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1.
World J Gastroenterol ; 26(1): 70-85, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933515

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Faecal immunochemical test (FIT) has been recommended to assess symptomatic patients for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection. Nevertheless, some conditions could theoretically favour blood originating in proximal areas of the gastrointestinal tract passing through the colon unmetabolized. A positive FIT result could be related to other gastrointestinal cancers (GIC). AIM: To assess the risk of GIC detection and related death in FIT-positive symptomatic patients (threshold 10 µg Hb/g faeces) without CRC. METHODS: Post hoc cohort analysis performed within two prospective diagnostic test studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of different FIT analytical systems for CRC and significant colonic lesion detection. Ambulatory patients with gastrointestinal symptoms referred consecutively for colonoscopy from primary and secondary healthcare, underwent a quantitative FIT before undergoing a complete colonoscopy. Patients without CRC were divided into two groups (positive and negative FIT) using the threshold of 10 µg Hb/g of faeces and data from follow-up were retrieved from electronic medical records of the public hospitals involved in the research. We determined the cumulative risk of GIC, CRC and upper GIC. Hazard rate (HR) was calculated adjusted by age, sex and presence of significant colonic lesion. RESULTS: We included 2709 patients without CRC and a complete baseline colonoscopy, 730 (26.9%) with FIT ≥ 10 µgr Hb/gr. During a mean time of 45.5 ± 20.0 mo, a GIC was detected in 57 (2.1%) patients: An upper GIC in 35 (1.3%) and a CRC in 14 (0.5%). Thirty-six patients (1.3%) died due to GIC: 22 (0.8%) due to an upper GIC and 9 (0.3%) due to CRC. FIT-positive subjects showed a higher CRC risk (HR 3.8, 95%CI: 1.2-11.9) with no differences in GIC (HR 1.5, 95%CI: 0.8-2.7) or upper GIC risk (HR 1.0, 95%CI: 0.5-2.2). Patients with a positive FIT had only an increased risk of CRC-related death (HR 10.8, 95%CI: 2.1-57.1) and GIC-related death (HR 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.3), with no differences in upper GIC-related death (HR 1.4, 95%CI: 0.6-3.3). An upper GIC was detected in 22 (0.8%) patients during the first year. Two variables were independently associated: anaemia (OR 5.6, 95%CI: 2.2-13.9) and age ≥ 70 years (OR 2.7, 95%CI: 1.1-7.0). CONCLUSION: Symptomatic patients without CRC have a moderate risk increase in upper GIC, regardless of the FIT result. Patients with a positive FIT have an increased risk of post-colonoscopy CRC.

2.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 171, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779681

RESUMO

Constitutional MLH1 methylation (epimutation) is a rare cause of Lynch syndrome. Low-level methylation (≤ 10%) has occasionally been described. This study aimed to identify low-level constitutional MLH1 epimutations and determine its causal role in patients with MLH1-hypermethylated colorectal cancer.Eighteen patients with MLH1-hypermethylated colorectal tumors in whom MLH1 methylation was previously undetected in blood by methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA) were screened for MLH1 methylation using highly sensitive MS-melting curve analysis (MS-MCA). Constitutional methylation was characterized by different approaches.MS-MCA identified one patient (5.6%) with low-level MLH1 methylation (~ 1%) in blood and other normal tissues, which was confirmed by clonal bisulfite sequencing in blood. The patient had developed three clonally related gastrointestinal MLH1-methylated tumor lesions at 22, 24, and 25 years of age. The methylated region in normal tissues overlapped with that reported for other carriers of constitutional MLH1 epimutations. Low-level MLH1 methylation and reduced allelic expression were linked to the same genetic haplotype, whereas the opposite allele was lost in patient's tumors. Mutation screening of MLH1 and other hereditary cancer genes was negative.Herein, a highly sensitive MS-MCA-based approach has demonstrated its utility for the identification of low-level constitutional MLH1 epigenetic mosaicism. The eventual identification and characterization of additional cases will be critical to ascertain the cancer risks associated with constitutional MLH1 epigenetic mosaicism.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9020, 2019 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31227763

