Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 175
Filtrar
1.
J Clin Med ; 10(18)2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34575179

RESUMO

Active surveillance (AS) is considered an alternative to immediate surgery in micropapillary thyroid carcinoma (mPTC). However, the definition of clinical mPTC progression during AS is controversial. We evaluated changes in tumor size using both tumor diameters and volume in 109 patients with mPTC followed in an AS protocol for a mean period of 31 ± 18 months. At the time of data lock, 19/109 (17.4%) mPTC reached and maintained a volume increase of ≥50%. However, only 3/19 (15.7%) showed progression, according to the diameter increase. The remaining 16 showed a slight diameter growth without reaching the original protocol progression criteria. The mean mPTC growth rate in stable cases was 0.37 mm3/month, while it was significantly greater in the mPTC, which achieved a volume change ≥50% with respect to the other. The two mPTC that developed a significant diameter increase had a growth rate of 41 and 18 mm3/month. Instead, the growth rates of the three mPTC that developed lymph node metastases were 0, 2.5 and 16 mm3/month. The ≥50% volume increase appears to be a too sensitive marker of disease progression, with a downstream higher surgery rate. The assessment of growth rate could distinguish mPTC with high and low growth rates, which would allow us to tailor the algorithm of the evaluations to a more appropriate timing.

2.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579152

RESUMO

Conservation of the energy equilibrium can be considered a dynamic process and variations of one component (energy intake or energy expenditure) cause biological and/or behavioral compensatory changes in the other part of the system. The interplay between energy demand and caloric intake appears designed to guarantee an adequate food supply in variable life contexts. The circadian rhythm plays a major role in systemic homeostasis by acting as "timekeeper" of the human body, under the control of central and peripheral clocks that regulate many physiological functions such as sleep, hunger and body temperature. Clock-associated biological processes anticipate the daily demands imposed by the environment, being synchronized under ideal physiologic conditions. Factors that interfere with the expected demand, including daily distribution of macronutrients, physical activity and light exposure, may disrupt the physiologic harmony between predicted and actual behavior. Such a desynchronization may favor the development of a wide range of disease-related processes, including obesity and its comorbidities. Evidence has been provided that the main components of 24-h EE may be affected by disruption of the circadian rhythm. The sleep pattern, meal timing and meal composition could mediate these effects. An increased understanding of the crosstalk between disruption of the circadian rhythm and energy balance may shed light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying weight gain, which may eventually lead to design effective strategies to fight the obesity pandemic.

3.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 733-742, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A protective action of statins on development of Graves' orbitopathy suggests that statins might be used for treatment of the disease. We aimed to assess the efficacy of the addition of a statin, atorvastatin, to intravenous glucocorticoids (ivGCs) on Graves' orbitopathy outcomes in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, phase 2, adaptive, clinical trial at a single, tertiary, referral hospital in Pisa, Italy. Patients with moderate-to-severe, active Graves' orbitopathy, with a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration between 2·97 and 4·88 mmol/L were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) in 11 blocks of eight, using a computer-based system, to the ST group or the NST group. The ST group received ivGCs (methylprednisolone 500 mg once a week for 6 weeks followed by 250 mg once a week for an additional six weeks) for 12 weeks and oral atorvastatin (20 mg once a day) for 24 weeks. The NST group only received the ivGC regimen. Patients were unmasked to group allocation; however, the ophthalmological investigator was masked to randomisation. The primary endpoint was the Graves' orbitopathy outcome (composite evaluation of exophthalmos, clinical activity score, eyelid aperture, and diplopia) at 24 weeks in the modified intention-to-treat (ITT) population (patients who attended the week 12 visit). Patients were considered responders when at least two of the following criteria were fulfilled in the most affected eye, without worsening in any of the same measures in both eyes: (1) reduction in exophthalmos of 2 mm or more, with no increase by 2 mm or more in the other eye; (2) reduction of clinical activity score by two or more points; (3) reduction in eyelid aperture by 2 mm or more, with no increase by 2 mm or more in the other eye; and (4) disappearance or improvement (change from constant to inconstant, intermittent, or absent, or from inconstant to intermittent or absent) of diplopia, and (5) improvement in visual acuity by 0·2 decimals or more. The trial is registered with EUDRACT, 2018-001317-33, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03110848. FINDINGS: Between June 1, 2020, and Nov 30, 2020, 119 patients were screened for inclusion, of whom 88 (74%) patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups (44 [50%] to the ST group and 44 [50%] to the NST group). Eight (9%) patients did not attend the 12 week visit; 80 (91%) patients (18 [23%] men and 62 [78%] women) were included in the modified ITT population (41 [51%] in the ST group and 39 [49%] in the NST group]. The proportion of Graves' orbitopathy composite evaluation responders at 24 weeks was higher in the ST group (21 [51%] of 41 patients) than the NST group (11 [28%] of 39 patients; attributable risk 0·23 [95% CI 0·02-0·44]; p=0·042). 26 adverse events occurred in 21 (24%) of 88 patients in the safety population. One (2%) of 44 patients in each group required treatment discontinuation, with no serious adverse events and no difference between groups. INTERPRETATION: Addition of oral atorvastatin to an ivGC regimen improved Graves' orbitopathy outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe, active eye disease who were hypercholesterolaemic. Future phase 3 studies, which could potentially recruit patients regardless of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, are required to confirm this association. FUNDING: Associazione Allievi Endocrinologia Pisana.

