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1.
Anim Nutr ; 9: 159-174, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35573092

RESUMO

The mammalian gut is inhabited by a massive and complicated microbial community, in which the host achieves a stable symbiotic environment through the interdependence, coordination, reciprocal constraints and participation in an immune response. The interaction between the host gut and the microbiota is essential for maintaining and achieving the homeostasis of the organism. Consequently, gut homeostasis is pivotal in safeguarding the growth and development and potential productive performance of the host. As metabolites of microorganisms, short chain fatty acids are not only the preferred energy metabolic feedstock for host intestinal epithelial cells, but also exert vital effects on antioxidants and the regulation of intestinal community homeostasis. Herein, we summarize the effects of intestinal microorganisms on the host gut and the mechanisms of action of short chain fatty acids on the four intestinal barriers of the organism, which will shed light on the manipulation of the intestinal community to achieve precise nutrition for specific individuals and provide a novel perspective for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 876965, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35548055

RESUMO

The present research aimed to explore the effect of dietary ferrous glycine chelate supplementation on performance, serum immune-antioxidant parameters, fecal volatile fatty acids, and microbiota in weaned piglets. A total of 80 healthy piglets (weaned at 28 day with an initial weight of 7.43 ± 1.51 kg) were separated into two treatments with five replicates of eight pigs each following a completely randomized block design. The diet was a corn-soybean basal diet with 2,000 mg/kg ferrous glycine chelates (FGC) or not (Ctrl). The serum and fecal samples were collected on days 14 and 28 of the experiment. The results indicated that dietary FGC supplementation improved (p < 0.05) the average daily gain and average daily feed intake overall, alleviated (p < 0.05) the diarrhea rate of piglets at the early stage, enhanced (p < 0.05) the levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase on day 14 and lowered (p < 0.05) the MDA level overall. Similarly, the levels of growth hormone and serum iron were increased (p < 0.05) in the FGC group. Moreover, dietary FGC supplementation was capable of modulating the microbial community structure of piglets in the early period, increasing (p < 0.05) the abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria Tezzerella, decreasing (p < 0.05) the abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria Slackia, Olsenella, and Prevotella as well as stimulating (p < 0.05) the propanoate and butanoate metabolisms. Briefly, dietary supplemented FGC ameliorates the performance and alleviated the diarrhea of piglets by enhancing antioxidant properties, improving iron transport, up-regulating the growth hormone, modulating the fecal microbiota, and increasing the metabolism function. Therefore, FGC is effective for early iron supplementation and growth of piglets and may be more effective in neonatal piglets.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35269824

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has both dehydrogenase and esterase activity; its dehydrogenase activity is closely related to the metabolism of aldehydes produced under oxidative stress (OS). In this review, we recapitulate the enzyme activity of ALDH2 in combination with its protein structure, summarize and show the main mechanisms of ALDH2 participating in metabolism of aldehydes in vivo as comprehensively as possible; we also integrate the key regulatory mechanisms of ALDH2 participating in a variety of physiological and pathological processes related to OS, including tissue and organ fibrosis, apoptosis, aging, and nerve injury-related diseases. On this basis, the regulatory effects and application prospects of activators, inhibitors, and protein post-translational modifications (PTMs, such as phosphorylation, acetylation, S-nitrosylation, nitration, ubiquitination, and glycosylation) on ALDH2 are discussed and prospected. Herein, we aimed to lay a foundation for further research into the mechanism of ALDH2 in oxidative stress-related disease and provide a basis for better use of the ALDH2 function in research and the clinic.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Estresse Oxidativo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional
4.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 13(1): 16, 2022 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35144681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of a combination of microencapsulated essential oils and organic acids (MOA) on growth performance, immuno-antioxidant status, intestinal barrier function and microbial structure of the hindgut in piglets. A total of 120 piglets (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]; weighted 7.66 ± 1.79 kg, weaned at d 28) were randomly selected and allocated to 3 treatments with 4 replicates per group and 10 piglets per replicate according to the initial body weight and gender. The dietary treatments were as follows: 1) basal diet (Ctrl); 2) Ctrl + chlortetracycline (75 mg/kg) (AGP); 3) Ctrl+ MOA (1500 mg/kg). The experiment period was lasted for 21 d. RESULTS: Compared to the Ctrl group, dietary supplemented MOA alleviated (P < 0.05) the diarrhea rate from d 12 to 21, enhanced (P < 0.05) the concentration of serum interlukin-10 and glutathione peroxidase in piglets on d 11 after weaning and serum superoxide dismutase in 21-day piglets. The MOA group also improved (P < 0.05) the apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and gross energy (GE), up-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression level of occludin, claudin-1 and mucin-2 in ileum and increased (P < 0.05) the contents of propionic and butyric acids in the cecum of piglets. The MOA group modulated the cecal and colonic microbial community structure and increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Faecalibacterium and Muribaculaceae in cecum and Streptococcus and Weissella in colon. Additionally, AGP group decreased (P < 0.05) apparent digestibility of DM, OM and GE as well as down-regulated (P < 0.05) relative gene expression level of claudin-1 in duodenum and jejunum, ZO-1 and mucin-1 in jejunum of piglets. CONCLUSION: In summary, dietary supplemented MOA alleviated diarrhea and improved nutrient apparent digestibility in piglets via enhancing immuno-antioxidant properties, increasing digestive enzyme activity, up-regulating the expression of intestinal barrier-related genes, and modifying the microbial community structure of the cecum and colon. Therefore, dietary supplementation with MOA as an alternative to antibiotics was feasible to improve intestinal health of piglets in practical production.