RESUMO

The cancer-predisposing syndrome caused by biallelic mutations in NTHL1 may not be a solely colorectal cancer (CRC) and polyposis syndrome but rather a multi-tumor recessive disease. The presence of ≤10 adenomas in several mutation carriers suggests a possible causal role of NTHL1 in hereditary or early-onset nonpolyposis CRC. The involvement of NTHL1 in serrated/hyperplastic polyposis remains unexplored. The aim of our study is to elucidate the role of NTHL1 in the predisposition to personal or familial history of multiple tumor types, familial/early-onset nonpolyposis CRC, and serrated polyposis. NTHL1 mutational screening was performed in 312 cancer patients with personal or family history of multiple tumor types, 488 with hereditary nonpolyposis CRC, and 96 with serrated/hyperplastic polyposis. While no biallelic mutation carriers were identified in patients with personal and/or family history of multiple tumor types or with serrated polyposis, one was identified among the 488 nonpolyposis CRC patients. The carrier of c.268C>T (p.Q90*) and 550-1G>A was diagnosed with CRC and meningioma at ages 37 and 45 respectively, being reclassified as attenuated adenomatous polyposis after the cumulative detection of 26 adenomas. Our findings suggest that biallelic mutations in NTHL1 rarely cause CRC, a personal/familial multi-tumor history, or serrated polyposis, in absence of adenomas.

4.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 49(11): 1410-1420, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is the second commonest cause of cancer mortality. Some countries are implementing colorectal cancer screening to detect lesions at an early stage using non-invasive tools like the faecal immunochemical test. Despite affordability, this test shows a low sensitivity for precancerous lesions and a low positive predictive value for colorectal cancer, resulting in a high false-positive rate. AIM: To develop a new, non-invasive colorectal cancer screening tool based on bacterial faecal biomarkers, which in combination with the faecal immunochemical test, could allow a reduction in the false-positive rate. This tool is called risk assessment of intestinal disease for colorectal cancer (RAID-CRC). METHODS: We performed both the faecal immunochemical test and the bacterial markers analysis (RAID-CRC test) in stool samples from individuals with normal colonoscopy (167), non-advanced adenomas (88), advanced adenomas (30) and colorectal cancer (48). All the participants showed colorectal cancer-associated symptoms. RESULTS: Performance of the faecal immunochemical test for advanced neoplasia (ie advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer) was determined by using the cut-off value established in Catalonia (20 µg haemoglobin/g of faeces) for a population-based screening approach. Sensitivity and specificity values of 83% and 80%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of 56% and 94%, respectively, were obtained. When both the immunological and the biological analysis were combined, the corresponding values were 80% and 90% for sensitivity and specificity, respectively, and 70% and 94% for positive and negative predictive values, respectively, resulting in a 50% reduction of the false-positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: RAID-CRC test allows a substantial reduction in the faecal immunochemical test false-positive results (50%) in a symptomatic population. Further validation is indicated in a colorectal cancer-screening scenario.

