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1.
Am J Hematol ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780514

RESUMO

We analyzed 160 young Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (WM) patients with a median age of 49 years (range 23-55 years), diagnosed between January 2000 and January 2019 in 14 Italian centers. At diagnosis, 70% of patients were asymptomatic. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 57% have been treated. As initial therapy 79% of patients received chemo-immunotherapy, 13% a chemo-free induction and 8% chemotherapy only. At relapse or progression, 6% underwent an autologous stem cell transplantation. Overall, 19% of patients received ibrutinib during the course of the disease. According to IPSSWM, 63% were classified as low risk, 27% as intermediate risk and 10% as high risk. Five-year OS was shorter in high-risk as compared with low or intermediate risk patients (92.9% vs 100% P = .002). According to revised IPSSWM, 92% were classified as very low or low risk and 8% as intermediate risk, with a shorter 5-year OS in the latter group (87.5% vs 100%, P = .028). The OS of young WM patients was not significantly reduced as compared with age-matched, sex-matched and calendar year-matched general population. Early diagnosis, absence of high-risk features in symptomatic patients and high efficacy of modern treatments are the main determinants of the excellent outcome of young WM patients.

3.
Eur J Haematol ; 2020 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542880

RESUMO

Primary pancreatic lymphoma (PPL) is a rare disease representing 0.1% of malignant lymphomas, which lacks well-defined diagnostic and therapeutic protocols. OBJECTIVES: To describe PPL clinical, diagnostic and histological characteristics, together with therapy and outcome, in a relatively large series of patients. METHODS: The study includes 39 PPL patients, aged ≥15 years, observed from January 2005 to December 2018, in 8 Italian Institutions. RESULTS: The main symptoms were abdominal pain (58%) and jaundice (47%). Lactate dehydrogenase serum levels were elevated in 43% of patients. Histological specimens were mostly obtained by percutaneous (41%) or endoscopic (36%) biopsy, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma being the most frequent (69%) histological diagnosis. Chemotherapy was administered alone in 65% of patients, with radiotherapy in 17%, or after surgery in 9%. The 2-year overall survival (OS) was 62%, the 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) 44%. Debulking surgery (with or without chemotherapy) was associated with a significant worse OS. Three (9.4%) of 32 high-grade patients experienced a central nervous system (CNS) relapse. CONCLUSIONS: PPL is rare, often high-grade, with symptoms and localization similar to other pancreatic malignancies. Biopsy should be the preferred diagnostic method. High-grade PPL should undergo CNS prophylaxis.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7992, 2020 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409687

RESUMO

The last decade has witnessed a swiftly increasing interest in the design and production of novel multivalent molecules as powerful alternatives for conventional antibodies in the fight against cancer and infectious diseases. However, while it is widely accepted that large-scale flexibility (10-100 nm) and free/constrained dynamics (100 ns -µs) control the activity of such novel molecules, computational strategies at the mesoscale still lag behind experiments in optimizing the design of crucial features, such as the binding cooperativity (a.k.a. avidity). In this study, we introduced different coarse-grained models of a polymer-linked, two-nanobody composite molecule, with the aim of laying down the physical bases of a thorough computational drug design protocol at the mesoscale. We show that the calculation of suitable potentials of mean force allows one to apprehend the nature, range and strength of the thermodynamic forces that govern the motion of free and wall-tethered molecules. Furthermore, we develop a simple computational strategy to quantify the encounter/dissociation dynamics between the free end of a wall-tethered molecule and the surface, at the roots of binding cooperativity. This procedure allows one to pinpoint the role of internal flexibility and weak non-specific interactions on the kinetic constants of the nanobody-wall encounter and dissociation. Finally, we quantify the role and weight of rare events, which are expected to play a major role in real-life situations, such as in the immune synapse, where the binding kinetics is likely dominated by fluctuations.