5.
Anim Nutr ; 8(1): 321-330, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35024469

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element in the production of swine. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of 3 different sources of Cu on growth performance, Cu metabolism, and intestinal microorganisms of finishing pigs, so as to estimate the bioavailability of the 3 sources for pigs. A total of 42 male finishing pigs (88.74 ± 5.74 kg) were randomly allocated to 7 treatments. The factors were 3 sources (CuSO4, Cu-glycine, Cu-proteinate) and 2 levels (5 and 20 mg/kg) of Cu, plus one negative control treatment (0 mg/kg added Cu level) for the entire 28-d experiment. The average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain ratio (F:G) both increased when Cu was added. The Cu level in liver, bile, kidney, serum, lung, urine and feces rose (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary Cu level regardless of the source. Meanwhile, pigs receiving organic Cu (glycinate or proteinate) retained more Cu and excreted less Cu than those receiving inorganic Cu (CuSO4), which showed that organic forms were more bioavailable. At the transcriptional level, changes in the level and source of dietary Cu resulted in modulation of transporters. In the jejunal mucosa, import transporter high affinity copper uptake protein 1 (CTR1) and export transporter ATPase copper transporting alpha (ATP7A) in supplemental Cu treatments were down-regulated compared to the control. Also, peptide transporter 1 (PepT1) and lanine-serine-cysteine transporter, type-2 (ASCT2) were significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated in 20 mg/kg Cu-proteinate and Cu-glycinate treatments, respectively. Microbial diversity was lowest in the 20 mg/kg CuSO4 treatment, and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes was higher in added Cu treatments, especially Cu-glycinate treatment. These results indicate that uptake of different Cu forms is facilitated by different transporters and transport mechanisms, and compared with inorganic Cu, organic Cu provides benefits to intestinal microflora and reduces Cu excretion.

6.
Anim Nutr ; 8(1): 71-81, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34977377

RESUMO

The inclusion of high-quality proteins are commonly used in swine production. Our research investigated the effects of hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), fermented soybean meal (FSBM), and enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM) on growth performance, antioxidant capacity, immunity, fecal microbiota and metabolites of weaned piglets. A total of 144 piglets (weaned at 28 d) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment and 8 piglets per pen. This study included 2 periods: d 0 to14 for phase 1 and d 15 to 28 for phase 2. Dietary treatments contained 15.90% HWP, 15.80% FSBM, and 15.10% ESBM in phase 1, and 7.90% HWP, 7.80% FSBM, and 7.50% ESBM in phase 2, respectively. The ADG of piglets in ESBM was increased (P < 0.05) compared with HWP and FSBM during d 1-28. Compared with HWP and FSBM, ESBM increased (P < 0.05) the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and the serum level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in piglets on d 14, as well as increased (P < 0.05) the serum FRAP level in piglets on d 28. ESBM decreased (P < 0.05) serum levels of DAO and IL-1ß in piglets compared with HWP on d 28. ESBM enhanced (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Oscillospiraceae and Christensenellaceae, as well as reduced the relative abundance of Clostridiaceae in the feces compared with HWP and FSBM. The PICRUSt analysis revealed that the number of gene tags related to degradation of valine, leucine and isoleucine, as well as lysine degradation in ESBM were lower (P < 0.05) than that in HWP and FSBM. ESBM increased (P < 0.05) the fecal butyrate level in piglets compared with FSBM, and ESBM tended to decrease (P = 0.076) the fecal cadaverine level. Overall, ESBM had advantages over HWP and FSBM in improving antioxidant status, immune function, fecal bacteria and metabolites for weaned piglets.