5.
Endoscopy ; 51(2): 142-151, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Accordingly, intensive surveillance with annual colonoscopy is advised. The aim of this multicenter study was to describe the risk of advanced lesions in SPS patients undergoing surveillance, and to identify risk factors that could guide the prevention strategy. METHODS: From March 2013 to April 2015, 296 patients who fulfilled criteria I and/or III for SPS were retrospectively recruited at 18 centers. We selected patients in whom successful clearing colonoscopy had been performed and who underwent subsequent endoscopic surveillance. Advanced neoplasia was defined as CRC, advanced adenoma, or advanced serrated lesion that were ≥ 10 mm and/or with dysplasia. Cumulative incidence of advanced neoplasia was calculated and independent predictors of advanced neoplasia development were identified. RESULTS: In 152 SPS patients a total of 315 surveillance colonoscopies were performed (median 2, range 1 - 7). The 3-year cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia were 3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0 - 6.9) and 42.0 % (95 %CI 32.4 - 51.7), respectively. Fulfilling both I + III criteria and the presence of advanced serrated lesions at baseline colonoscopy were independent predictors of advanced neoplasia development (odds ratio [OR] 1.85, 95 %CI 1.03 - 3.33, P  = 0.04 and OR 2.62, 95 %CI 1.18 - 5.81, P  = 0.02, respectively). During follow-up, nine patients (5.9 %) were referred for surgery for invasive CRC (n = 4, 2.6 %) or because of polyp burden (n = 5, 3.3 %). After total colectomy, 17.9 % patients developed advanced neoplasia in the retained rectum. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SPS have a substantial risk of developing advanced neoplasia under endoscopic surveillance, whereas CRC incidence is low. Personalized endoscopic surveillance based on polyp burden and advanced serrated histology could help to optimize prevention in patients with SPS.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome
7.
Gastroenterology ; 153(1): 106-112.e2, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28400194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigated whether patients with multiple serrated polyps, but not meeting the World Health Organization criteria for serrated polyposis syndrome, and their relatives have similar risks for colorectal cancer (CRC) as those diagnosed with serrated polyposis. METHODS: We collected data from patients with more than 10 colonic polyps, recruited in 2008-2009 from 24 hospitals in Spain for a study of causes of multiple colonic polyps. We analyzed data from 53 patients who met the criteria for serrated polyposis and 145 patients who did not meet these criteria, but who had more than 10 polyps throughout the colon, of which more than 50% were serrated. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for CRC in both groups, as well as in their first-degree relatives. RESULTS: The prevalence of CRC was similar between patients with confirmed serrated polyposis and multiple serrated polyps (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-2.82; P = .40). The SIR for CRC in patients with serrated polyposis (0.51; 95% CI, 0.01-2.82) did not differ significantly from the SIR for CRC in patients with multiple serrated polyps (0.74; 95% CI, 0.20-1.90; P = .70). The SIR for CRC also did not differ significantly between first-degree relatives of these groups (serrated polyposis: 3.28, 95% CI, 2.16-4.77; multiple serrated polyps: 2.79, 95% CI, 2.10-3.63; P = .50). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed no differences in the incidence of CRC between groups during the follow-up period (log-rank, 0.6). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of CRC in patients with multiple serrated polyps who do not meet the criteria for serrated polyposis, and in their first-degree relatives, is similar to that of patients diagnosed with serrated polyposis.


Assuntos
Adenoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/genética , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Adenoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Prevalência , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome , Carga Tumoral
8.
Int J Cancer ; 140(10): 2201-2211, 2017 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187494