5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(17): 4195-4207, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377866

RESUMO

To mimic the activity of hyaluronidase in natural environment, the hydrolysis of hyaluronic acid (HA) by hyaluronidase was investigated for the first time in the presence of crowding agents using capillary electrophoresis (CE) as a simple and reliable technique for conducting enzymatic assay. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 was selected as a model crowder and the hyaluronic acid degradation catalyzed by bovine testes hyaluronidase (BTH) was carried out at different PEG concentrations (0%, 10%, and 17%). After optimization of the CE analytical method and enzymatic assay, the degradation products were monitored at different HA concentrations. At 10% of PEG and 0.3 mg mL-1 of HA, the activity of the enzyme was significantly reduced showing inconvenient interactions of PEG with the hyaluronidase blocking the release of hydrolysis products. A similar reduction of hyaluronidase activity was observed at 1 mg mL-1 of HA due to the presumable formation of the BTH-substrate complex. The experimental curves obtained by CE also evidence that the overall kinetics are governed by the hydrolysis of hexasaccharide intermediates. Finally, the effect of PEG on hyaluronidase activity was evaluated in the presence of natural or synthetic inhibitors. Our results show a significant difference of the inhibitors' affinity toward hyaluronidase in the presence of PEG. Surprisingly, the presence of the crowding agent results in a loss of the inhibition effect of small polycyclic inhibitors, while larger charged inhibitors were less affected. In this work, CE analyses confirm the importance of mimicking the cellular environment for the discovery and development of reliable inhibitors. Graphical abstract.

6.
Cells ; 9(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245149

RESUMO

Immunotherapy represents a promising new avenue for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, particularly with the availability of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAbs) as anti-CD38 Daratumumab and Isatuximab and anti-SLAM-F7 Elotuzumab. Although a clear NK activation has been demonstrated for Elotuzumab, the effect of anti-CD38 mAbs on NK system is controversial. As a matter of fact, an initial reduction of NK cells number characterizes Daratumumab therapy, limiting the potential role of this subset on myeloma immunotherapy. In this paper we discuss the role of NK cells along with anti-CD38 therapy and their implication in plasma cell dyscrasias, showing that mechanisms triggered by anti-CD38 mAbs ultimately lead to the activation of the immune system against myeloma cell growth.

7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(10): 100604, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216400

RESUMO

To characterize the generic behavior of open quantum systems, we consider random, purely dissipative Liouvillians with a notion of locality. We find that the positivity of the map implies a sharp separation of the relaxation timescales according to the locality of observables. Specifically, we analyze a spin-1/2 system of size ℓ with up to n-body Lindblad operators, which are n local in the complexity-theory sense. Without locality (n=ℓ), the complex Liouvillian spectrum densely covers a "lemon"-shaped support, in agreement with recent findings [S. Denisov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 140403 (2019)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.123.140403]. However, for local Liouvillians (n<ℓ), we find that the spectrum is composed of several dense clusters with random matrix spacing statistics, each featuring a lemon-shaped support wherein all eigenvectors correspond to n-body decay modes. This implies a hierarchy of relaxation timescales of n-body observables, which we verify to be robust in the thermodynamic limit. Our findings for n locality generalize immediately to the case of spatial locality, introducing further splitting of timescales due to the additional structure.