7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 2022 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary live yeast (LY, 1 × 1010 CFU g-1 ) supplementation on serum metabolic parameters, meat quality as well as antioxidant enzyme activity of transported broilers. A total of 192 one-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to four treatments with six replicates and eight chicks per replicate: a basal diet without transportation (CON), a basal diet containing 0 (T), 500 (T + LY500 ) and 1000 mg kg-1 (T + LY1000 ) LY with 3 h of transportation after feeding for 42 days, respectively. The serum and muscle samples of broilers were collected immediately after 3 h of transportation. RESULTS: A higher (P < 0.05) final body weight and average daily weight gain were observed in T + LY1000 group compared with CON and T groups. The T + LY1000 group reduced (P < 0.05) the serum lactate contents and improved (P < 0.05) the pH24h and decreased (P < 0.05) the drip loss in muscles of transported-broilers. Also, the T + LY1000 group enhanced (P < 0.05) the total-antioxidant capacity and reduced (P < 0.05) the malondialdehyde in serum and muscles. Besides, the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) in muscles was down-regulated (P < 0.05) of T + LY1000 group compared with T group. CONCLUSION: Dietary LY supplementation alleviates transport-stress-impaired meat quality of broilers through maintaining muscle energy metabolism and antioxidant status. Therefore, LY may serve as a potential protector for broilers under transport stress in the future. © 2022 The Authors. Journal of The Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 102(2): 597-606, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the development of intensive farming, long-term exposure of pigs to poor light conditions is not conducive to the production of vitamin D3 , and vitamin D3 deficiency could affect absorption and metabolism of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3 ) has higher bioactivity than regular vitamin D3 . This study investigated the effects of 25OHD3 on performance, serum parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolites in weaned piglets fed with low Ca-P diet. RESULTS: It was found that a low Ca-P diet supplemented with 50 µg/kg 25OHD3 (NC + 25-D) improved (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG) in phase 2 and in the overall period of the experiment, and increased (P < 0.05) the immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA), catalase (CAT), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), and osteocalcin (OC) serum content on day 28 compared with a low Ca-P diet (NC), but no differences were observed between a normal Ca-P diet (PC) and the NC + 25-D diet. Compared with NC, the abundance of Firmicutes was higher (P < 0.05) in PC and NC + 25-D. NC + 25-D decreased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Streptococcaceae compared with PC and NC, and increased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Lachnospiraceae compared with NC. Serum 25OHD3 was negatively correlated with the abundance of fecal Streptococcaceae (P < 0.05), and positively correlated with the abundance of fecal Lachnospiraceae (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Supplementation of 25OHD3 in a low Ca-P diet improved serum immunity, bone biochemical parameters, and fecal microbiota such as decreased Streptococcaceae abundance and increased Lachnospiraceae abundance, which could subsequently promote growth of piglets. The effects were similar to that of a normal Ca-P diet. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Calcifediol/metabolismo , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Cálcio/análise , Cálcio/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Fósforo/análise , Fósforo/metabolismo , Suínos/sangue , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/microbiologia , Desmame
9.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827753