RESUMO

Prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection in symptomatic patients, based on easily obtainable variables such as fecal haemoglobin concentration (f-Hb), age and sex, may simplify CRC diagnosis. We developed, and then externally validated, a multivariable prediction model, the FAST Score, with data from five diagnostic test accuracy studies that evaluated quantitative fecal immunochemical tests in symptomatic patients referred for colonoscopy. The diagnostic accuracy of the Score in derivation and validation cohorts was compared statistically with the area under the curve (AUC) and the Chi-square test. 1,572 and 3,976 patients were examined in these cohorts, respectively. For CRC, the odds ratio (OR) of the variables included in the Score were: age (years): 1.03 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.02-1.05), male sex: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and f-Hb (0-<20 µg Hb/g feces): 2.0 (95% CI: 0.7-5.5), (20-<200 µg Hb/g): 16.8 (95% CI: 6.6-42.0), ≥200 µg Hb/g: 65.7 (95% CI: 26.3-164.1). The AUC for CRC detection was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.85-0.90) in the derivation and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90-093; p = 0.005) in the validation cohort. At the two Score thresholds with 90% (4.50) and 99% (2.12) sensitivity for CRC, the Score had equivalent sensitivity, although the specificity was higher in the validation cohort (p < 0.001). Accordingly, the validation cohort was divided into three groups: high (21.4% of the cohort, positive predictive value-PPV: 21.7%), intermediate (59.8%, PPV: 0.9%) and low (18.8%, PPV: 0.0%) risk for CRC. The FAST Score is an easy to calculate prediction tool, highly accurate for CRC detection in symptomatic patients.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Fezes/química , Hemoglobinas/análise , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Sob a Curva , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Med ; 14(1): 128, 2016 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27580745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risk prediction models for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection in symptomatic patients based on available biomarkers may improve CRC diagnosis. Our aim was to develop, compare with the NICE referral criteria and externally validate a CRC prediction model, COLONPREDICT, based on clinical and laboratory variables. METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study included consecutive patients with gastrointestinal symptoms referred for colonoscopy between March 2012 and September 2013 in a derivation cohort and between March 2014 and March 2015 in a validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, we assessed symptoms and the NICE referral criteria, and determined levels of faecal haemoglobin and calprotectin, blood haemoglobin, and serum carcinoembryonic antigen before performing an anorectal examination and a colonoscopy. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the model with diagnostic accuracy with CRC detection as the main outcome. RESULTS: We included 1572 patients in the derivation cohort and 1481 in the validation cohorts, with a 13.6 % and 9.1 % CRC prevalence respectively. The final prediction model included 11 variables: age (years) (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.06), male gender (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.5-3.4), faecal haemoglobin ≥20 µg/g (OR 17.0, 95 % CI 10.0-28.6), blood haemoglobin <10 g/dL (OR 4.8, 95 % CI 2.2-10.3), blood haemoglobin 10-12 g/dL (OR 1.8, 95 % CI 1.1-3.0), carcinoembryonic antigen ≥3 ng/mL (OR 4.5, 95 % CI 3.0-6.8), acetylsalicylic acid treatment (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.2-0.7), previous colonoscopy (OR 0.1, 95 % CI 0.06-0.2), rectal mass (OR 14.8, 95 % CI 5.3-41.0), benign anorectal lesion (OR 0.3, 95 % CI 0.2-0.4), rectal bleeding (OR 2.2, 95 % CI 1.4-3.4) and change in bowel habit (OR 1.7, 95 % CI 1.1-2.5). The area under the curve (AUC) was 0.92 (95 % CI 0.91-0.94), higher than the NICE referral criteria (AUC 0.59, 95 % CI 0.55-0.63; p < 0.001). On the basis of the thresholds with 90 % (5.6) and 99 % (3.5) sensitivity, we divided the derivation cohort into three risk groups for CRC detection: high (30.9 % of the cohort, positive predictive value [PPV] 40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.7-45.9 %), intermediate (29.5 %, PPV 4.4 %, 95 % CI 2.8-6.8 %) and low (39.5 %, PPV 0.2 %, 95 % CI 0.0-1.1 %). The discriminatory ability was equivalent in the validation cohort (AUC 0.92, 95 % CI 0.90-0.94; p = 0.7). CONCLUSIONS: COLONPREDICT is a highly accurate prediction model for CRC detection.


Assuntos
Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/análise , Neoplasias Colorretais , Fezes , Hemoglobinas/análise , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/análise , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Estudos Transversais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
10.
Endoscopy ; 48(1): 56-61, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26165738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Endoscopic surveillance in patients with multiple colorectal polyps aims to reduce colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, as well as the need for colorectal surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of developing CRC or the need for surgery during endoscopic surveillance in a cohort of patients with multiple (10 - 100) colorectal polyps. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a multicentrer, longitudinal, observational study in 15 CRC high risk clinics in Spain, carried out between January 2009 and December 2010. Patients who were included in the EPIPOLIP trial and had at least 1 year of follow-up were included in the study. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of CRC at least 1 year following the initial colonoscopy. The secondary outcome was the need for colorectal surgery. RESULTS: A total of 265 patients were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Patients underwent a median of 5 colonoscopies, and 17 patients (6.4 %) were diagnosed with CRC. A total of 32 patients (12.1 %) underwent surgery, including 15 (5.7 %) for prophylaxis without a diagnosis of CRC. The corresponding incidence density rates for CRC and colorectal surgery were 1.4 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.7 to 2.1) and 2.7 (95 %CI 1.7 to 3.6) per 100 patient-years, respectively. Only the presence of symptoms at first colonoscopy was independently associated with CRC diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 7.7, 95 %CI 1.1 to 59.3) and colorectal surgery (HR 4.6, 95 %CI 1.02 to 20.6). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with more than 10 neoplastic polyps required frequent colonoscopies within a short follow-up period. More than 10 % of patients required colorectal surgery within 4 years, more than half for incident CRC.