4.
J Endocr Soc ; 5(9): bvab093, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34337277

RESUMO

Context: Thyrotoxicosis is a common immune-related adverse event in patients treated with programmed cell death protein-1 (PD1) or programmed cell death protein ligand-1 (PD-L1) blockade. A detailed endocrinological assessment, including thyroid ultrasound and scintigraphy, is lacking, as are data on response to treatment and follow-up. Objective: The aim of this study was to better characterize the thyrotoxicosis secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors, gaining insights into pathogenesis and treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients who had normal thyroid function before starting immunotherapy and then experienced thyrotoxicosis on PD1 or PD-L1 blockade. Clinical assessment was combined with thyroid ultrasound, 99mtechnecium scintiscan, and longitudinal thyroid function tests. Results: Five patients had normal or increased scintigraphic uptake (Sci+), no serum antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor, and remained hyperthyroid throughout follow-up. The other 15 patients had no scintigraphic uptake (Sci-) and experienced destructive thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism (N = 9) or euthyroidism (N = 6). Hypothyroidism was more readily seen in those with normal thyroid volume than in those with goiter (P = .04). Among Sci- individuals, a larger thyroid volume was associated with a longer time to remission (P < .05). Methimazole (MMI) was effective only in Sci+ individuals (P < .05). Conclusion: Administration of PD1- or PD-L1-blocking antibodies may induce 2 different forms of thyrotoxicosis that appear similar in clinical severity at onset: a type 1 characterized by persistent hyperthyroidism that requires treatment with MMI, and a type 2, characterized by destructive and transient thyrotoxicosis that evolves to hypothyroidism or euthyroidism. Thyroid scintigraphy and ultrasound help in differentiating and managing these 2 forms of iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444531

RESUMO

Among the various factors that could influence health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescence, body mass index (BMI) seems to play a key role as a main anthropometric parameter. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine, in a sample of Italian adolescents, whether HRQoL is associated with the different weight status categories (underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese), according to BMI cut-off points for children, even considering sex differences. Data were collected from 1707 adolescents (n = 828 males) in seven schools. HRQoL was analyzed using the Italian version of KIDSCREEN-52. Males were more overweight and obese than females (13% vs. 10% and 4% vs. 2%, p < 0.05, respectively). In females, BMI categories are associated with physical well-being (p < 0.05), emotion/mood (p < 0.05), self-perception (p < 0.001), financial resources (p < 0.05), and bullying behavior (p < 0.05). In males, weight status is linked to physical well-being dimension (p < 0.001) and perception of self (p < 0.05). Our results may suggest that there is an association between weight status categories and HRQoL, more pronounced in females than in males. Interestingly, the weight status correlated more with the psychological dimension mainly in females, whereas in males, a stronger association between weight and physical status was observed, suggesting that given the complex, multifaceted, and dynamic nature of relationship between health-related quality of life and weight status in adolescents, multiple factors must be considered.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia
6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(10): e4072-e4083, 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231847