RESUMO

Background: Organic acid as a green feed additive is increasingly favoured by enterprises and scholars, but little emphasis has been placed on the effect of organic acids on broiler meat quality. Methods: A total of 192 male chicks (one-day-old, weighted 48.40 ± 0.64 g) were selected to investigate the effect of mixed organic acids (MOA) on growth performance, meat quality as well as fatty acids profile. Chicks were randomly allocated to three treatments with eight replicates and eight chicks per replicate, including a corn-soybean basal diet with 0 (CON), 3000 mg/kg (low MOA; LMOA), and 6000 mg/kg (high MOA; HMOA) MOA. The experiment was divided into starter (d 1-d 21) and grower (d 22-d 42) phases. Results: Broilers supplemented with LMOA and HMOA enhanced (p < 0.05) the final body weight and average daily gain in the grower and overall phases. An improved (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio in the grower and overall phases was observed in broilers supplemented with LMOA. The breast and thigh muscles pH24h were higher (p < 0.05) in broilers fed with HMOA and the redness in thigh meat was also improved (p < 0.05). Additionally, supplementing LMOA increased (p < 0.05) the saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and the ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids in breast meat. A positive effect occurred (p < 0.05) on jejunal villus height and ileal crypt depth in 21 d broilers supplemented with HMOA. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that dietary supplementation of MOA could improve the growth performance, meat quality, and fatty acids profile, as well as intestinal morphology. Furthermore, diets supplemented with mixed organic acids at 3000 mg/kg may be more desirable, considering the overall experimental results in broilers.

10.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573566

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effects of ESBM on performance, antioxidant status, immune response, and intestinal barrier function of nursery pigs in antibiotic free diets compared with EFS. A total of 32 Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) barrows (initial body weight of 8.05 ± 0.66 kg, weaned on d 28) were selected and allocated to two treatments with 16 replicates per treatment and one pig per replicate using a complete random design. The treatments included an EFS group (basal diet + 24% EFS; EFS) and an ESBM group (basal diet + 15% ESBM; ESBM). Corn was used to balance energy and diets were iso-nitrogenous at about 18% crude protein. The experiment lasted for 14 days and pigs were slaughtered for sampling on d 14. Compared with EFS, pigs fed ESBM showed enhanced (p < 0.05) gain to feed ratio and average daily gain and a reduced (p < 0.05) diarrhea score. These pigs had increased (p < 0.05) contents of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, IgG, interleukin-10, and ferric reducing ability of plasma, as well as decreased (p < 0.05) malondialdehyde, IL-6, IL-1ß, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interferon-γ, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and diamine oxidase level in serum and TNF-α level in the jejunal mucosa. Moreover, these pigs also showed enhanced (p < 0.05) villus height/crypt depth in ileum, villus height in duodenum, protein expression of zonula-occludens-1 in jejunal mucosa, and fecal total volatile fatty acids and butyric acid contents. In conclusion, ESBM replacing EFS could enhance performance via improving immune response, antioxidant status, gut morphology, and barrier function of nursery pigs in antibiotic free diets.

11.
Anim Nutr ; 7(3): 728-736, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466677

RESUMO

Dietary supplementation with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), as an alternative source of vitamin D, is becoming increasingly popular due to its commercialization and more efficient absorbability. The addition of 25OHD3 rather than its precursor vitamin D3 can circumvent the 25-hydroxylation reaction in the liver, indicating that supplementation of 25OHD3 can rapidly improve the circulating vitamin D status of animals. Emerging experiments have reported that maternal 25OHD3 supplementation could increase sow performances and birth outcomes and promote circulating vitamin D status of sows and their offspring. Increased milk fat content was observed in many experiments; however, others demonstrated that adding 25OHD3 to lactating sow diets increased the contents of milk protein and lactose. Although an inconsistency between the results of different experiments exists, these studies suggested that maternal 25OHD3 supplementation could alter milk composition via its effects on the mammary gland. Previous studies have demonstrated that adding 25OHD3 to sow diets could improve the mRNA expressions of insulin-induced gene 1 (INSIG1) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in the mammary gland cells from milk and increase the mRNA expressions of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACCα) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the mammary gland tissue. Maternal 25OHD3 supplementation promotes skeletal muscle development of piglets before and after parturition, and improves bone properties including bone density and bone breaking force in lactating sows and their piglets. Interestingly, 25OHD3 supplementation in sow diets could improve neonatal bone development via regulation of milk fatty acid composition related to bone metabolism and mineralization. In this review, we also discuss the effects of adding 25OHD3 to sow diets on the gut bacterial metabolites of suckling piglets, and propose that butyrate production may be associated with bone health. Therefore, to better understand the nutritional functions of maternal 25OHD3 supplementation, this paper reviews advances in the studies of 25OHD3 for sow nutrition and provides references for practical application.

