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1.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(2): 214-222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the bioavailability and biological incorporation of nonheme iron from staple food diets in healthy young urban Chinese women and determined the relevant effects of typical regional patterns of staple foods in South and North China. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two young urban Chinese women aged 20-23 years were enrolled and randomly allocated to two groups, with rice (rice group) and steamed buns (steamed buns group) as the staple food, respectively. Each participant received three meals daily containing approximately 3.25 mg of stable 57FeSO4 for 2 consecutive days, along with daily intravenous injection of approximately 2.0 mg of 58FeSO4. Nonheme iron absorption and infused iron incorporation rates were assayed. RESULTS: In all participants, the rice group, and the buns group, nonheme iron intake was 7.2±1.6, 5.9±0.6, and 8.4±1.2 mg, respectively; mean 57FeSO4 absorption rate was 22.2%±9.6%, 22.2%±10.6%, and 22.2%±8.9%, respectively; and the mean infused 58FeSO4 incorporation rate was 91.6%±8.2%, 93%±7.3%, and 90%±9.1%, respectively. No substantial differences existed in the nonheme iron intakes and the 57FeSO4 absorption and 58FeSO4 incorporation rates between the rice and buns groups (all p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The bioavailability and incorporation rates of nonheme iron from representative comprehensive Chinese diets in healthy young urban Chinese women were evaluated. Our results can facilitate the establishment of dietary reference intake for iron in Chinese women.

2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 7(7): 540-548, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have used nationally representative data to describe dietary trends and the related cardiometabolic mortality burden in China. Thus, we aimed to characterise the trends in disease-related dietary factors as well as their associated disease burden among Chinese adults from 1982 to 2012. METHODS: For this cross-sectional population-based study, we analysed a nationally representative sample of 204 802 adults aged 20 years or older, using data from the 1982, 1992, 2002, and 2010-12 China National Nutrition Surveys (CNNS). We did a comparative risk assessment, in which the effects of suboptimal intakes of 12 dietary factors, individually and collectively, on cardiometabolic mortality were estimated by calculating the population attributable fraction (PAF) to estimate the proportional reduction in cardiometabolic deaths that would occur if exposure to each dietary risk factor was reduced to an alternative optimal level. FINDINGS: The overall PAF of mortality from cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes that was associated with suboptimal dietary quality was 62·2% in 1982, 57·9% in 1992, 56·2% in 2002, and 51·0% in 2010-12, which accounted for 21·6% of total mortality in China in 1982, 16·6% in 1992, 17·6% in 2002, and 20·8% in 2010-12. The estimated number of cardiometabolic deaths associated with suboptimal dietary intakes was 1·07 million in 1982, 0·93 million in 1992, 1·18 million in 2002, and 1·51 million in 2010-12. Of all 12 dietary factors examined, high sodium intake (17·3%), low fruit consumption (11·5%), and low marine omega-3 fatty acids (9·7%) were associated with the largest numbers of estimated cardiometabolic deaths in 2010-12. INTERPRETATION: We observed an improvement in several dietary factors in China in the past few decades. However, current intakes of these dietary factors remain suboptimal. Poor diet quality is estimated to be associated with a substantial proportion of deaths from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in China. FUNDING: Ministry of Health, China, and Ministry of Science and Technology, China.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010238

RESUMO

In this study, we assessed the hemoglobin levels and anemia status of Chinese children and adolescents from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2010⁻2012 and analyzed the factors associated with anemia. The hemoglobin concentration and prevalence of anemia for children and adolescents aged 6⁻17 years from both CNNHS 2010⁻2012 and CNNHS 2002 were analyzed. Multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the factors associated with anemia. The mean hemoglobin concentration increased among Chinese children and adolescents, from 135.2 ± 13.9g/L in CNNHS 2002 to 141.2 ± 15.8 g/L in CNNHS 2010⁻2012, with the prevalence of anemia decreasing from 12.6% to 6.6% (p<0.0001). Anemia was specifically related to girls (p < 0.0001);children aged 6⁻8 years (p = 0.0175), 12⁻14 years (p = 0.0007), and 15⁻17 years (p < 0.0001);ordinary rural areas (p = 0.0009) and poor rural areas (p < 0.0001);spring (p < 0.0001), autumn (p < 0.0001), and winter (p < 0.0001);underweight individuals (p < 0.0001); and an annual average income per capita of less than 20,000 RMB (p < 0.0001).The prevalence of anemia in Chinese children and adolescents has improved significantly in comparison to 10 years prior; however, it remains a public health problem in this population. Further research is required to understand the determinants of iron status, which could then lead to strategies to alleviate iron deficiency for Chinese children and adolescents, especially for girls, those living in rural areas, underweight individuals, and those with a low family income.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Adolescente , Anemia/sangue , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Ferro , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Pobreza , Prevalência
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30974871