Assuntos
Pólipos Adenomatosos/patologia , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Pólipos Intestinais/patologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
11.
Genet Med ; 18(4): 325-32, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26133394

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germ-line mutations in the exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 have been recently associated with polyposis and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition. Here, we aimed to gain a better understanding of the phenotypic characteristics of this syndrome to establish specific criteria for POLE and POLD1 mutation screening and to help define the clinical management of mutation carriers. METHODS: The exonuclease domains of POLE and POLD1 were studied in 529 kindred, 441 with familial nonpolyposis CRC and 88 with polyposis, by using pooled DNA amplification and massively parallel sequencing. RESULTS: Seven novel or rare genetic variants were identified. In addition to the POLE p.L424V recurrent mutation in a patient with polyposis, CRC and oligodendroglioma, six novel or rare POLD1 variants (four of them, p.D316H, p.D316G, p.R409W, and p.L474P, with strong evidence for pathogenicity) were identified in nonpolyposis CRC families. Phenotypic data from these and previously reported POLE/POLD1 carriers point to an associated phenotype characterized by attenuated or oligo-adenomatous colorectal polyposis, CRC, and probably brain tumors. In addition, POLD1 mutations predispose to endometrial and breast tumors. CONCLUSION: Our results widen the phenotypic spectrum of the POLE/POLD1-associated syndrome and identify novel pathogenic variants. We propose guidelines for genetic testing and surveillance recommendations.Genet Med 18 4, 325-332.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase III/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Mutação , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Alelos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , DNA Polimerase II/química , DNA Polimerase III/química , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas/genética
12.
Gut ; 65(11): 1829-1837, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264224

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, although the magnitude of the risk remains uncertain. Whereas intensive endoscopic surveillance for CRC prevention is advised, predictors that identify patients who have high CRC risk remain unknown. We performed a multicentre nationwide study aimed at describing the CRC risk in patients with SPS and identifying clinicopathological predictors independently associated with CRC. DESIGN: From March 2013 through September 2014, patients with SPS were retrospectively recruited at 18 Spanish centres. Data were collected from medical, endoscopy and histopathology reports. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify CRC risk factors. RESULTS: In 296 patients with SPS with a median follow-up time of 45 months (IQR 26-79.7), a median of 26 (IQR 18.2-40.7) serrated polyps and 3 (IQR 1-6) adenomas per patient were detected. Forty-seven patients (15.8%) developed CRC at a mean age of 53.9±12.8, and 4 out of 47 (8.5%) tumours were detected during surveillance (cumulative CRC incidence 1.9%). Patients with >2 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) proximal to splenic flexure and ≥1 proximal SSA/P with high-grade dysplasia were independent CRC risk factors (incremental OR=2, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.24, p=0.006). Patients with no risk factors showed a 55% decrease in CRC risk (OR=0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.86, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with SPS have an increased risk of CRC, although lower than previously published. Close colonoscopy surveillance in experienced centres show a low risk of developing CRC (1.9% in 5 years). Specific polyp features (SSA/P histology, proximal location and presence of high-grade dysplasia) should be used to guide clinical management.