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Tumor capsule integrity is becoming a relevant issue to predict the biological behavior of human tumors, including thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE: This work aims to verify whether a whole tumor capsule in the classical variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CVPTC) could have as a predictive role of a good outcome as for follicular variant (FVPTC). METHODS: FVPTC (n = 600) and CVPTC (n = 554) cases were analyzed. We distinguished between encapsulated-FVPTC (E-FVPTC) and encapsulated-CVPTC (E-CVPTC) and, thereafter, invasive (Ei-FVPTC and Ei-CVPTC) and noninvasive (En-FVPTC and En-CVPTC) tumors, according to the invasion or integrity of the tumor capsule, respectively. Cases without a tumor capsule were indicated as invasive-FVPTC (I-FVPTC) and invasive-CVPTC (I-CVPTC). The subgroup of each variant was evaluated for BRAF mutations. RESULTS: E-FVPTC was more frequent than E-CVPTC (P < .001). No differences were found between En-FVPTC and En-CVPTC or between Ei-FVPTC and Ei-CVPTC. After 18 years of follow-up, a greater number of not-cured cases were observed in Ei-CVPTC with respect to Ei-FVPTC, but not in En-CVPTC to En-FVPTC. Multivariate clustering analysis showed that En-FVPTC, En-CVPTC, and Ei-FVPTC have similar features but different from I-FVPTC and I-CVPTC and, to a lesser extent, from Ei-CVPTC. A total of 177 of 614 (28.8%) cases were BRAFV600E mutated, and 10 of 614 (1.6%) carried BRAF-rare alterations. A significantly higher rate of En-CVPTC (22/49, 44.9%) than En-FVPTC (15/195, 7.7%) (P < .0001) were BRAFV600E mutated. CONCLUSION: En-CVPTC is less prevalent than En-FVPTC. However, it has good clinical/ pathological behavior comparable to En-FVPTC. This finding confirms the good prognostic role of a whole tumor capsule in CVPTC as well. New nomenclature for En-CVPTC, similar to that introduced for En-FVPTC (ie, noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features; NIFTP) could be envisaged.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1396-1407, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human thrifty phenotype is characterized by a greater decrease in 24-h energy expenditure (24EE) during fasting due to relatively higher eucaloric 24EE in sedentary conditions, both of which are indicative of greater propensity to weight gain. Thriftiness is also associated with a smaller increase in 24EE (i.e., reduced adaptive thermogenesis) during overfeeding. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether short-term measures of adaptive thermogenesis during overfeeding with low/normal/high protein content characterize thriftiness. METHODS: In this secondary cross-sectional analysis of a single-arm crossover study, 24EE was measured using whole-room indirect calorimetry during energy balance, fasting, and different overfeeding conditions (low/3% protein, high/30% protein, and 3 normal/20% protein diets) with 200% of eucaloric requirements in 77 healthy individuals [63 men; BMI (in kg/m2): 26.4 ± 4.3; body fat by DXA: 27.7% ± 9.4%, mean ± SD] with normal glucose regulation. Relations between the 24EE during energy balance (adjusted for body composition) and 24EE during each overfeeding diet were analyzed using separate linear regression models. Participants were arbitrarily categorized as thrifty/spendthrift based on the median value (-177 kcal/d) of the difference in 24EE between fasting and energy balance conditions. RESULTS: Differences in 24EE during low/high-protein overfeeding diets (regression line slope = 0.76 and 0.68, respectively, both P < 0.05 compared with slope = 1) but not during the normal-protein overfeeding diets (all P > 0.05 compared with slope = 1) were dependent on baseline 24EE during energy balance. Specifically, individuals with higher eucaloric 24EE (thriftier phenotype) showed smaller increases in 24EE during protein-imbalanced overfeeding. Analyzed by group, thrifty individuals had smaller increases in 24EE by 42 and 237 kcal/d during low- and high-protein overfeeding, respectively, compared with spendthrift individuals who showed greater increases in 24EE by 100 and 302 kcal/d (P ≤ 0.03 compared with thrifty group). CONCLUSIONS: During acute overfeeding conditions with low/high-protein content, thrifty participants have limited capacity to increase 24EE, indicating that impaired adaptive thermogenesis during protein-imbalanced diets further characterizes the thrifty phenotype and its susceptibility to weight gain. This trial was registered at clinicalTrials.gov as NCT00523627.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Estudos Transversais , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is becoming increasingly common and all doctors must be prepared to manage it competently. AIMS: The aim of this project is to evaluate the feasibility and use of a novel gamification-based teaching intervention on polypharmacy among doctors undergoing advanced geriatric training. Among others, one of the learning goals for the students was to be able to describe the adherence to medication. METHODS: Electronic questionnaire sent to students of the third session "evidence-based medicine in geriatrics" of advanced postgraduate course in geriatrics of the European Academy for Medicine of Ageing. RESULTS: Most students reported issues with forgetting doses and remembering sufficiently to establish a medication routine due to busy schedules as well as social influences around medication taking. Reflecting on the challenges of the game, most students reported that their own prescribing practice was likely to change. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The current model of learning appears to be a feasible approach for postgraduate medical education or in other areas of healthcare such as nursing or physiotherapy. Learning through action and reflection promotes deeper thinking and can lead to behavioral change, in this case thus enhancing the attitudes and understanding regarding pharmacological issues associated with ageing. Recommendations for future research in medical education about medication adherence are outlined.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(4): 1518-1522, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hepatokine fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) influences eating behavior and sugar consumption in rodent models. However, whether circulating FGF21 concentration is associated with food and soda intake in humans is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether fasting plasma FGF21 concentration is associated with objective measures of ad libitum food intake and soda consumption. METHODS: Healthy individuals [n = 109; 69 men, aged 34 ± 10 y; BMI (kg/m2): 30.4 ± 7.7; body fat by DXA: 30.5% ± 8.9%] with available plasma for hormonal measurements participated in an inpatient cohort study to objectively quantify ad libitum food and soda intake for 3 d using an automated and reproducible vending machine paradigm. Fasting plasma FGF21 concentration was measured by ELISA prior to ad libitum feeding. RESULTS: Fasting FGF21 concentration was inversely associated with daily soda intake (R = -0.22, P = 0.02 adjusted for demographics and anthropometrics), such that an interindividual difference of 200 pg/mL was associated with an average lower soda consumption by 68 kcal/d. Conversely, no associations were observed with total daily energy intake or macronutrient intake (all P > 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Higher plasma fasting FGF21 concentration is associated with lower ad libitum soda intake. Although this inverse correlation does not imply causation, the present results support the putative role of FGF21 in the reward pathways regulating sugar consumption in humans. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(6): 995-1002, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938613

