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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238708, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To monitor the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), methods for interpretation of susceptibility phenotypes of bacteria are needed. Reference limits to declare resistance are generally based on or dominated by data from human bacterial isolates and may not reflect clinical relevance or wild type (WT) populations in livestock or other hosts. METHODS: We compared the observed prevalence of AMR using standard and bespoke interpretations based on clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cut-offs (ECOFF) using gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria from sheep as exemplars. Isolates were obtained from a cross-sectional study in three lowland sheep flocks in Scotland, and from a longitudinal study in one flock in Norway. S. aureus (n = 101) was predominantly isolated from milk or mammary glands whilst E. coli (n = 103) was mostly isolated from faecal samples. Disc diffusion testing was used to determine inhibition zone diameters, which were interpreted using either clinical breakpoints or ECOFF, which distinguish the bacterial wild type population from bacteria with acquired or mutational resistance to the compound of interest (non-wild type). Standard ECOFF values were considered as well as sheep-specific values calculated from the data using Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) methodology. RESULTS: The prevalence of AMR as measured based on clinical breakpoints was low, e.g. 4.0% for penicillin resistance in S. aureus. Estimation of AMR prevalence based on standard ECOFFs was hampered by lack of relevant reference values. In addition, standard ECOFFS, which are predominantly based on human data, bisected the normal distribution of inhibition zone diameters for several compounds in our analysis of sheep isolates. This contravenes recommendations for ECOFF setting based on NRI methodology and may lead to high apparent AMR prevalence. Using bespoke ECOFF values based on NRI, S. aureus showed non-wild type for less than 4% of isolates across 13 compounds, and ca. 13% non-wild type for amoxicillin and ampicillin, while E. coli showed non-wild type for less than 3% of isolates across 12 compounds, and ca. 13% non-wild type for tetracyclines and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. CONCLUSION: The apparent prevalence of AMR in bacteria isolated from sheep is highly dependent on interpretation criteria. The sheep industry may want to establish bespoke cut-off values for AMR monitoring to avoid the use of cut-offs developed for other host species. The latter could lead to high apparent prevalence of resistance, including to critically important antimicrobial classes such as 4th generation cephalosporins and carbapenems, suggesting an AMR problem that may not actually exist.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Ovinos/microbiologia , Animais , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
2.
J Anat ; 236(5): 954-962, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898326

RESUMO

Supernumerary nipples or teats (polythelia) are congenital accessory structures that may develop at any location along the milk line and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of mastitis. We describe the anatomy and histology of 27 spontaneously occurring supernumerary teats from 16 sheep, delineating two groups of teats - simple and anatomically complex - according to the complexity of the anatomy and microenvironment. Anatomically complex supernumerary teats exhibited significantly increased length and barrel diameter compared with simple supernumerary teats. A teat canal and/or teat cistern was present in anatomically complex teats, with smooth muscle fibres forming a variably well-organised encircling teat sphincter. Complex supernumerary teats also exhibited immune cell infiltrates similar to those of normal teats, including lymphoid follicle-like structures at the folds of the teat cistern-teat canal junction, and macrophages that infiltrated the peri-cisternal glandular tissue. One complex supernumerary teat exhibited teat end hyperkeratosis. These anatomical and histological features allow inference that supernumerary teats may be susceptible to bacterial ingress through the teat canal and we hypothesise that this may be more likely in those teats with less well-organised encircling smooth muscle. The teat cistern of anatomically complex teats may also constitute a focus of milk accumulation and thus a possible nidus for bacterial infection, potentially predisposing to mastitis. We suggest that size of the supernumerary teat, and relationship to the main teats, particularly in the case of 'cluster teats', should be considerations if surgical removal is contemplated.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835858

RESUMO

The outbreak of a previously unknown and new disease in the United Kingdom, known as 'Schmallenberg disease', a disease associated with abortions, stillbirths and fetal deformities in naïve ewes, was reported for the first time in South West England during the 2012/13 early lambing season. Epidemiological studies confirmed that the Schmallenberg virus (SBV) had a severe negative impact upon animal welfare and the productivity of affected flocks. By contrast, there was a specific lack of research on the impact of SBV on sheep farmer well-being. This study aimed to improve our understanding of sheep farmers' experiences of Schmallenberg disease, and the impact of the first outbreak on sheep farmer well-being during the 2012/13 early lambing season in South West England. Face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with six farmers with small flocks of pedigree and purebred sheep in South West England were conducted in 2013. The data were analysed via thematic analysis. The main themes regarding the impact of disease on farmer well-being included: (i) emotional highs and lows are part of a normal lambing season; (ii) negative emotions and memories associated with the Schmallenberg disease outbreak; and (iii) resilience and coping with the unexpected disease outbreak. These novel data present preliminary findings from a small number of sheep farmers, and indicate that for some farmers, an unexpected outbreak of a new and emerging disease for the first time during lambing, and dealing with high levels of dystocia, deformities and deaths in their animals, had a negative impact on their emotional well-being during the peak period of the sheep production cycle.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Fazendeiros/psicologia , Doenças dos Ovinos , Adaptação Psicológica , Animais , Emoções , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orthobunyavirus , Gravidez , Ovinos , Natimorto/veterinária
5.
Ecohealth ; 15(1): 209-227, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330676