12.
Anim Nutr ; 7(3): 737-749, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34466678

RESUMO

The primary aim of this experiment was to critically explore the relationship between the different levels of mixed organic acids (MOA) and growth performance, serum antioxidant status and intestinal health of weaned piglets, as well as to investigate the potential possibility of MOA alternative to antibiotics growth promoters (AGP). A total of 180 healthy piglets (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]; weighing 7.81 ± 1.51 kg each, weaned at d 28) were randomly divided into 5 treatments: 1) basal diet (CON); 2) CON + chlorinomycin (75 mg/kg) + virginiamycin (15 mg/kg) + guitaromycin (50 mg/kg) (AGP); 3) CON + MOA (3,000 mg/kg) (OA1); 4) CON + MOA (5,000 mg/kg) (OA2); 5) CON + MOA (7,000 mg/kg) (OA3). This study design included 6 replicates per treatment with 6 piglets per pen (barrow:gilt = 1:1) and the experiment was separated into phase 1 (d 1 to 14) and phase 2 (d 15 to 28). In phases 1, 2 and overall, compared with the CON, the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced (P < 0.01) and the average daily gain (ADG) was increased (P < 0.05) in piglets supplemented with AGP, OA1 and OA2. The concentration of serum immunoglobulins G (IgG) was improved (P < 0.05) in piglets supplemented with OA2 in phase 2. In the jejunum and ileum, the villus height:crypt depth ratio was significantly increased (P < 0.01) in piglets fed AGP and OA1. The mRNA expression level of claudin-1 and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) (P < 0.01) was up-regulated in piglets supplemented with OA1 and OA2. The piglets fed AGP, OA1 and OA2 showed an increase (P < 0.05) in the content of acetate acid and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) in the cecum, and butyric acid and TVFA in the colon compared with CON. Also, OA1 lowered (P < 0.05) the content of Lachnospiraceae in piglets. These results demonstrated that MOA at 3,000 or 5,000 mg/kg could be an alternative to antibiotics due to the positive effects on performance, immune parameters, and intestinal health of weaned piglets. However, from the results of the quadratic fitting curve, it is inferred that MOA at a dose of 4,000 mg/kg may produce a better effect.

13.
Front Nutr ; 8: 673316, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34422878

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of dietary supplementation with mixed organic acids on intestinal health, enzyme activity, and antioxidative characteristics in broilers. A total of 192 1-day-old chicks were evenly allocated to three experimental groups with eight replicates, a basal diet with 0 (Control), 3,000 mg/kg (LMOA), 6,000 mg/kg (HMOA) mixed organic acid. The tissue and serum samples were gathered on 21 and 42 d of the experiment. An increased (P < 0.05) concentration of IgA, D-lactate (D-LA), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the serum of broilers diets with HMOA was observed. The levels of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and catalase activity (CAT) in serum were enhanced (P < 0.05) with dietary and mixed organic acid, respectively, and increased (P < 0.05) content of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT in the duodenum of broilers diets with LMOA was noticed. Also, LMOA decreased (P < 0.05) the pH value of the duodenum and enhanced (P < 0.05) the amylase activity of the pancreas, the tight junction protein (mainly Claudin-1, Claudin-2, and ZO-1) in the duodenum of broilers fed with mixed organic acid were promoted (P < 0.05), and the LMOA group performed better in the small intestine. In cecum microbiota, LMOA and HMOA modulated the structure of microbiota and mainly reduced the relative abundance of Escherichia coli. In brief, dietary supplemented mixed organic acid improved the health status of broilers by promoting the immune function, enhancing the antioxidative characteristics and tight junction proteins expression as well as cecum microbiota. However, LMOA groups may be a better fit considering the comprehensive effects of experiments and economic costs.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 706396, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335542