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether a 12-week, weight-maintaining, macronutrient-stable dietary intervention that varies only by meat, fish, or soda consumption alters 24-hour energy expenditure (24hrEE) and substrate oxidation. METHODS: Healthy males were recruited to participate in a 12-week inpatient study and were randomized to a weight-maintaining dietary intervention that contained varying combinations of meat (0% or 19%), fish (0% or 6%), or soda (0% or 14%) in a factorial design. Macronutrient composition across dietary intervention groups was as follows: 50% of energy from carbohydrates, 30% of energy from fat, and 20% of energy from protein. Whole-room indirect calorimetry at baseline and week 12 were used to measure 24hrEE and substrate oxidation. RESULTS: Twenty-six males (mean [SEM], age: 46.6 [10.4] years; BMI: 26.9 [4.1] kg/m2 ) completed all measurements. Fish consumption resulted in higher 24hrEE by 126 (55) kcal/d compared with no fish consumption (P = 0.03), whereas 24hrEE for soda consumption was 132 (56) kcal/d (P = 0.03) lower. Approximately 80% of the decrease in 24hrEE with soda consumption was due to lower awake-inactive energy expenditure (EE; P = 0.001). No specific EE component accounted for the differences observed with fish consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that dietary sources of protein and carbohydrates appear to influence 24hrEE and inactive EE.