RESUMO

Anemia is a public health issue for developing countries, especially for women of childbearing age. The aim of this study was to assess the anemia status and analyze the risk factors for anemia in Chinese childbearing women aged 18-49 years. Hemoglobin concentration was measured by the HiCN method in the Fifth Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) in 2010-2012. Age, region type, ethnicity, bodyweight, height, education, season and smoke habit were recorded in unified questionnaires. Latitude was divided by China's Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River. Childbearing women (28,289) from the CNNHS 2010-2012 were included in this study. The median hemoglobin concentration was 136.2(126.6-145.0) g/L, and it was significantly higher than in CNNHS 2002 (132.5 (122.3-141.6) g/L). The prevalence of anemia was 15.0%, and it was significantly lower than 10 years ago. The logistic regression analysis showed anemia in Chinese childbearing women was specifically related to 30-39 age group (P = 0.004), in spring (P < 0.0001) or in winter (P = 0.006), small and medium-sized cities (P = 0.044) and middle school education level (P = 0.027). The results showed that anemia status among childbearing women was greatly improved over 10 years since 2002, but it was still more severe than the rest of the populations. The nutrition propaganda and education is recommended for childbearing women to help them to improve the nutritional status on their own.


Assuntos
Anemia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr ; 28(1): 35-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurately assessing energy expenditure (EE) of people with different body weight is essential to facilitate weight management. The aim of this study was to measure basal energy expenditure (BEE), resting energy expenditure (REE) and to explore the true 1 MET value for young Chinese adults with different body weight. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A total of 251 young Chinese adults were divided into three groups: the normal weight group, the overweight group and the obese group. Their BEE, REE and 1 MET values were measured by Cortex Metamax 3B (MM3B). Multiple linear regressions and correlation analysis were used to examine factors that influence EE in Chinese population. RESULTS: The mean measured BEE and REE of young Chinese adults with normal weight, overweight and obesity was 1429, 1609, 1778 kcal/day and 1522, 1712, 1885 kcal/day, respectively. The EE per kilogram body weight decreased with the increasing body weight. The mean oxygen consumption in the three group was 3.78, 3.47, 3.21 mL/kg/min respectively. There was no significant difference in BEE and REE after adjustment for fat-free mass (FFM). The significant influencing factors were body mass index (BMI) and sex in BEE, FFM and BMI in REE in Chinese population. CONCLUSIONS: BEE and REE were significantly different for different body weights while these differences disappeared after adjustment for FFM, and people with different body weights may have different 1 MET values. Further studies should be conducted to obtain more accurate daily energy requirement and 1MET value for specific Chinese populations.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Basal/fisiologia , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Equivalente Metabólico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 47(5): 728-732, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30593297