RESUMO

Xylanase exerts key roles in improving growth performance and intestinal health of broilers fed wheat-based diets. However, knowledge is limited regarding effects of xylanase supplementation on ileal microbiota in broilers. A total of 128 one-day-old broilers (initial BW 48.03 ± 0.33 g) were selected to investigate effects of xylanase (AT-xynA) on growth performance, ileal morphology, microbiota composition, immune response, antioxidant capacity, and endocrine peptide levels in broilers. Broilers were randomly allotted into two dietary treatments (n = 8), namely, a wheat-soybean basal diet and a basal diet with 4,000 U/kg AT-xynA (XY). On days 7, 14, 21, and 42, broilers were weighted and ileal tissues were sampled. Ileal digesta samples were collected for analyzing microbiota composition on days 21 and 42. The results showed that AT-xynA could improve average daily weight gain and average daily feed intake, and there were interactions between diet and age of broilers (p < 0.05). On days 21 and 42, xylanase supplementation decreased ileal microbiota α-diversity, and the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic microbiota, such as phylum Proteobacteria, family Moraxellaceae and Staphylococcaceae, genus Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, increased the abundance of Lactobacillus (p < 0.05). Moreover, the reduction in acetate concentration and abundance of short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria was also observed in broilers from XY group (p < 0.05). AT-xynA increased ileal villus height, glucagon-like peptide-1, and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and decreased interleukin-1ß, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and malondialdehyde content in broilers, and these positive effects on intestinal health were greater in young broilers. In conclusion, xylanase supplementation to wheat-based diets could improve ileal intestinal morphology and immune function, and alleviate excess fermentation of bacteria, which may be related to changes of intestinal microbiota. In addition, the positive effects of xylanase on intestinal health were more pronounced in young broilers, thus contributing to subsequent improvement in growth performance of broilers.

15.
Anim Nutr ; 7(2): 305-314, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258418

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of natural capsicum extract (NCE, containing 2% natural capsaicin, the rest is carrier) replacing chlortetracycline (CTC) on performance, digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant capacity, inflammatory cytokines, and gut health in weaned pigs. A total of 108 weaned pigs (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire], initial body weight = 8.68 ± 1.34 kg; weaned on d 28) were randomly allotted into 3 treatments with 6 replicate pens per treatment (3 barrows and 3 gilts per pen). The treatments include a corn-soybean meal basal diet as a control group (CON), a CTC group (basal diet + CTC at 75 mg/kg), and a NCE group (basal diet + NEC at 80 mg/kg). Compared with CON and CTC, NCE had increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain in phase 2 (d 15 to 28) and overall (d 1 to 28), and higher (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of gross energy, dry matter, crude protein, and organic matter in phase 1 (d 1 to 14). These pigs also had increased (P < 0.05) pancrelipase activity in pancreas, α-amylase, lipase and protease activities in the jejunal mucosa, and lipase activity in the ileal mucosa on d 28. Moreover, NCE had increased (P < 0.05) the contents of growth hormone, ß-endorphin, 5-hydroxytryptamine, total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase, catalase, and IL-10, as well as decreased (P < 0.05) contents of malondialdehyde, tumor nuclear factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin-6 in serum on d 28 compared with CON and CTC. NCE showed higher (P < 0.05) propionic acid, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) contents, and increased (P < 0.05) relative abundance of Faecalibacterium in colon, as well as higher (P < 0.05) propionic acid and total volatile fatty acids in cecum on d 28 compared with CON. In conclusion, NCE replacing CTC could enhance performance via improving digestive enzyme activities, antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory function, gut VFA composition and microbiota community in weaned pigs, and it could be used as a potential target for the development of feed additives.

16.
Anim Nutr ; 7(2): 315-325, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258419

RESUMO

This study examined the impacts of different fiber sources on growth, immune status and gut health in weaned piglets fed antibiotic-free diets. Sixty piglets (BW = 8.18 ± 1.35 kg) were assigned to 3 dietary treatments based on BW and gender in a randomized complete block design (5 replicates/treatment and 4 piglets [2 barrows and 2 gilts]/replicate): (1) an antibiotic-free diet (control, CON); (2) CON + 6% wheat bran (WB); (3) CON + 4% sugar beet pulp (SBP). Dietary WB supplementation tended to increase ADG compared with CON from d 1 to 14 (P = 0.051) and from d 1 to 28 (P = 0.099). Supplementation of WB increased (P < 0.05) G:F compared with CON and SBP from d 1 to 14 and from d 1 to 28. Compared with CON, the addition of WB reduced (P < 0.05) diarrhea rate from d 1 to 14 and tended (P = 0.054) to reduce diarrhea rate from d 1 to 28. The addition of WB decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase activity on d 14, and up-regulated (P < 0.05) ileal mRNA levels of occludin on d 28 when compared with CON. Piglets fed WB showed decreased (P < 0.05) serum interleukin-6 levels compared to those fed SBP and decreased (P < 0.05) ileal interleukin-8 levels compared to those fed CON and SBP on d 28. Supplementation of WB increased (P < 0.05) serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgG and IgM compared with SBP on d 14, and increased (P < 0.05) the levels of serum IgA and ileal sIgA compared with CON and SBP on d 28. Piglets fed WB showed an enhanced (P < 0.05) α-diversity of cecal microbiota than those fed SBP, while piglets fed SBP showed reduced (P < 0.05) α-diversity of cecal microbiota than those fed CON. Compared with CON, the addition of WB elevated (P < 0.05) the abundance of Lachnospira and cecal butyric acid level. Piglets fed WB also showed increased (P < 0.05) abundances of Lachnospira and unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae compared with those fed SBP. Collectively, the supplementation of WB to antibiotic-free diets improved performance, immune responses, gut barrier function and microbiota compared with the CON and SBP fed piglets. Therefore, supplementing weaned piglets with WB was more effective than SBP.