Assuntos
Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo , Neoplasias Colorretais , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/diagnóstico , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/epidemiologia , Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Estudos de Coortes , Colonoscopia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos
13.
Gut ; 61(6): 865-72, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21868491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The selection of patients for genetic testing to rule out Lynch syndrome is currently based on fulfilment of at least one of the revised Bethesda criteria followed by mismatch repair (MMR) status analysis. A study was undertaken to compare the present approach with universal MMR study-based strategies to detect Lynch syndrome in a large series of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: 2093 patients with CRC from the EPICOLON I and II cohorts were included. Immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins and/or microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis was performed in tumour tissue. Germline MLH1 and MSH2 mutation analysis was performed in patients whose tumours showed loss of MLH1 or MSH2 staining, respectively. MSH6 genetic testing was done in patients whose tumours showed lack of MSH6 expression or a combined lack of MSH2 and MSH6 expression but did not have MSH2 mutations. PMS2 genetic testing was performed in patients showing isolated loss of PMS2 expression. In patients with MSI tumours and normal or not available MMR protein expression, all four MMR genes were studied. RESULTS: A total of 180 patients (8.6%) showed loss of expression of some of the MMR proteins and/or MSI. Four hundred and eighty-six patients (23.2%) met some of the revised Bethesda criteria. Of the 14 (0.7%) patients who had a MMR gene mutation, 12 fulfilled at least one of the revised Bethesda criteria and two (14.3%) did not. CONCLUSIONS: Routine molecular screening of patients with CRC for Lynch syndrome using immunohistochemistry or MSI has better sensitivity for detecting mutation carriers than the Bethesda guidelines.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/patologia , Metilação de DNA , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
14.
Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 32(10): 717.e1-58, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20474100
15.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 50(7): 971-80, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17468913

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patients with colorectal cancer have a high risk of developing metachronous neoplasms. Identification of predictive factors associated with such conditions would allow individualized follow-up strategies in these patients. This study was designed to identify individual and familial factors associated with the development of metachronous colorectal neoplasms in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: In the context of a prospective, multicenter, general population-based study-the EPICOLON project-all patients with colorectal cancer attended in ten Spanish hospitals during a one-year period were included. Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. All patients were monitored by colonoscopy within two years of the diagnoses. Demographic, clinical, pathologic, molecular (microsatellite instability status and immunohistochemistry for MSH2 and MLH1), and familial characteristics (fulfillment of Amsterdam I or II criteria, and revised Bethesda guidelines) were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 353 patients were included in the study. At two years of follow-up, colonoscopy revealed the presence of adenomas in 89 (25 percent) patients and colorectal cancer in 14 (3.9 percent) patients, in 7 cases restricted to anastomosis. Univariate analysis demonstrated that development of metachronous neoplasm (adenoma or colorectal cancer) was associated with personal history of previous colorectal cancer (odds ratio, 5.58; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.01-31.01), and presence of previous or synchronous adenomas (odds ratio, 1.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.21-3.17). Although nonstatistical significance was achieved, metachronisms were associated with gender (P<0.09) and differentiation degree (P<0.08). Multivariate analysis identified previous or synchronous adenomas (odds ratio, 1.98; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.16-3.38) as independent predictive factor. Neither presence of tumor DNA microsatellite instability nor family history correlated with the presence of metachronous neoplasms. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with previous or synchronous colorectal adenoma have an increased risk of developing metachronous colorectal neoplasms. Accordingly, this subgroup of patients may benefit from specific surveillance strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Intervalos de Confiança , Reparo do DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Incidência , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Razão de Chances , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Gut ; 56(12): 1714-8, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17400596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy is one of the methods of choice for screening relatives of patients with colorectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of adherence to colonoscopy in first-degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer and describe the lesions found. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional, multicentre, nationwide study was conducted. The study population was composed of first-degree relatives of patients with colorectal cancer selected randomly from the EPICOLON study. Seventy-four index patients were included. These had 342 living first-degree relatives (parents, siblings and children), of whom 281 were interviewed. RESULTS: The adherence rate was 38% (107/281). Adherence was greater in families with a higher degree of familial aggregation for colorectal cancer (88.9% for Amsterdam vs 33.3% for Bethesda and sporadic cancer; p<0.05), an index patient aged under 65 years (60% for patients <65 years vs 32.9% for patients >or=65 years; p<0.05) and an index patient who was female (46.2% for women vs 31% for men; p = 0.28). Adherence was also greater in relatives under 65 years (54% in patients <65 years vs 18% in patients >or=65 years; p = 0.05), in female relatives (49% in female relatives vs 27.3% in male relatives; p<0.05) and in siblings and children (40% in siblings and children vs 13% in parents; p<0.05). Lesions were found in 26% (28/107) of the study population. Nine (8.4%) individuals had a total of 18 advanced lesions. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that adherence to colonoscopy in our population of first-degree relatives was low. The adherence was more frequently associated with a higher degree of familial aggregation, a relative age of under 65 years, a sibling or offspring relationship, and female sex.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Cooperação do Paciente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colonoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Espanha
17.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 99(3): 244-52, 2007 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17284719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colorectal tumors caused by failure of the DNA mismatch repair system commonly show microsatellite instability. Our goals were to compare the performance of two panels of markers (a panel previously recommended by the National Cancer Institute [NCI] and a pentaplex of mononucleotide repeats) and to devise the simplest diagnostic strategy for identification of patients with colorectal cancer characterized by defects in mismatch repair. METHODS: We recruited 1058 patients who were newly diagnosed with colorectal cancer. DNA from fresh-frozen and paraffin-embedded tumors was tested for microsatellite instability, using the NCI-recommended panel of microsatellite markers and the pentaplex panel of mononucleotide repeats, respectively, as templates for polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). Microsatellite instability in fresh-frozen tumors was also assessed using the pentaplex panel of mononucleotides in a crossover analysis. The expression of mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2) in the tumors was determined immunohistochemically. The sensitivity and specificity with which the marker panels identified tumors with deficiencies in the expression of mismatch repair proteins were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: The sensitivity and positive predictive value of the NCI panel were 76.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 61% to 92%) and 65.0% (95% CI = 49% to 81%), respectively; corresponding values for the mononucleotide pentaplex panel were 95.8% (95% CI = 89% to 103%) and 88.5% (95% CI = 79% to 98%), respectively. A panel consisting of the mononucleotide repeat markers BAT26 and NR24 alone had the same predictive value as the pentaplex panel of mononucleotide repeats. CONCLUSIONS: The pentaplex panel of mononucleotide repeats performs better than the NCI panel for the detection of mismatch repair-deficient tumors. Simultaneous assessment of the instability of BAT26 and NR24 is as effective as use of the pentaplex panel for diagnosing mismatch repair deficiency.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Adenosina Trifosfatases/genética , Idoso , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/análise , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha
18.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 101(5): 1104-11, 2006 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16696788