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate thyroid function and iodine nutritional status for pregnant women from various regions of China by determining plasma levels of thyrotrophin( TSH), free triiodothyronine( FT3), and free thyroxine( FT4). METHODS: Plasma samples were obtained from pregnant women that participated in the 2010-2012 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Plasma levels of TSH, FT3, and FT4 were determined by using an automated chemiluminescence immunoassay analyzer. Thyroid function was evaluated according to the determined levels. RESULTS: A total of 877 plasma samples collected from pregnant women residing in different regions of China wereanalyzed for levels of TSH, FT3, and FT4. The median TSH levels detected in the first, second, and third trimesters of pregnancy were 1. 56, 1. 84, and 1. 89 m IU/L, respectively. The median FT4 levels were 17. 21, 16. 29 and 16. 35 pmol/L, respectively. The median FT3 levels were 4. 70, 4. 39 and 4. 18 pmol/L, respectively. The rate of normal thyroid function for this cohort was 78. 1%, and for the pregnant women that resided in large cities the rate was 71. 2%. The most common type of abnormal thyroid function that was detected was subclinical hypothyroidism. It had an overall incidence of10. 5%, and those residing in regions of rural poverty had the highest rate( 14. 5%). The normal rate of thyroid function for adult pregnant women at the end of the trimester( 28-40 weeks) during pregnancy was significantly lower than that of the pregnant women in the first and second trimester. CONCLUSION: The rate of normal thyroid function in pregnant women is low( less than 80%). Subclinical hypothyroidism is the main type of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy. It should be continued to pay attention to the relationship between the high incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism and iodine nutritional status of pregnant women, especially subclinical hypothyroidism caused by insufficient iodine intake.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tiroxina , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Iodo , Gravidez , Tireotropina , Tri-Iodotironina
8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 47(4): 548-553, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To establish a reliable method of iodine nutritional assessment for pregnant women using the adjusted urinary creatinine of spot urine and 24-hour urine samples. METHODS: The spot urine in the morning at 8 00-11:30 and the following 24-hour urine samples of pregnant women were collected in Peking Union Medical College Hospital during March to October in 2016. The urinary iodine and urinary creatinine concentrations were determined. The estimated 24-hour urinary iodine excretion( 24-h UIE) was calculated using the urinary iodine/urinary creatinine( UIC/Cr) ratio of spot urine, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion( 24-h UCr E). RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the UIC, UIC/Cr ratio between spot urine and 24-h urine( P <0. 05). The UIC, UIC/Cr ratio of spot urine, and the estimated 24-h UIE all were significantly correlated with the real 24-h UIE( P < 0. 01), especially the estimated 24-h UIE were taking up 70%-80% for the real 24-h UIE in the period of gestation. CONCLUSION: The UIC, UIC/Cr, and the estimated 24-h UIE cannot directly replace the relevant values derived of the 24-hour urine samples. But the estimated 24-h UIE can reflect the iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in recent days, and the method could be a reliable reference for the iodine nutritional assessment of the pregnant women in practice.

9.
Nutr Metab (Lond) ; 15: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721032

RESUMO

Background: Iron is a kind of essential trace mineral in the human body, while the studies on its physiological requirement are very limited recently, especially in China. And most studies were performed with the radioisotope tracer technique, which was harmful to health. This study aimed to first get the value of iron physiological requirements in Chinese adults assessed by the stable isotope labeling technique. Methods: Forty-four eligible young Chinese healthy adults were randomly recruited from the Bethune Military Medical College (Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China) between January 2010 and March 2011, and 19 subjects were included in the final data analysis. After adaptive diets and observation, subjects received 58Fe intravenously. The baseline venous blood sample and general information were collected on day 0. Venous blood samples were also collected on day 14, 30, 60, 100, 120, 150, 240, 330, 425, 515, 605, 767, 1155, respectively. The blood samples were acid digested by a Microwave Digestion System and then analyzed by the MC-ICP-MS and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy to get the abundance of Fe isotopes and the total iron concentration respectively. The circulation rate (the proportion of blood iron to whole body iron) could be calculated by the intake amount, background content and the peak isotope content. When the abundance changed stably, the iron physiological requirement could be calculated by the iron loss in a period of time. Results: The abundance of 58Fe reached its peak on day 14, and changed stably from day 425. The average circulation rate was 84%, with no significance difference between the 2 genders. The mean iron requirement in females was 1101.68 µg/d, and the mean requirement adjusted by body weight was 20.69 µg/kg.d. For males, the mean iron requirement was 959.9 µg/d, and the requirement adjusted by body weight was 14.04 µg/kg.d. Conclusion: Our study has obtained the data about the iron physiological requirements of Chinese adults using stable isotope labeling technique, which could provide the basis for adjusting iron DRIs of Chinese people in the future. Trial registration: The trial was registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No: ChiCTR-TRC-09000581).