Assuntos
Bebidas Gaseificadas , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Peixes , Carne , Adulto , Animais , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta , Bebidas Gaseificadas/efeitos adversos , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Projetos Piloto
11.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 611136, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996676

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak represented an experience of social isolation potentially leading to changes in the health quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life during quarantine in early adolescents. Data were collected from 1,289 adolescents (mean age, 12.5; male, 622), at the beginning of the school year (September 2019, Standard Condition, SC) as part of the AVATAR project and during Phase 1 of the Italian lockdown (mid-late April 2020) (COVID-19 Quarantine, CQ) using an online questionnaire. In the CQ period, with respect to SC, adolescents showed lower perception in the dimensions, such as psychological (p = 0.001), physical well-being (p = 0.001), mood/emotion (p = 0.008), autonomy (p = 0.001), and financial resources (p = 0.018). Relationship with the family (p = 0.021) and peers (p = 0.001), as well as the perception of bullying (p = 0.001) were reduced. In lifestyle, adolescents developed higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p = 0.001). Adolescents living in the village had greater reduction in both autonomy (p = 0.002) and peer relationships (p = 0.002). Moreover, the perception of physical well-being was lower in those living in the city instead of those living in the countryside (p = 0.03), in an apartment instead of a detached house (p = 0.002), and in those who did not have green space (p = 0.001). Gender effect emerged for the psychological (p = 0.007) and physical well-being (p = 0.001), mood/emotion (p = 0.001), and self-perception (p = 0.001). The study showed that health-related quality of life during quarantine changed in its psychosocial dimensions, from mood and self-esteem to social relationships, helping to define the educational policies at multiple points in the promotion process of health.

12.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918032

RESUMO

Background: Dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system participating in the homeostatic balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions, is involved in food intake regulation. Objective: We investigated whether dopamine is altered by acute fasting or overfeeding diets with varying macronutrient content. Design: Ninety-nine healthy subjects underwent 24-h dietary interventions including eucaloric feeding, fasting, and five different overfeeding diets in a crossover design. Overfeeding diets (200% of eucaloric requirements) included one diet with 3%-protein (low-protein high-fat overfeeding-LPF: 46%-fat), three diets with 20%-protein, and a diet with 30%-protein (44%-fat). Urine was collected for 24 h and urinary dopamine concentration was quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma pancreatic polypeptide (PP) concentration, an indirect marker of parasympathetic activity, was measured prior to and after each diet after an overnight fast. Results: During 24-h of fasting, dopamine decreased on average by ~14% compared to eucaloric conditions, whereas PP increased by two-fold (both p < 0.001). Lower dopamine during 24-h fasting correlated with increased PP (r = -0.40, p < 0.001). Similarly, on average urinary dopamine decreased during LPF by 14% (p < 0.001) and lower dopamine correlated with increased PP (r = -0.31, p = 0.01). No changes in dopamine and PP concentrations were observed during other overfeeding diets (all p > 0.05). Conclusions: Dopamine concentrations decrease during short-term fasting and overfeeding with a low-protein diet. As both dietary conditions have in common protein deficit, the correlation between dopamine and PP suggests a compensatory mechanism underlying the shift from sympathetic to parasympathetic drive during dietary protein deprivation.


Assuntos
Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Dopamina/urina , Polipeptídeo Pancreático/sangue , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Jejum/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(8): e3005-e3020, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780542

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) is a group of disorders characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as a result of end-organ resistance to PTH. OBJECTIVE: To describe a cohort of 26 patients with PHP followed in a single tertiary center. METHODS: Clinical, biochemical, radiological, and genetic analysis of the GNAS gene in 26 patients recruited since 2002. RESULTS: Ten patients harbored a GNAS mutation, 15 epigenetic abnormalities at the GNAS locus, and 1 did not show genetic or epigenetic abnormalities. According to clinical, biochemical, and genetic features, patients were classified as PHP1A, PHP1B, and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. Patients with PHP1A had an earlier diagnosis and more cases with family history, Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) features, hormonal resistance, and hypertension. Obesity was a common feature. No difference in biochemical values was present among PHP1A and PHP1B. Intracerebral calcification occurred in 72% of patients with no difference among PHP1A and PHP1B subgroups. No significant difference was observed between patients with and without intracerebral calcification for the time-weighted average values of total serum calcium, phosphate, calcium-phosphate product, and PTH fold increase. A borderline association between cerebral calcification and age at the time of diagnosis (P = .04) was found in the whole cohort of patients. No renal calcifications were found in the overall cohort. CONCLUSION: Patients with PHP1A more frequently have AHO features as well as hypertension than patients with PHP1B. Patients with PHP presented a high rate of intracerebral calcification with no significant difference between subgroups. No increased risk of renal calcifications was also found in the entire cohort.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Calcinose/genética , Cromograninas/genética , Subunidades alfa Gs de Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Nefropatias/genética , Mutação , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/patologia , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Nefropatias/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Pseudo-Hipoparatireoidismo/patologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 642568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33776937