9.
J Phys Chem B ; 124(5): 727-734, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917571

RESUMO

The cell is an extremely complex environment, notably highly crowded, segmented, and confining. Overall, there is overwhelming and ever-growing evidence that to understand how biochemical reactions proceed in vivo, one cannot separate the biochemical actors from their environment. Effects such as excluded volume, obstructed diffusion, weak nonspecific interactions, and fluctuations all team up to steer biochemical reactions often very far from what is observed in ideal conditions. In this paper, we use Ficoll PM70 and PEG 6000 to build an artificial crowded milieu of controlled composition and density in order to assess how such environments influence the biocatalytic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Our measurements show that the normalized apparent affinity and maximum velocity decrease in the same fashion, a behavior reminiscent of uncompetitive inhibition, with PEG resulting in the largest reduction. In line with previous studies on other enzymes of the same family, and in agreement with the known role of a surface loop involved in enzyme isomerization and regulation of access to the active site, we suggest that the crowding matrix interferes with the conformational ensemble of the enzyme. This likely results in both impaired enzyme-complex isomerization and thwarted product release. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that excluded-volume effects lead to an entropic force that effectively tends to push the loop closed, thereby effectively shifting the conformational ensemble of the enzyme in favor of a more stable complex isoform. Overall, our study substantiates the idea that most biochemical kinetics cannot be fully explained without including the subtle action of the environment where they take place naturally, in particular accounting for important factors such as excluded-volume effects and also weak nonspecific interactions when present, confinement, and fluctuations.

10.
Hematol Oncol ; 38(1): 3-11, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31782972

RESUMO

The knowledge accumulated over the last decade on B-cell-derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) pathogenesis has led to the identification of several molecular abnormalities, opening new perspectives in the design of novel therapies. Indeed, drugs targeting specific biochemical pathways critical for B-NHL cell survival, proliferation, and fitness within the malignant microenvironment are now available to the clinician: the B-cell receptor signaling inhibitors of BTK, PI3Kδ, ζ, γ, and SYK or the pro-apoptotic BH3-mimetics are clear examples of it. Moreover, it is emerging that malignant B-cell growth is sustained not only by mutations in oncogenes/tumor suppressors but also by the "addiction" to nononcogene (ie, nonstructurally altered) molecules. In this regard, a consistent body of data has established that the Ser/Thr kinases CK1, CK2, and GSK3 are involved in malignant lymphocyte biology and act as pro-survival and signaling-boosting molecules, both in precursor and mature B-cell tumors. Currently, an experimental and clinical groundwork is available, upon which to design CK1-, CK2-, and GSK3-directed antilymphoma/leukemia therapies. In this review, we have examined the main features of CK1, CK2, and GSK3 kinases, summarized the data in B-NHL supporting them as suitable therapeutic targets, and proposed a perspective on potential future research development.


Assuntos
Caseína Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfoma de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Linfoma de Células B/enzimologia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Animais , Humanos , Prognóstico
12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 123(21): 210604, 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809187

RESUMO

The discovery of quasicrystals with crystallographically forbidden rotational symmetries has changed the notion of the ordering in materials, yet little is known about the dynamical emergence of such exotic forms of order. Here we theoretically study a nonequilibrium cavity-QED setup realizing a zero-temperature quantum phase transition from a homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate to a quasicrystalline phase via collective superradiant light scattering. Across the superradiant phase transition, collective light scattering creates a dynamical, quasicrystalline optical potential for the atoms. Remarkably, the quasicrystalline potential is "emergent" as its eightfold rotational symmetry is not present in the Hamiltonian of the system, rather appears solely in the low-energy states. For sufficiently strong two-body contact interactions between atoms, a quasicrystalline order is stabilized in the system, while for weakly interacting atoms the condensate is localized in one or few of the deepest minima of the quasicrystalline potential.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(12)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817171

RESUMO

The bone marrow microenvironment promotes proliferation and drug resistance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although ibrutinib is active in CLL, it is rarely able to clear leukemic cells protected by bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) within the marrow niche. We investigated the modulation of JAK2/STAT3 pathway in CLL by BMSCs and its targeting with AG490 (JAK2 inhibitor) or Stattic (STAT3 inhibitor). B cells collected from controls and CLL patients, were treated with medium alone, ibrutinib, JAK/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) inhibitors, or both drugs, in the presence of absence of BMSCs. JAK2/STAT3 axis was evaluated by western blotting, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that STAT3 was phosphorylated in Tyr705 in the majority of CLL patients at basal condition, and increased following co-cultures with BMSCs or IL-6. Treatment with AG490, but not Stattic, caused STAT3 and Lyn dephosphorylation, through re-activation of SHP-1, and triggered CLL apoptosis even when leukemic cells were cultured on BMSC layers. Moreover, while BMSCs hamper ibrutinib activity, the combination of ibrutinib+JAK/STAT inhibitors increase ibrutinib-mediated leukemic cell death, bypassing the pro-survival stimuli derived from BMSCs. We herein provide evidence that JAK2/STAT3 signaling might play a key role in the regulation of CLL-BMSC interactions and its inhibition enhances ibrutinib, counteracting the bone marrow niche.