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(2): 551-561, 2018 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29264925

RESUMO

This study investigated the composition and proportions of fecal microbiota in Sprague-Dawley rats after consuming two genetically modified (GM) corn lines in comparison with the isogenic corn and the AIN93G standard feed for 10 weeks using bar-coded 16S rRNA gene sequencing. As a result, GM corn did not significantly alter the overall health and alpha-diversity of fecal microbiota. Fecal microbiota structures could be separated into noncorn and corn but not non-GM and GM corn subgroups. Both non-GM and GM corn caused the increase in bacterial populations related to carbohydrates utilization, such as Lactobacillus, Barnesiella, and Bifidobacterium, and the reduction in potentially pathogenic populations, such as Tannerella and Moraxellaceae. In conclusion, similar effects on the fecal microbiota were observed after consuming a GM- and non-GM-corn-based diet for long periods. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the functional relevance of the changes in the proportions of bacterial populations in these diets.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Feminino , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Zea mays/genética
11.
Nutrients ; 9(9)2017 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28914773

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays a critical role in calcium and phosphate metabolism and helps maintain skeletal integrity in childhood, yet vitamin D status in Chinese children and adolescents is not well documented. The aim of this study was to assess the vitamin D status and analyze the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents aged 6-17 years. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured with a radioimmunoassay kit in 15,000 children and adolescent participants in the Chinese national nutrition and health survey (CNNHS) 2010-2012. Age, gender, region type, ethnicity, outdoor time, and vitamin D supplementation were recorded in unified design questionnaires. The season was recorded by the date of blood taken; location was divided into north and south by China's Qinling Mountains and Huaihe River; and ambient ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation level was classified according to the corresponding dose of each participant living area from National Aeronautics and Space Administration data. 14,473 participants from the cross-sectional study of CNNHS 2010-2012 were included in this study. The median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 48.2 (35.4-63.4) nmol/L, and the concentration for males was 50.0 (36.5-65.7) nmol/L, which was statistically higher than that of females (46.7 (34.4-60.9) nmol/L) (P < 0.001). The general prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 53.2%; 50.0% for males and 56.5% for females at the cut-off 50 nmol/L. According to the results of the log-binomial regression analysis, vitamin D deficiency in Chinese children and adolescents was specifically related to female gender (P < 0.0001), to ages 12-14 years (P < 0.0001) and 15-17 years (P < 0.0001), living in large cities (P < 0.0001) or ordinary rural areas (P < 0.0001), low ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001) and medium ambient UVB levels (P < 0.0001), spring (P < 0.0001), autumn (P < 0.0001) and winter seasons (P < 0.0001). The data showed that vitamin D deficiency was very common among children and adolescents aged 6-17 years in China. Effective sun exposure should be encouraged in both genders aged 6-17 years, dietary vitamin D and vitamin D supplements are also recommended, especially in the seasons of spring and winter.


Assuntos
Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/administração & dosagem , Vitamina D/sangue , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Raios Ultravioleta , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 9(3)2017 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28335545

RESUMO

The development of reference values of trace elements is recognized as a fundamental prerequisite for the assessment of trace element nutritional status and health risks. In this study, a total of 1400 pregnant women aged 27.0 ± 4.5 years were randomly selected from the China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012 (CNHS 2010-2012). The concentrations of 14 serum trace elements were determined by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Reference values were calculated covering the central 95% reference intervals (P2.5-P97.5) after excluding outliers by Dixon's test. The overall reference values of serum trace elements were 131.5 (55.8-265.0 µg/dL for iron (Fe), 195.5 (107.0-362.4) µg/dL for copper (Cu), 74.0 (51.8-111.3) µg/dL for zinc (Zn), 22.3 (14.0-62.0) µg/dL for rubidium (Rb), 72.2 (39.9-111.6) µg/L for selenium (Se), 45.9 (23.8-104.3) µg/L for strontium (Sr), 1.8 (1.2-3.6) µg/L for molybdenum (Mo), 2.4 (1.2-8.4) µg/L for manganese (Mn), 1.9 (0.6-9.0) ng/L for lead (Pb), 1.1 (0.3-5.6) ng/L for arsenic (As), 835.6 (219.8-4287.7) ng/L for chromium (Cr), 337.9 (57.0-1130.0) ng/L for cobalt (Co), 193.2 (23.6-2323.1) ng/L for vanadium (V), and 133.7 (72.1-595.1) ng/L for cadmium (Cd). Furthermore, some significant differences in serum trace element reference values were observed between different groupings of age intervals, residences, anthropometric status, and duration of pregnancy. We found that serum Fe, Zn, and Se concentrations significantly decreased, whereas serum Cu, Sr, and Co concentrations elevated progressively compared with reference values of 14 serum trace elements in pregnant Chinese women. The reference values of serum trace elements established could play a key role in the following nutritional status and health risk assessment.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Gravidez/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Valores de Referência , Análise Espectral , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nutrients ; 9(3)2017 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28245576