RESUMO

Objective: Circulating albumin is negatively associated with adiposity but whether it is associated with increased energy intake, lower energy expenditure or weight gain has not been examined. Methods: In study 1 (n=238; 146 men), we evaluated whether fasting albumin concentration was associated with 24-h energy expenditure and ad libitum energy intake. In study 2 (n=325;167 men), we evaluated the association between plasma albumin and change in weight and body composition. Results: After adjustment for known determinants of energy intake lower plasma albumin concentration was associated with greater total daily energy intake (ß= 89.8 kcal/day per 0.1 g/dl difference in plasma albumin, p=0.0047). No associations were observed between plasma albumin concentrations and 24-h energy expenditure or 24-h respiratory quotient (p>0.2). Over 6 years, volunteers gained on average 7.5 ± 11.7 kg (p<0.0001). Lower albumin concentrations were associated with greater weight [ß=3.53 kg, p=0.039 (adjusted for age, sex, follow up time), CI 0.16 to 6.21 per 1 g/dl difference albumin concentration] and fat mass (ß=2.3 kg, p=0.022), respectively, but not with changes in fat free mass (p=0.06). Conclusions: Lower albumin concentrations were associated with increased ad libitum food intake and weight gain, indicating albumin as a marker of energy intake regulation. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifiers NCT00340132, NCT00342732.

15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(4): 840-849, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Successful long-term weight loss maintenance after caloric restriction (CR) is rarely achieved. Besides known metabolic, behavioural, and cognitive factors, 24-hour energy expenditure (24hEE) relative to body size (i.e., metabolic efficiency) might influence subsequent weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Eleven participants with obesity (BMI = 39.0 ± 8.7 kg/m2, body fat = 36.1 ± 6.4%) had 24hEE measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during eucaloric conditions and weight stability prior to starting a 6-week inpatient CR study (50% of daily energy needs). Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was adjusted via regression analysis for fat free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) by DXA. Body composition was reassessed at the end of CR and after 1-year follow-up. Free-living weight was assessed by monthly weight measurements during 12 months. RESULTS: After 6-week CR, participants lost 8.5 ± 2.7% weight (FFM: -6.3 ± 3.6 kg, FM: -3.4 ± 1.2 kg) but regained 5.1 ± 8.0% 1 year following CR, which was mostly due to FFM regain (+5.7 ± 5.5 kg) and unchanged FM. A relatively higher 24hEE by 100 kcal/day prior to CR was associated with an average greater rate of weight regain by +0.3 kg/month during follow-up and a greater final weight regain by +5.1 kg after 1 year of follow-up. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that reduced metabolic efficiency in 24hEE during eucaloric, sedentary conditions may predict greater weight regain after CR-induced weight loss.

16.
Metabolism ; 117: 154709, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476636

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated that thrifty subjects, characterized by a greater decrease in 24 h energy expenditure (24hEE) during short-term fasting, have less capacity for cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) during 24 h of mild cold exposure. OBJECTIVE: As cold-induced brown adipose tissue activation (CIBA) is a determinant of CIT, we sought to investigate whether thrifty individuals also have reduced CIBA. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy subjects (age: 29.8 ±â€¯9.5y, body fat: 27.3 ±â€¯12.4%, 63% male) were admitted to our clinical research unit and underwent two 24hEE assessments in a whole-room indirect calorimeter during energy balance and fasting conditions at thermoneutrality to quantify their degree of thriftiness. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans were performed after exposure to 16 °C for 2 h to quantify peak CIBA. RESULTS: A greater decrease in 24hEE during fasting was associated with lower peak CIBA (r = 0.50, p = 0.01), such that a 100 kcal/day greater reduction in 24hEE related to an average 3.2 g/mL lower peak CIBA. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that reduced CIBA is a metabolic trait of the thrifty phenotype which might explain reduced CIT capacity and greater predisposition towards weight gain in individuals with a thrifty metabolism.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Calorimetria Indireta/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Jejum/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Termogênese/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Diabetologia ; 64(4): 914-922, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404681