17.
Food Funct ; 12(16): 7329-7342, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179915

RESUMO

Maternal diet has a profound impact on growth and immune development of offspring. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of maternal supplementation with a combination of wheat bran (WB, a source of insoluble dietary fiber) and sugar beet pulp (SBP, a source of soluble dietary fiber) on growth and intestinal morphology, immunity, barrier function and microbiota in piglets. Thirty sows (Landrace × Yorkshire; 3-6 parity) were randomly allocated to 2 dietary treatments from d 85 of gestation to weaning (d 21 of lactation). The 2 dietary treatments were: a control diet (CON, a corn-soybean meal diet) and a dietary fiber diet (DF, 15% WB and 10% SBP during gestation and 7.5% WB and 5% SBP during lactation). Maternal DF supplementation improved growth, serum growth hormones and ileal morphology in piglets. Piglets fed DF showed enhanced intestinal barrier function as indicated by reduced serum concentrations of diamine oxidase and endotoxin, and increased ileal mRNA level of occludin. Maternal DF supplementation reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines in the colostrum, milk and serum of piglets. Furthermore, maternal DF supplementation decreased the colonic abundance of Subdoligranulum and Mogibacterium, and increased the colonic abundance of Lactobacillus and norank_f__Bacteroidales_S24-7_group and the colonic concentration of acetate and butyrate in piglets. In summary, maternal supplementation with a combination of SBP and WB during late gestation and lactation improved cytokines in colostrum and milk, growth, immune responses, intestinal morphology, barrier function and microbiota in piglets, which may be a potential strategy to improve offspring growth and intestinal functions.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Beta vulgaris/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lactação/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/imunologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais Recém-Nascidos/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Suínos
18.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072877

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary LY or LY combined with ZnO supplementation on performance and gut health in nursery pigs. 192 Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire piglets (weaned on d 32 of the age with 9.2 ± 1.7 kg BW) were allocated into four treatments with eight replicate pens, six piglets per pen. The treatments included a basal diet as control (CTR), an antibiotic plus ZnO diet (CTC-ZnO, basal diet + 75 mg/kg of chlortetracycline + ZnO (2000 mg/kg from d 1 to 14, 160 mg/kg from d 15 to 28)), a LY diet (LY, basal diet + 2 g/kg LY), and a LY plus ZnO diet (LY-ZnO, basal diet + 1 g/kg LY + ZnO). The results showed that pigs fed LY or LY-ZnO had increased (p < 0.05) average daily gain, serum IgA, IgG, superoxide dismutase, fecal butyric acid, and total volatile fatty acid concentrations, as well as decreased (p < 0.05) feed conversion ratio and diarrhea rate compared with CTR. In conclusion, pigs fed diets with LY or LY combined with ZnO had similar improvement to the use of antibiotics and ZnO in performance, antioxidant status, immunoglobulins, and gut health in nursery pigs.

