely reliably be used to assess ivermectin's mosquitocidal efficacy. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT02511353.

10.
Reprod Health ; 15(1): 139, 2018 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30119636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A menstrual cup can be a good solution for menstrual hygiene management in economically challenged settings. As part of a pilot study we assessed uptake and maintenance of cup use among young school girls in Kenya. METHODS: A total of 192 girls between 14 to 16 years were enrolled in 10 schools in Nyanza Province, Western Kenya; these schools were assigned menstrual cups as part of the cluster-randomized pilot study. Girls were provided with menstrual cups in addition to training and guidance on use, puberty education, and instructions for menstrual hygiene. During repeated individual visits with nurses, girls reported use of the menstrual cup and nurses recorded colour change of the cup. RESULTS: Girls were able to keep their cups in good condition, with only 12 cups (6.3%) lost (dropped in toilet, lost or destroyed). Verbally reported cup use increased from 84% in the first 3 months (n = 143) to 96% after 9 months (n = 74). Colour change of the cup, as 'uptake' indicator of use, was detected in 70.8% of 192 participants, with a median time of 5 months (range 1-14 months). Uptake differed by school and was significantly higher among girls who experienced menarche within the past year (adjusted risk ratio 1.29, 95% CI 1.04-1.60), and was faster among girls enrolled in the second study year (hazard ratio 3.93, 95% CI 2.09-7.38). The kappa score comparing self-report and cup colour observation was 0.044 (p = 0.028), indicating that agreement was only slightly higher than by random chance. CONCLUSIONS: Objective evidence through cup colour change suggests school girls in rural Africa can use menstrual cups, with uptake improving with peer group education and over time. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN17486946 . Retrospectively registered 09 December 2014.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Menstruação , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Masculino , Menarca , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Maturidade Sexual
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087298

RESUMO

Many females lack access to water, privacy and basic sanitation-felt acutely when menstruating. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions in schools, such as access to latrines, water, and soap, are essential for the comfort, equity, and dignity of menstruating girls. Our study was nested within a cluster randomized controlled pilot feasibility study where nurses provided menstrual items to schoolgirls. We observed the WASH conditions of 30 schools from June 2012⁻October 2013 to see if there were any changes in conditions, to compare differences between study arms and to examine agreement between observed and teacher-reported conditions. Data came from study staff observed, and school head teacher reported, WASH conditions. We developed scores for the condition of school facilities to report any changes in conditions and compare outcomes across study arms. Results demonstrated that soap availability for students increased significantly between baseline and follow-up while there was a significant decrease in the number of "acceptable" latrines. During the study follow-up period, individual WASH indicators supporting menstruating girls, such as locks on latrine doors or water availability in latrines did not significantly improve. Advances in WASH conditions for all students, and menstrual hygiene facilities for schoolgirls, needs further support, a defined budget, and regular monitoring of WASH facilities to maintain standards.


Assuntos
Higiene , Menstruação/psicologia , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Saneamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Sabões/provisão & distribução , Abastecimento de Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Estudos Longitudinais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
PLoS One ; 13(7): e0198784, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV, syphilis, malaria and anaemia are leading preventable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Kenya, policy states women should be tested for all four conditions (malaria only if febrile) at first antenatal care (ANC) visit. In practice, while HIV screening is conducted, coverage of screening for the others is suboptimal and early pregnancy management of illnesses is compromised. This is particularly evident at rural dispensaries that lack laboratories and have parallel programmes for HIV, reproductive health and malaria, resulting in fractured and inadequate care for women. METHODS: A longitudinal eight-month implementation study integrating point-of-care diagnostic tests for the four conditions into routine ANC was conducted in seven purposively selected dispensaries in western Kenya. Testing proficiency of healthcare workers was observed at initial training and at three monthly intervals thereafter. Adoption of testing was compared using ANC register data 8.5 months before and eight months during the intervention. Fidelity to clinical management guidelines was determined by client exit interviews with success defined as ≥90% adherence. FINDINGS: For first ANC visits at baseline (n = 529), testing rates were unavailable for malaria, low for syphilis (4.3%) and anaemia (27.8%), and near universal for HIV (99%). During intervention, over 95% of first attendees (n = 586) completed four tests and of those tested positive, 70.6% received penicillin or erythromycin for syphilis, 65.5% and 48.3% received cotrimoxazole and antiretrovirals respectively for HIV, and 76.4% received artemether/lumefantrine, quinine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine correctly for malaria. Iron and folic supplements were given to nearly 90% of women but often at incorrect doses. CONCLUSIONS: Integrating point-of-care testing into ANC at dispensaries with established HIV testing programmes resulted in a significant increase in testing rates, without disturbing HIV testing rates. While more cases were detected and treated, treatment fidelity still requires strengthening and an integrated monitoring and evaluation system needs to be established.