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Impaired insulin clearance is implicated in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, but prospective evidence remains limited. Therefore, we sought to identify factors associated with the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) and to investigate whether lower MCRI is associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. METHODS: From a longitudinal cohort, 570 adult Native Americans without diabetes living in the Southwestern United States were characterised at baseline and 448 participants were monitored over a median follow-up period of 7.9 years with 146 (32%) incident cases of diabetes identified (fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l, 2 h plasma glucose [2-h PG] ≥11.1 mmol/l, or clinical diagnosis). At baseline, participants underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or hydrodensitometry to assess body composition, a 75 g OGTT, an IVGTT to assess acute insulin response (AIR), and a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp to assess MCRI and insulin action (M). RESULTS: In adjusted linear models, MCRI was inversely associated with body fat percentage (r = -0.35), fasting plasma insulin (r = -0.55) and AIR (r = -0.22), and positively associated with M (r = 0.17; all p < 0.0001). In multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, lower MCRI was associated with an increased risk of diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, heritage, body fat percentage, AIR, M, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h PG, and fasting plasma insulin (HR per one-SD difference in MCRI: 0.77; 95% CI 0.61, 0.98; p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Lower MCRI is associated with an unfavourable metabolic phenotype and is associated with incident type 2 diabetes independent of established risk factors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339482; NCT00340132.

19.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(2): e460-e468, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare inherited disorder predisposing the development of multiple functional and nonfunctional neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Only uncommon MEN1-associated functional NETs such as glucagonomas (<1%) and adenocorticotropic hormone-producing tumors (<5%) are known to be associated with hypercoagulability. It is unknown if patients with MEN1 generally have an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). METHODS: We queried a prospective natural history study of germline mutation-positive MEN1 patients (n = 286) between 1991 and 2019 for all lifetime events of VTE. The search terms were: DVT, thromb, embol, PE, pulmonary embolism, clot, hematology consult, anticoagulant, coumadin, lovenox, xarelto, warfarin, aspirin, rivaroxaban, and apixaban. Incidence rates were calculated, accounting for age and sex. Comparisons were made to published incidence rates in healthy populations, different types of cancer, and Cushing's syndrome. RESULTS: Thirty-six subjects (median age 45 years, range 16-75) experienced a VTE event, yielding a prevalence rate of 12.9%. The age-sex adjusted incidence rate of VTE is 9.11 per 1000 patient-years, with a sex-adjusted lifetime incidence rate of 2.81 per 1000 patient-years. MEN1-associated lifetime incidence rates are ~2-fold higher than the estimated annual incidence rate in the general population and are comparable to the known risk in the setting of various types of cancer. Approximately 80% of patients who had a VTE were diagnosed with pancreatic NETs, of which 24% were insulinomas. Fourteen patients (42%) experienced perioperative VTE events. CONCLUSIONS: MEN1 patients have an increased risk of VTE. Further mechanistic investigation and validation from other MEN1 cohorts are needed to confirm the increased prevalence of VTE in MEN1.

20.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 28(2): 111-134, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290252

RESUMO

Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is one of the rarest and aggressive malignancies of the endocrine system. In some instances, the histological diagnosis remains uncertain unless there is evidence of gross local invasion or secondary spread. The identification of molecular markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy of these lesions. The expression of 740 genes involved in the tumor progression processes was assessed in 8 parathyroid adenomas (PAs), 17 non-metastatic and 10 metastatic PCs using NanoString technology. Clustering analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were interrogated to compare the gene expression profiles among the three analyzed groups and to evaluate the potential role of differentially expressed genes, respectively. The 103 differentially expressed genes between metastatic PCs and PAs are able to discriminate perfectly the two groups from a molecular point of view. The molecular signatures identified in non-metastatic PCs vs PAs and in metastatic PCs vs non-metastatic PCs comparisons, although with some exceptions, seem to be histotype-specific IPA reveals that hepatic fibrosis/hepatic stellate cell activation and GP6 signaling pathway are involved in malignant behavior of parathyroid tumors, whereas the activation of the HOTAIR regulatory pathway are involved in the metastatization process. Our investigation identified differentially expressed genes in non-metastatic PCs mainly encoding ECM proteins and in metastatic PCs driving endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition or encoding mediators of angiogenesis. The identified genes might be promising molecular markers potentially useful in the clinical practice for the early diagnosis and prognosis of PC.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...