14.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 21(46): 25896-25906, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742309

RESUMO

The calculation of the diffusion-controlled reaction rate for partially absorbing, non-spherical boundaries presents a formidable problem of broad relevance. In this paper we take the reference case of a spherical boundary and work out a perturbative approach to get a simple analytical formula for the first-order correction to the diffusive flux onto a non-spherical partially absorbing surface of revolution. To assess the range of validity of this formula, we derive exact and approximate expressions for the reaction rate in the case of partially absorbing prolate and oblate spheroids. We also present numerical solutions by a finite-element method that extend the validity analysis beyond spheroidal shapes. Our perturbative solution provides a handy way to quantify the effect of non-sphericity on the rate of capture in the general case of partial surface reactivity.

15.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12835, 2019 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492876

RESUMO

Enzymes speed up biochemical reactions at the core of life by as much as 15 orders of magnitude. Yet, despite considerable advances, the fine dynamical determinants at the microscopic level of their catalytic proficiency are still elusive. In this work, we use a powerful mathematical approach to show that rate-promoting vibrations in the picosecond range, specifically encoded in the 3D protein structure, are localized vibrations optimally coupled to the chemical reaction coordinates at the active site. Remarkably, our theory also exposes an hithertho unknown deep connection between the unique localization fingerprint and a distinct partition of the 3D fold into independent, foldspanning subdomains that govern long-range communication. The universality of these features is demonstrated on a pool of more than 900 enzyme structures, comprising a total of more than 10,000 experimentally annotated catalytic sites. Our theory provides a unified microscopic rationale for the subtle structure-dynamics-function link in proteins.

16.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk ; 19(10): 678-685.e4, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371221

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most important markers in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are TP53 abnormalities, including mutations and deletions, and the mutational status of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGHV) genes. However, some recent publications suggest that the IGHV mutational load could have a prognostic effect on CLL patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study on 459 patients with productive rearrangement of the B-cell receptor to evaluate the prognostic and predictive role of IGHV mutational status and burden within the germline sequence. In particular we focused on FCR (fludarabine with cyclophosphamide, and rituximab)- (64 naive and 30 relapsed) and BR (bendamustine with rituximab)-treated patients (17 naive and 61 relapsed). A cutoff value of 2% of difference within the IGHV germline was used to define the IGHV mutational status. RESULTS: We reported that unmutated IGHV (U-IGHV) patients were characterized by a significant shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (P < .0001) compared with mutated IGHV (M-IGHV) patients. Moreover, treatment-naive M-IGHV patients experienced a long-term disease control after FCR or BR, with PFS reaching a plateau regardless of mutational load. In our series the extent of IGHV gene mutation did not provide further relevant prognostic data over the mutational status. Relapsed patients showed dismal outcome with chemoimmunotherapy regardless of IGHV status or load. CONCLUSION: Our data, together with from those from the literature, confirmed the cutoff value of 2% to define the mutational status of IGHV gene and suggest that FCR/BR are good first-line treatment strategies for M-IGHV patients, whereas U-IGHV patients should be managed with B-cell receptor and/or B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2) inhibitors.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 145(11): 3089-3100, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044428