Assuntos
Anemia/diagnóstico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Malária/diagnóstico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anemia/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Eritromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/metabolismo , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Quênia , Ensaio de Proficiência Laboratorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/metabolismo , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/metabolismo , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Quinina/uso terapêutico , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Sífilis/tratamento farmacológico , Sífilis/metabolismo , Combinação Trimetoprima e Sulfametoxazol/uso terapêutico
14.
Malar J ; 17(1): 166, 2018 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29661245

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health inequality is a recognized barrier to achieving health-related development goals. Health-equality data are essential for evidence-based planning and assessing the effectiveness of initiatives to promote equity. Such data have been captured but have not always been analysed or used to manage programming. Health data were examined for microeconomic differences in malaria indices and associated malaria control initiatives in western Kenya. METHODS: Data was analysed from a malaria cross-sectional survey conducted in July 2012 among 2719 people in 1063 households in Siaya County, Kenya. Demographic factors, history of fever, malaria parasitaemia, malaria medication usage, insecticide-treated net (ITN) use and expenditure on malaria medications were collected. A composite socioeconomic status score was created using multiple correspondence analyses (MCA) of household assets; households were classified into wealth quintiles and dichotomized into poorest (lowest 3 quintiles; 60%) or less-poor (highest 2 quintiles; 40%). Prevalence rates were calculated using generalized linear modelling. RESULTS: Overall prevalence of malaria infection was 34.1%, with significantly higher prevalence in the poorest compared to less-poor households (37.5% versus 29.2%, adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 1.23; 95% CI = 1.08-1.41, p = 0.002). Care seeking (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.87-1.04, p = 0.229), medication use (aPR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.00, p = 0.087) and ITN use (aPR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.87-1.05, p = 0.397) were similar between households. Among all persons surveyed, 36.4% reported taking malaria medicines in the prior 2 weeks; 92% took artemether-lumefantrine, the recommended first-line malaria medication. In the poorest households, 4.9% used non-recommended medicines compared to 3.5% in less-poor (p = 0.332). Mean and standard deviation [SD] for expenditure on all malaria medications per person was US$0.38 [US$0.50]; the mean was US$0.35 [US$0.52] amongst the poorest households and US$0.40 [US$0.55] in less-poor households (p = 0.076). Expenditure on non-recommended malaria medicine was significantly higher in the poorest (mean US$1.36 [US$0.91]) compared to less-poor households (mean US$0.98 [US$0.80]; p = 0.039). CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in malaria infection and expenditures on potentially ineffective malaria medication between the poorest and less-poor households were evident in rural western Kenya. Findings highlight the benefits of using MCA to assess and monitor the health-equity impact of malaria prevention and control efforts at the microeconomic level.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Malária/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Malária/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 18(6): 615-626, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is being considered for mass drug administration for malaria due to its ability to kill mosquitoes feeding on recently treated individuals. However, standard, single doses of 150-200 µg/kg used for onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis have a short-lived mosquitocidal effect (<7 days). Because ivermectin is well tolerated up to 2000 µg/kg, we aimed to establish the safety, tolerability, and mosquitocidal efficacy of 3 day courses of high-dose ivermectin, co-administered with a standard malaria treatment. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, superiority trial at the Jaramogi Oginga Odinga Teaching and Referral Hospital (Kisumu, Kenya). Adults (aged 18-50 years) were eligible if they had confirmed symptomatic uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and agreed to the follow-up schedule. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) using sealed envelopes, stratified by sex and body-mass index (men: <21 vs ≥21 kg/m2; women: <23 vs ≥23 kg/m2), with permuted blocks of three, to receive 3 days of ivermectin 300 µg/kg per day, ivermectin 600 µg/kg per day, or placebo, all co-administered with 3 days of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Blood of patients taken on post-treatment days 0, 2 + 4 h, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 was fed to laboratory-reared Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes, and mosquito survival was assessed daily for 28 days after feeding. The primary outcome was 14-day cumulative mortality of mosquitoes fed 7 days after ivermectin treatment (from participants who received at least one dose of study medication). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02511353. FINDINGS: Between July 20, 2015, and May 7, 2016, 741 adults with malaria were assessed for eligibility, of whom 141 were randomly assigned to receive ivermectin 600 µg/kg per day (n=47), ivermectin 300 µg/kg per day (n=48), or placebo (n=46). 128 patients (91%) attended the primary outcome visit 7 days post treatment. Compared with placebo, ivermectin was associated with higher 14 day post-feeding mosquito mortality when fed on blood taken 7 days post treatment (ivermectin 600 µg/kg per day risk ratio [RR] 2·26, 95% CI 1·93-2·65, p<0·0001; hazard ratio [HR] 6·32, 4·61-8·67, p<0·0001; ivermectin 300 µg/kg per day RR 2·18, 1·86-2·57, p<0·0001; HR 4·21, 3·06-5·79, p<0·0001). Mosquito mortality remained significantly increased 28 days post treatment (ivermectin 600 µg/kg per day RR 1·23, 1·01-1·50, p=0·0374; and ivermectin 300 µg/kg per day 1·21, 1·01-1·44, p=0·0337). Five (11%) of 45 patients receiving ivermectin 600 µg/kg per day, two (4%) of 48 patients receiving ivermectin 300 µg/kg per day, and none of 46 patients receiving placebo had one or more treatment-related adverse events. INTERPRETATION: Ivermectin at both doses assessed was well tolerated and reduced mosquito survival for at least 28 days after treatment. Ivermectin 300 µg/kg per day for 3 days provided a good balance between efficacy and tolerability, and this drug shows promise as a potential new tool for malaria elimination. FUNDING: Malaria Eradication Scientific Alliance (MESA) and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Assuntos
Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Combinação Albuterol e Ipratrópio , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Inseticidas/administração & dosagem , Inseticidas/efeitos adversos , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Ivermectina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMJ Glob Health ; 2(2): e000405, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225941

RESUMO

Girls and women experience numerous types of vaginal bleeding. These include healthy reproductive processes, such as menstruation and bleeding after childbirth, but also bleeding related to health conditions, such as fibroids or cancer. In most societies, the management of menstruation is handled covertly, something girls are often instructed about at menarche. The management of other vaginal bleeding is often similarly discreet, although behaviours are not well documented. In many societies, cultural taboos frequently hinder open discussion around vaginal bleeding, restricting information and early access to healthcare. Additionally, the limited availability of clean, accessible water and sanitation facilities in many low and middle-income countries augments the challenges girls and women face in conducting daily activities while managing vaginal bleeding, including participating in school or work, going to the market or fetching water. This paper aims to highlight the key vaginal bleeding experiences throughout a woman's life course and the intersection of these bleeding experiences with their access to adequate water and sanitation facilities, information and education sources, and supplies. The aim is to address the silence around girls and women's vaginal bleeding and their related social, physical and clinical management needs across the life course; and highlight critical gaps that require attention in research, practice and policy around this neglected topic of health and gender equality.