RESUMO

Having gained momentum in the last decade, the One Health initiative promotes a holistic approach to address complex global health issues. Before recommending its adoption to stakeholders, however, it is paramount to first compile quantitative evidence of the benefit of such an approach. The aim of this scoping review was to identify and summarize primary research that describes monetary and non-monetary outcomes following adoption of a One Health approach. An extensive literature search yielded a total of 42,167 references, of which 85 were included in the final analysis. The top two biotic health issues addressed in these studies were rabies and malaria; the top abiotic health issue was air pollution. Most studies described collaborations between human and animal (n = 42), or human and environmental disciplines (n = 41); commonly reported interventions included vector control and animal vaccination. Monetary outcomes were commonly expressed as cost-benefit or cost-utility ratios; non-monetary outcomes were described using disease frequency or disease burden measurements. The majority of the studies reported positive or partially positive outcomes. This paper illustrates the variety of health challenges that can be addressed using a One Health approach, and provides tangible quantitative measures that can be used to evaluate future implementations of the One Health approach.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/organização & administração , Saúde Única , Pesquisa/organização & administração , Saúde Ambiental/economia , Saúde Ambiental/normas , Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Relações Interprofissionais , Pesquisa/normas
6.
Vet Med Sci ; 3(4): 208-226, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152315

RESUMO

The selection and field application of animal-based welfare measures for pigs, sheep, dairy cows and broilers was the first step towards the future development of welfare improvement schemes for Serbia - a country that is applying for EU accession. The aim of this pilot study was to: (1) test the feasibility of a protocol for monitoring farm animal welfare in Serbia, (2) ascertain preliminary data on animal-based outcomes of farm welfare and (3) gain insight into Serbian farmers' understanding of animal welfare as part of a wider project working towards inclusion of animal-based assessments in a 'higher welfare' voluntary assurance scheme. This study encompasses the first national survey of farm animal welfare in which animal-based outcomes were tested on 105 farms by a total of ten trained assessors. Data on the views and aspirations of the farmers from these 105 farms were also systematically gathered during face-to-face interviews. Existing animal-based measures for pigs, sheep, dairy cows and broilers that have been successfully applied and identified as valid, reliable and feasible measures in other countries, were found to be largely transferable. However, some on-farm protocols, previously used in other countries, had to be shortened for logistical reasons when used in Serbia. Our findings suggest that further refinement may be needed in order to allow local application of all measures. While the term 'animal welfare' has only recently been introduced into the Serbian language, seventy-three percent of farmers had heard of it. Overall, few positive associations were found between farmer satisfaction with animals' living conditions and animal-based data. Many farmers had aspirations to develop and expand their farms, which may potentially enhance animal welfare, but these farmers identified that financial and technical advice and support would be needed in order to achieve these goals.

7.
Vet Parasitol ; 207(3-4): 342-5, 2015 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25579397

RESUMO

Faecal egg counts (FECs) are used for detecting and quantifying nematode infections and are the basis for determining drug efficacy and anthelmintic resistance in faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRTs). Currently, several FEC techniques are available for detecting and quantifying eggs of sheep nematodes. A comparison of the egg counts from the FECPAK (with a minimum detection limit of 30 eggs per gram (epg)) and Mini-FLOTAC (with a minimum detection limit of 5 epg) showed better diagnostic performance with Mini-FLOTAC in terms of measurement error (level of over- or under-estimation of FEC) and precision (variability in FEC). A tendency to under-estimate FEC was observed with the FECPAK particularly at egg densities of less than 500 epg. It is concluded that Mini-FLOTAC is a reliable diagnostic tool offering reduced measurement error and a higher level of precision.


Assuntos
Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Animais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Itália , Limite de Detecção , Nematoides/fisiologia , Infecções por Nematoides/diagnóstico , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ovinos
8.
Vet J ; 193(1): 257-63, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22266020

RESUMO

Assessments of animal-based outcomes form the core of routine veterinary clinical examinations and are being increasingly used as indicators of animal welfare. A method of group observation that did not require gathering and handling of individual sheep, was used to assess eight animal-based indicators of sheep welfare: demeanour, skin irritation, wool loss, excessive panting, coughing, lameness, and cleanliness of the ventral abdominal and 'breech' (perineum/gluteal/caudal hindlimb) areas. The inter-observer reliability of two or three observers who independently assessed these indicators was tested on 2406 adult sheep and growing lambs across 36 farms and the intra-observer reliability of an experienced, veterinary assessor--the 'test standard observer'--was assessed on 88 adult sheep during four on-farm assessments. Observer reliability was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha (α) comparison of the recorded proportion (%) of sheep affected by each welfare condition and by binomial logistic regression modelling. High levels of inter-observer reliability were identified for the assessment of group lameness (α 0.76-1.00) and cleanliness of the breech area (α 0.97-1.00). Excellent intra-observer reliability was determined for lameness (α 0.99), cleanliness of the breech area (α 0.97), demeanour (α 1.00) and wool loss (α 1.00). In addition, proportion data and logistic regression models identified few between-observer differences. The results suggest that welfare outcomes based on observations of the behaviour and physical appearance of individual animals within a group may offer a reliable and feasible measurement tool for the on-farm assessment of sheep welfare.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Bem-Estar do Animal/estatística & dados numéricos , Bem-Estar do Animal/normas , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Modelos Logísticos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reino Unido/epidemiologia ,
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