RESUMO

Considering the role played by the heat shock protein of 70 kDa (HSP70) in cancer, we characterized this protein and its major regulator, the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found both HSP70 and HSF1 overexpressed in CLL patients, correlated to poor prognosis and abnormally localized in the nucleus of leukemic B cells. The two proteins were strictly correlated each other and their levels decreased consensually in those patients responding to in vivo therapeutic regimens. HSP70 and HSF1 inhibition was proved to be effective in inducing a dose-dependent in vitro apoptosis of CLL B cells. Considering that HSF1 is finely regulated by kinases belonging to pathways triggered by rat sarcoma (RAS), we benefited from a previous proteomic study performed in CLL patients aiming to assess the activation/expression of key signaling proteins. We found that patients showing high levels of HSP70 also expressed high Akt-Ser473, thus activating HSF1. Inhibition of PI3K, which activates AKT, reduced the expression of HSF1 and HSP70. By contrast, HSP70-low patients displayed high activation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2, known to negatively regulate HSF1. These data demonstrate that the HSP70 expression is regulated by the modulation of HSF1 activity through the activation of RAS-regulated pathways and suggest the HSP70/HSF1 interplay as an interesting target for antileukemic therapies. Finally, inhibition of PI3K, that activates AKT, reduced the expression of HSF1 and HSP70.


Assuntos
Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Prognóstico , Proteômica/métodos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Pirazóis/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
Cell Death Discov ; 5: 98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123604

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a tumor of plasma cells (PCs). Due to the intense immunoglobulin secretion, PCs are prone to endoplasmic reticulum stress and activate several stress-managing pathways, including autophagy. Indeed, autophagy deregulation is maladaptive for MM cells, resulting in cell death. CK1α, a pro-survival kinase in MM, has recently been involved as a regulator of the autophagic flux and of the transcriptional competence of the autophagy-related transcription factor FOXO3a in several cancers. In this study, we investigated the role of CK1α in autophagy in MM. To study the autophagic flux we generated clones of MM cell lines expressing the mCherry-eGFP-LC3B fusion protein. We observed that CK1 inhibition with the chemical ATP-competitive CK1 α/δ inhibitor D4476 resulted in an impaired autophagic flux, likely due to an alteration of lysosomes acidification. However, D4476 caused the accumulation of the transcription factor FOXO3a in the nucleus, and this was paralleled by the upregulation of mRNA coding for autophagic genes. Surprisingly, silencing of CK1α by RNA interference triggered the autophagic flux. However, FOXO3a did not shuttle into the nucleus and the transcription of autophagy-related FOXO3a-dependent genes was not observed. Thus, while the chemical inhibition with the dual CK1α/δ inhibitor D4476 induced cell death as a consequence of an accumulation of ineffective autophagic vesicles, on the opposite, CK1α silencing, although it also determined apoptosis, triggered a full activation of the early autophagic flux, which was then not supported by the upregulation of autophagic genes. Taken together, our results indicate that the family of CK1 kinases may profoundly influence MM cells survival also through the modulation of the autophagic pathway.

20.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(11): 113603, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951329

RESUMO

The recent experimental observation of spinor self-ordering of ultracold atoms in optical resonators has set the stage for the exploration of emergent magnetic orders in quantum-gas-cavity systems. Based on this platform, we introduce a generic scheme for the implementation of long-range quantum spin Hamiltonians composed of various types of couplings, including Heisenberg and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Our model is composed of an effective two-component Bose-Einstein condensate, driven by two classical pump lasers and coupled to a single dynamic mode of a linear cavity in a double Λ scheme. Cavity photons mediate the long-range spin-spin interactions with spatially modulated coupling coefficients, where the latter ones can be tuned by modifying spatial profiles of the pump lasers. As experimentally relevant examples, we demonstrate that by properly choosing the spatial profiles of the pump lasers achiral domain-wall antiferromagnetic and chiral spin-spiral orders emerge beyond critical laser strengths. The transition between these two phases can be observed in a single experimental setup by tuning the reflectivity of a mirror. We also discuss extensions of our scheme for the implementation of other classes of spin Hamiltonians.

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