RESUMO

This paper presents an analysis of the level of blood hemoglobin and the rates of anemia in Chinese rural residents in the 2010-2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey, and the change in its prevalence in rural residents during the last ten years. Our methodology included data from the Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2010-2012, where samples were selected through the method of probability proportion to size. The study objects were from 150 sites in provinces, autonomous regions, or municipalities in China. The concentration of blood hemoglobin was determined using the cyanmethemoglobin method. Anemia was judged by the anemia standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), combined with elevation correction standard. The level of blood hemoglobin, the prevalence of anemia, and the 95% CI (Confidence interval) value were analyzed using complex sampling weighted processing, combined with the population figures released by the National Bureau of Statistics in 2009. Our results indicate that the level of blood hemoglobin of the Chinese rural area population was 145.92 ± 0.83 g/L, with the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population at 9.7% (95% CI: 9.4%-10.0%). The prevalence of anemia in children 6-11 years old was 5.5% (95% CI: 5.0%-6.0%), 8.1% (95% CI: 7.5%-8.7%) for 12-17-year-old teenagers, 10.0% (95% CI: 9.4%-10.6%) for 18-44-year-old adults, 9.6% (95% CI: 9.0%-10.1%) for 45-59-year-old adults, and 12.6% (95% CI: 11.9%-13.3%) for the elderly above 60 years old. Our conclusion shows that the prevalence of anemia in the Chinese rural population in 2010-2012 had obviously decreased compared to the last decade; however, women of reproductive age and the elderly still had a high prevalence of anemia.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nutr J ; 16(1): 3, 2017 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28088200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D inadequacy is common among the elderly, especially within the Asian population. The vitamin D status among healthy adults in the elderly Chinese population was evaluated. METHODS: A total of 6014 healthy adults aged 60 years or older (2948 men, 3066 women) participated in this descriptive cross-sectional analysis. Possible predictors of vitamin D inadequacy were evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were 61.0 nmol/l (interquartile range (IQR) 44.3-80.6, range 5.1-154.5) for men and 53.7 nmol/l (IQR 38.8-71.0, range 6.0-190.0) for women, with 34.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 32.4-35.8) of men and 44.0% (95% CI 42.2-45.8) of women presenting vitamin D inadequacy (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). According to the multivariate logistic regression analyses, vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with female gender (P <0.0001), underweight (P = 0.0259), the spring season (P <0.0001), low ambient UVB levels (P <0.0001) and living in large cities (P = 0.0026). For men, vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with the spring season (P = 0.0015), low ambient UVB levels (P <0.0001) and living in large cities (P = 0.0022); for women, vitamin D inadequacy was positively correlated with the spring season (P = 0.0005) and low ambient UVB levels (P <.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D inadequacy is prevalent among the elderly population in China. Because residing in regions with low ambient UVB levels increases the risk of vitamin D inadequacy both for men and women, vitamin D supplementation and sensible sun exposure should be encouraged, especially during the cooler seasons. Further studies are required to determine the optimal vitamin D intake and sun exposure levels to maintain sufficient vitamin D levels in the elderly Chinese population.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estações do Ano , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue
15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 178(2): 194-200, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28101714

RESUMO

Zinc is an essential trace element for growth and development in children, but zinc deficiency is a serious nutritional problem worldwide. Our study aimed to assess the zinc status of school-age children living in rural areas of China and to examine the change of zinc status based on the China Nutrition and Health Survey 2002 and 2012. We used the probability proportional to size sampling method for subject selection, and a total of 3407 school-age children were included in this study. Zinc status was assessed by three items of indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG). The concentration of serum zinc was 718.2 µg/L, and 44.4% of children being zinc deficiency in 2002, while 846.8 µg/L and 10.4% in 2012. Zinc intake was 7.8 mg/day with a 7.6% inadequate zinc intake in 2002, together with 6.9 mg/day and 38.2% in 2012. Height-for-age Z score was -1.06 and 19.1% of children being stunting in 2002, as well as -0.15 and 6.8% in 2012. In conclusion, the zinc status of school-age children living in rural areas of China has been significantly improved in addition to zinc intake over the past 10 years. However, the zinc deficiency still observed in poor rural areas of China in 2012. In addition, we suggested that the zinc bioavailability should be taken into account when assessing zinc status in population.