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Identification of individuals who should undergo hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) genetic testing is a critical and difficult issue. For this purpose, the National Cancer Institute outlined a set of recommendations, the Bethesda guidelines, which have recently been revised. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical performance of original and revised Bethesda guidelines for the detection of MSH2/MLH1 gene carriers in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: A total of 1,222 patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were included in the EPICOLON study, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide epidemiology survey aimed at establishing the incidence of HNPCC in Spain (JAMA 2005; 293:1986-1994). Performance characteristics of the original and revised Bethesda guidelines were assessed with respect to the presence of MSH2/MLH1 germline mutations. Logistic regression analysis was performed to establish the most effective strategy. RESULTS: Original or revised Bethesda guidelines were equivalent strategies in terms of sensitivity (100%vs 100%; ns), specificity (98.1%vs 97.9%; ns), and overall accuracy (98.1%vs 97.9%; ns), as well as positive (25.8%vs 24.2%) and negative predictive values (100%vs 100%). The most discriminating individual variables were criteria number 1 (i.e., fulfillment of the Amsterdam criteria; RR = 34.14; 95% CI = 6.85-170.16; p < 0.001) and number 2 (i.e., individuals with two HNPCC-related neoplasms; RR = 35.63; 95% CI = 4.83-262.6; p < 0.001) of the original guidelines, and criterion number 1 of the revised guidelines (i.e., colorectal cancer diagnosed under 50 yr of age; RR = 29.34; 95% CI = 3.81-225.96; p= 0.001). The aggregation of these three criteria was equivalent to both Bethesda guidelines in terms of sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%), but superior to the revised criteria regarding specificity (98.5%; p < 0.05), overall accuracy (98.5%; p < 0.05), and positive predictive value (30.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Original and revised Bethesda guidelines are equivalent, highly effective criteria for the identification of MSH2/MLH1 gene mutation carriers in patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer. A new set of recommendations, based on a combination of some of their individual criteria, may provide additional advantages in terms of effectiveness.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Heterozigoto , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Mutação , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha/epidemiologia
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 12(6): 1686-92, 2006 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16551850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) overexpression is a frequent but not universal event in colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that COX-2 protein expression is reduced in colorectal cancer with a defective mismatch repair (MMR) system, a phenomenon commonly associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) but also present in up to 15% of sporadic tumors. AIM: To assess COX-2 expression in a large series of fully characterized colorectal cancer patients with respect to the MMR system and to dissect the mechanisms responsible for altered COX-2 expression in this setting. PATIENTS AND METHODS: MMR-deficient colorectal cancer were identified in a nationwide, prospective, multicenter study (EPICOLON project). Control MMR-proficient colorectal cancer patients were randomly selected. COX-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Personal and familial characteristics, as well as MSH2/MLH1 expression and germ line mutations, were evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three patients, 46 with MMR deficiency and 107 with MMR proficiency, were included in the analysis. Overall, tumor COX-2 overexpression was observed in 107 patients (70%). COX-2 overexpression was observed in 85 patients (79%) with a MMR-proficient system, but only in 22 patients (48%) with a MMR-deficient colorectal cancer (P < 0.001). The lack of COX-2 overexpression was independently associated with a MMR-deficient system (odds ratio, 3.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-8.51; P = 0.001) and a poor degree of differentiation (OR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.30-11.31; P = 0.015). In the subset of patients with a MMR-deficient colorectal cancer, lack of COX-2 overexpression correlated with a poor degree of differentiation, no fulfillment of Amsterdam II criteria, absence of MSH2/MLH1 germ line mutations, presence of tumor MSH2 expression, and lack of tumor MLH1 expression. CpG island promoter hypermethylation of COX2 was observed in 6 of 18 (33%) tumors lacking COX-2 expression in comparison with 2 of 28 (7%) tumors expressing this protein (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Up to half of MMR-deficient colorectal cancer do not show COX-2 overexpression, a fact observed almost exclusively in patients with sporadic forms. COX2 hypermethylation seems to be responsible for gene silencing in one third of them. These results suggest the potential utility of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in HNPCC chemoprevention and may explain the lack of response of this approach in some sporadic tumors.