17.
Reprod Health ; 14(1): 174, 2017 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In low-middle income countries and other areas of poverty, menstrual hygiene management (MHM) can be problematic for women and girls. Issues include lack of knowledge about menstruation and MHM, and stigma around menstruation, also access to affordable and absorbent materials; privacy to change; adequate washing, cleaning and drying facilities; as well as appropriate and accessible disposal facilities. In order to effect change and tackle these issues, particularly in patriarchal societies, males may need to become advocates for MHM alongside women. However, little is known about their knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation, which may need addressing before they can assist in acting as advocates for change. The present study was undertaken to explore knowledge and attitudes about menstruation among adolescent boys across India, in order to gauge their potential to support their 'sisters'. METHODS: The study was undertaken across three states in India, chosen a priori to represent the cultural and socio-economic diversity. Qualitative data using focus group discussions with 85 boys aged 13-17 years, from 8 schools, was gathered. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: The results were organised into three main themes, reflecting the key research questions: boys' knowledge of menstruation, source of knowledge, and attitudes towards menstruation and menstruating girls. Knowledge comprised three aspects; biological function which were generally poorly understood; cultural rites which were recognized by all; and girls' behaviour and demeanour, which were noted to be withdrawn. Some boys learnt about puberty and menstruation as part of the curriculum but had concerns this was not in-depth, or was missed out altogether. Most gathered knowledge from informal sources, from overhearing conversations or observing cultural rituals. Few boys openly displayed a negative attitude, although a minority voiced the idea that menstruation is a 'disease'. Boys were mostly sympathetic to their menstruating sisters and wanted to support them. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some optimism that males can become advocates in moving forward the MHM agenda. The reasons for this are twofold: boys were keen for knowledge about menstruation, searching information out despite societal norms being for them to remain ignorant, they were also largely sympathetic to their menstruating sisters and fellow classmates and understanding of the issues surrounding the need for good MHM.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Homens/psicologia , Menstruação/psicologia , Adolescente , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Percepção , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
J Glob Health ; 7(2): 020406, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28959439

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). FINDINGS: Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. CONCLUSIONS: Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.


Assuntos
Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estupro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco
20.
BMJ Open ; 7(4): e015429, 2017 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28473520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Examine the safety of menstrual cups against sanitary pads and usual practice in Kenyan schoolgirls. DESIGN: Observational studies nested in a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study. SETTING: 30 primary schools in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural western Kenya. PARTICIPANTS: Menstruating primary schoolgirls aged 14-16 years participating in a menstrual feasibility study. INTERVENTIONS: Insertable menstrual cup, monthly sanitary pads or 'usual practice' (controls). OUTCOME MEASURES: Staphylococcus aureus vaginal colonization, Escherichia coli growth on sampled used cups, toxic shock syndrome or other adverse health outcomes. RESULTS: Among 604 eligible girls tested, no adverse event or TSS was detected over a median 10.9 months follow-up. S. aureusprevalence was 10.8%, with no significant difference over intervention time or between groups. Of 65 S.aureus positives at first test, 49 girls were retested and 10 (20.4%) remained positive. Of these, two (20%) sample isolates tested positive for toxic shock syndrome toxin-1; both girls were provided pads and were clinically healthy. Seven per cent of cups required replacements for loss, damage, dropping in a latrine or a poor fit. Of 30 used cups processed for E. coli growth, 13 (37.1%, 95% CI 21.1% to 53.1%) had growth. E. coli growth was greatest in newer compared with established users (53%vs22.2%, p=0.12). CONCLUSIONS: Among this feasibility sample, no evidence emerged to indicate menstrual cups are hazardous or cause health harms among rural Kenyan schoolgirls, but large-scale trials and post-marketing surveillance should continue to evaluate cup safety.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/microbiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Adolescente , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Quênia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/microbiologia , População Rural , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/microbiologia
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