19.
J Anim Sci ; 99(8)2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014312

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of dietary Forsythia suspensa extract (FSE) supplementation to lactating sows and nursery pigs on post-weaning performance, antioxidant capacity, immunoglobulins, and intestinal health. Based on backfat, body weight (BW), and parity, 24 gestating sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) with average parity of 3.38 ± 0.61 and BW of 234 ± 6.81 kg were allotted into two dietary treatments (control vs. 100 mg/kg FSE) with 12 sows per treatment from day 107 of gestation to day 21 of lactation. After weaning, based on the initial BW and source litter, 192 nursery pigs (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire], average BW of 6.98 ± 0.32 kg, weaned at day 21) were allotted into four dietary treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment, six pigs per pen for a 4-wk study. The treatments included the following: 1) CC (sows and their piglets both fed control diet); 2) CF (sows fed control diet and their piglets fed FSE diet [containing 100 mg/kg FSE]); 3) FC (sows fed FSE diet and their piglets fed control diet); and 4) FF (sows and their piglets both fed FSE diet). The MIXED procedures of SAS for a split-plot arrangement with sow diet as the whole plot and nursery diet as split plot were used to analyze the data. After weaning, piglets from FSE-fed sows had improved (P < 0.05) average daily gain and feed efficiency, and lower (P < 0.05) diarrhea rate in overall (day 1 to 28) compared with those from sows fed control diet. Piglets from FSE-fed sows also had higher (P < 0.05) contents of immunoglobulin G (IgG), growth hormone, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity in serum, villus height in ileum, and villus height to crypt depth ratio in jejunum, as well as lower (P < 0.05) content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum and crypt depth in ileum compared with those from sows fed control diet. Piglets fed FSE during nursery had increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of IgG, SOD, and catalase, and decreased (P < 0.05) MDA and tumor nuclear factor-α levels in serum compared with those fed control diet during nursery. Piglets from FC group had increased (P < 0.05) protein expression of occludin in jejunal mucosa and relative abundance of Lactobacillus on genus level in colon compared with those from CC group. In conclusion, for the performance and intestinal health, diets supplemented with FSE during lactation phase seemed more efficient to alleviate weaning stress than the nursery phase. In terms of the antioxidant status and immunoglobulins, FSE supplemented in both phases were efficient for nursery pigs.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Forsythia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Imunoglobulinas , Lactação , Nutrientes , Extratos Vegetais , Gravidez , Suínos , Desmame
20.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 12(1): 54, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sows are frequently subjected to various stresses during late gestation and lactation, which trigger inflammatory response and metabolic disorders. Dietary fiber can influence animal health by modulating gut microbiota and their by-products, with the effects depending upon the source of the dietary fiber. This study aimed to evaluate the impacts of different fiber sources on body condition, serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory responses and fecal microbiota in sows from late gestation to lactation. METHODS: Forty-five multiparous sows (Yorkshire × Landrace; 3-6 parity) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments from d 85 of gestation to the end of lactation (d 21 post-farrowing): a control diet (CON, a corn-soybean meal diet), a sugar beet pulp diet (SBP, 20% SBP during gestation and 10% SBP during lactation), and a wheat bran diet (WB, 30% WB during gestation and 15% WB during lactation). RESULTS: Compared with CON, supplementation of SBP decreased (P < 0.05) lactation BW loss, reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentration of total cholesterol, non-esterified fatty acids, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased (P < 0.05) fecal water content on d 110 of gestation and d 21 of lactation, while supplementation of WB reduced (P < 0.05) serum concentration of total cholesterol on d 110 of gestation, increased (P < 0.05) fecal water content and decreased (P < 0.05) serum interleukin-6 concentration on d 110 of gestation and d 21 of lactation. In addition, sows fed SBP had lower (P < 0.01) abundance of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1 and Terrisporobacter than those fed CON, but had greater (P < 0.05) abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and Ruminococcaceae_UCG-002 than those fed the other two diets on d 110 of gestation. On d 21 of lactation, supplementation of SBP decreased (P < 0.05) the abundance of Firmicutes and Lactobacillus, but enriched (P < 0.05) the abundance of Christensenellaceae_R-7_group, Prevotellaceae_NK3B31_group, Ruminococcaceae_UCG-002, Prevotellaceae_UCG_001 and unclassified_f__Lachnospiraceae compared with WB. Compared with CON, sows fed SBP had greater (P < 0.05) fecal concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total SCFAs during gestation and lactation, while sows fed WB only had greater (P < 0.05) fecal concentration of butyrate during lactation. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation of dietary fiber during late gestation and lactation could improve sow metabolism and gut health, and SBP was more effective than WB.

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