Assuntos
Pareamento Incorreto de Bases/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/biossíntese , Reparo do DNA , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 24(3): 386-93, 2006 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16365182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although systematic postoperative surveillance of patients with colorectal cancer has been demonstrated to improve survival, it remains unknown whether a more intensive strategy provides any significant advantage. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was aimed at comparing the efficacy of two different surveillance strategies in terms of both survival and recurrence resectability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with stage II or III colorectal cancer were allocated randomly to either a simple surveillance strategy including clinical evaluation and serum carcinoembryonic antigen monitoring, or an intensive strategy in which abdominal computed tomography or ultrasonography, chest radiograph, and colonoscopy were added. RESULTS: A total of 259 patients were included: 132 were observed according to the simple strategy and 127 were observed according to the intensive strategy. Both groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics and rate and type of tumor recurrence. After a median follow-up of 48 months, there was no difference in the probability of overall survival in the whole series (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.49 to 1.54; P = .62). However, the intensive strategy was associated with higher overall survival in patients with stage II tumors (HR = 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12 to 0.98; P = .045) and in those with rectal lesions (HR = 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.81; P = .03), mainly due to higher rate of resectability for recurrent tumors. Colonoscopy was responsible for the detection of the highest proportion (44%) of resectable tumor recurrence in the intensive arm. CONCLUSION: A more intensive surveillance strategy improves the prognosis of patients with stage II colorectal cancer or those with rectal tumors. Inclusion of regular performance of colonoscopy seems justified up to the fifth year of follow-up, at least.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Torácica , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia
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