Assuntos
Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Estresse Oxidativo , População Rural , Zinco/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Public Health Nutr ; 20(10): 1746-1754, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26585546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate vitamin D deficiency prevalence and risk factors among pregnant Chinese women. DESIGN: A descriptive cross-sectional analysis. SETTING: China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) 2010-2013. SUBJECTS: A total of 1985 healthy pregnant women participated. Possible predictors of vitamin D deficiency were evaluated via multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The median serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 15·5 (interquartile range 11·9-20·0, range 3·0-51·5) ng/ml, with 74·9 (95 % CI 73·0, 76·7) % of participants being vitamin D deficient (25-hydroxyvitamin D <20 ng/ml). According to the multivariate logistic regression analyses, vitamin D deficiency was positively correlated with Hui ethnicity (P=0·016), lack of vitamin D supplement use (P=0·021) and low ambient UVB level (P<0·001). In the autumn months, vitamin D deficiency was related to Hui ethnicity (P=0·012) and low ambient UVB level (P<0·001). In the winter months, vitamin D deficiency was correlated with younger age (P=0·050), later gestational age (P=0·035), higher pre-pregnancy BMI (P=0·019), low ambient UVB level (P<0·001) and lack of vitamin D supplement use (P=0·007). CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent among pregnant Chinese women. Residing in areas with low ambient UVB levels increases the risk of vitamin D deficiency, especially for women experiencing advanced stages of gestation, for younger pregnant women and for women of Hui ethnicity; therefore, vitamin D supplementation and sensible sun exposure should be encouraged, especially in the winter months. Further studies must determine optimal vitamin D intake and sun exposure levels for maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels in pregnant Chinese women.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Luz Solar , Adulto Jovem
17.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 99: 190-198, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890565

RESUMO

In the present work, we evaluated the three generation reproductive toxicity of the genetically modified rice with insectresistant cry1Ac and sck genes. 120 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups which were fed with genetically modified rice diet (GM group), parental control rice diet (PR group) and AIN-93 control diet (both used as negative control) respectively. Bodyweight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry, relative organ weights and histopathology for each generation were examined respectively. All the hematology and serum chemistry parameters, organ/body weight indicators were within the normal range or no change to the adverse direction was observed, although several differences in hematology and serum chemistry parameters (WBC, BUN, LDH of male rat, PLT, PCT, MPV of female rats), reproductive data (rate of morphologically abnormal sperm) were observed between GM rice group and two control groups. No macroscopic or histological adverse effects were found or considered as treatment-related, either. Overall, the three generation study of genetically modified rice with cry1Ac and sck genes at a high level showed no unintended adverse effects on rats's reproductive system.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Oryza/toxicidade , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/toxicidade , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Oryza/genética , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 46(3): 345-349, 2017 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analysis the vitamin A nutritional status of 6-to 17-year-old children and adolescents between 2010-2012 in rural China. METHODS: Based on the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2010-2012 project, the serum vitamin A samples of children and adolescents from survey sites of rural area were selected by random sampling method, and 5888 cases of samples were detected using the high performance liquid chromatography method to evaluate their vitamin A nutritional status. RESULTS: The serum retinol concentration of children and adolescents in rural area was( 1. 44 ± 0. 58) µmol/L, and were( 1. 40 ± 0. 56) µmol/L in general rural areas and( 1. 46 ± 0. 60) µmol/L in poverty rural areas respectively( t = 1. 88, P < 0. 05). The serum retinol concentration of6-to 11-year-old were( 1. 31 ± 0. 53) µmol/L and( 1. 37 ± 0. 60) µmol/L, and serumretinol concentration of 12-to 17-year-old were( 1. 52 ± 0. 57) µmol/L and( 1. 52 ±0. 60) µmol/L( t = 11. 90 and t = 5. 54, P < 0. 05). The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was 5. 53%, and were 6. 14% in general rural areas and 4. 55% in poverty rural areas, respectively( P > 0. 05). The prevalence of marginal vitamin A deficiency were 18. 75%, and were 19. 17% in general rural areas and 18. 07% in poverty rural areas, respectively( P > 0. 05). CONCLUSION: The situation of vitamin A deficiency in rural China are still widespread, the high prevalence of marginal vitamin A deficiency is more prominent.

19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 46(3): 350-355, 2017 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status of vitamin A( VA) among Chinese rural fertile women in 2010-2012. METHODS: A multi-stage stratified sampling and population proportional stratified random sampling method was used and the participants of rural fertile women who were 18-44 years old and had completed personal information data during the 2010-2012 National Nutrition and Health Survey were included( n = 1279). The level of serum retinol, rate of VA marginal deficiency anddeficiency among the fertile women were analyzed. RESULTS: In 2010-2012, the P50( P25-P75) level of serum retinol was 1. 63( 1. 28-2. 10) µmol/L for Chinese rural fertile women, 1. 60( 1. 25-2. 05) µmol/L for fertile women from ordinary rural area and1. 70( 1. 32-2. 17) µmol/L for fertile women from poverty rural area. The level of serum retinol of fertile women from poverty rural area was statistically higher than that of ordinary rural area( P = 0. 007). The rate of VA marginal deficiency and deficiency among the Chinese rural fertile women was 9. 46% and 3. 05%, respectively. The rate of VA marginal deficiency and deficiency among the fertile women from ordinary rural area and poverty rural area was 9. 82%, 4. 13%, 9. 03% and 1. 74%, respectively. The rate of VA deficiency among the fertile women from ordinary rural was statistically higher than that of poverty rural( P = 0. 013), but no statistically differences in the rate of VA marginal deficiency were found( P > 0. 05). Moreover, the statistically differences of rate of VA marginal deficiency and deficiency were also observed in the different regions and educational level( only VA deficiency). There were no statistically differences of VA marginal deficiency and deficiency were found in the other variables. CONCLUSION: The different extent of VA deficiency still present and more popular for the VA marginal deficiency among Chinese fertile women.

20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 46(3): 356-360, 2017 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the vitamin A status of Chinese rural elderly population by analyzing the serum retinol levels of Chinese rural elderly residents in 2010-2012. METHODS: Data were from the Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey in2010-2012. Using the multistage stratified cluster sampling method, serum samples from the elderly residents aged above 60 years old( including), were obtained from 45 general rural and 30 poor rural. The basic situation of the survey object was collected by the questionnaire survey. The concentration of serum retinol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography( HPLC). The vitamin A deficiency( VAD) was judged by the related standard recommended by WHO. A total of 2 413 elderly residents were included in the study. The levels of serum retinol and the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and marginal vitamin A deficiency were also compared. RESULTS: The level of serum retinol for rural elderly residents was 1. 88( 1. 45-2. 45) µmol/L. The serum retinol level of poor rural resident was( 1. 92( 1. 46-2. 48) µmol/L), which was significant for the ordinary rural residents( 1. 86( 1. 44-2. 41) µmol/L)( χ~2= 5. 1428, P = 0. 0233). The serum retinol of male elderly( 1. 97( 1. 48-2. 54)) was statistically higher than female( 1. 82( 1. 42-2. 33))( χ~2= 22. 3383, P < 0. 0001). The prevalence of VAD among Chinese rural elderly residents was 2. 28%, 2. 79% for ordinary rural residents and 1. 53% for poor rural residents. The marginal VAD rate of Chinese rural elderly residents was 6. 30%, 6. 84% for ordinary rural residents and 5. 51% for poor rural residents. The prevalence of VAD and marginal VAD for male was 2. 18% and5. 57%, respectively. The prevalence of VAD and marginal VAD for female was 2. 38%and 7. 21%, respectively. No statistically difference was observed between different genders. The prevalence of VAD was 1. 93%, 3. 17% and 1. 47% for different age groups( 60 ~ 69, 70 ~ 79 and above 80 years old), and no statistically difference was observed between different age groups. The prevalence of marginal VAD was 5. 87%, 6. 20% and 11. 74% for different age groups, and statistically difference was observed between different age groups( χ~2= 7. 3858, P = 0. 039). CONCLUSION: Chinese rural elderly population has a certain degree of vitamin A deficiency and marginal deficiency, the marginal deficiency of the elderly over 80 years old is more common.

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