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1.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(8): 1107-1115, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439220

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic medical conditions, and is a risk factor for the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). The presence of diabetes in patients with AF is associated with increased symptom burden and increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular mortality. The pathophysiology of diabetes-related AF is not fully understood, but is related to structural, electrical, electromechanical, and autonomic remodeling. This paper reviews the complex interaction between diabetes and AF, and explores its effect on the prevention and treatment of AF.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393025

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Little is known about how genetic predisposition and fibrosis relate in atrial fibrillation (AF). Hence, we sought to determine whether the genetic variants and biomarkers for fibrosis enhance prediction of outcomes after catheter ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients who underwent catheter ablation of AF (paroxysmal, 158; nonparoxysmal, 137) or supraventricular tachycardia without AF (n = 70) were studied retrospectively. Plasma levels of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and 4q25 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10033464 and rs220073) were measured. Mean plasma levels of both TGF-ß1 and TIMP-1 were higher in patients with AF than in the control (all P < .001). Plasma levels of TIMP-1 were higher in patients with recurrence compared with those without recurrence (P = .039). Patients with variant alleles of rs10033464 showed increased recurrence after catheter ablation in patients with paroxysmal AF including after adjustment (P = .027). Patients with TIMP-1 < 107 ng/mL and no variant allele (GG) at rs10033464 had lower recurrence rates compared with other groups in those with paroxysmal AF (logrank; P = .007), whereas there was no significant difference among those patients with persistent forms of AF. Inclusion of biomarkers and genotype improved discrimination of AF recurrence in patients with paroxysmal AF (C-statistic .499 vs .600). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of plasma TIMP-1 concentrations less than 107 ng/mL and the absence of a variant allele at rs10033464 was associated with lower recurrence rates in patients with paroxysmal AF. This study suggests that 4q25 SNPs and biomarkers for fibrosis may provide additive value in risk stratification for AF recurrence after catheter ablation.

6.
Heart Rhythm ; 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369873

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antitachycardia pacing (ATP) is routinely used to terminate ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs). However, little guidance exists on the most effective programming of ATP. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether additional ATP sequences are more effective in reducing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks. METHODS: In patients from the Shock-Less study, the number of overall shocks were compared between patients programmed to ≤3 ATP sequences (VT zone) and ≤1 ATP sequence (fast ventricular tachycardia [FVT] zone) (nominal group) and patients programmed to receive additional ATP sequences in VT (>3) or FVT (>1) zones. RESULTS: Of the 4112 patients (15% receiving secondary prevention; 77% men; mean age 65.9 ± 12.6 years), 1532 patients (37%) were programmed with additional ATP sequences (1025 with >3 ATP sequences in the VT zone; 699 patients with >1 ATP sequence in the FVT zone). Over a mean follow-up period of 19.6 ± 10.7 months, 4359 VT/FVT episodes occurred in 591 patients. Compared with the nominal group, in patients with additional ATP programming, there was a 39% reduction in the number of shocked VT episodes (0.46 episodes per patient-year vs 0.28 episodes per patient-year; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.61; P < .001) and a 44% reduction in the number of shocked FVT episodes (0.83 episodes per patient-year vs 0.47 episodes per patient-year; IRR 0.56; P < .001). The reduction in shocked VT episodes was observed in both primary (IRR 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.51-0.90; P = .007) and secondary (IRR 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.35-0.72; P < .001) prevention patients. CONCLUSION: Programming more than the nominal number of ATP sequences in both the VT and FVT zones is associated with a lower occurrence of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks in clinical practice.

7.
Cardiol Ther ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376090

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and satisfaction endpoints are increasingly important in clinical trials and may be associated with treatment adherence. In this post hoc substudy from ROCKET AF, we examined whether patient-reported satisfaction was associated with study drug discontinuation. METHODS: ROCKET AF (n = 14,264) compared rivaroxaban with warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation. We analyzed treatment satisfaction scores: the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS) and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II (TSQM II). We compared satisfaction with study drug between the two treatment arms, and examined the association between satisfaction and patient-driven study drug discontinuation (stopping study drug due to withdrawal of consent, noncompliance, or loss to follow-up). RESULTS: A total of 1577 (11%) patients participated in the Patient Satisfaction substudy; 1181 (8.3%) completed both the ACTS and TSQM II 4 weeks after starting study drug. Patients receiving rivaroxaban did not experience significant differences in satisfaction compared with those receiving warfarin. During a median follow-up of 1.6 years, 448 premature study drug discontinuations occurred (213 rivaroxaban group; 235 warfarin group), of which 116 (26%) were patient-driven (52 [24%] rivaroxaban group; 64 [27%] warfarin group). No significant differences were observed between satisfaction level and rates of patient-driven study drug discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Study drug satisfaction did not predict rate of study drug discontinuation. No significant difference was observed between satisfaction with warfarin and rivaroxaban, as expected given the double-blind trial design. Although these results are negative, the importance of PRO data will only increase, and these analyses may inform future studies that explore the relationship between drug-satisfaction PROs, adherence, and clinical outcomes. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV: NCT00403767. FUNDING: The ROCKET AF trial was funded by Johnson & Johnson and Bayer.

8.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and prognostic value of diastolic and systolic dyssynchrony in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) + heart failure (HF) or CAD alone are not well understood. METHODS: We included patients with gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) between 2003 and 2009. Patients had at least one major epicardial obstruction ≥ 50%. We assessed the association between dyssynchrony and outcomes, including all-cause and cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Of the 1294 patients, HF was present in 25%. Median follow-up was 6.7 years (IQR 4.9-9.3) years with 537 recorded deaths. Patients with CAD + HF had a higher incidence of dyssynchrony than patients with CAD alone (diastolic BW 28.8% for the HF + CAD vs 14.7% for the CAD alone). Patients with CAD + HF had a lower survival than CAD alone at 10 years (33%; 95% CI 27-40 vs 59; 95% CI 55-62, P < 0.0001). With one exception, HF was found to have no statistically significant interaction with dyssynchrony measures in unadjusted and adjusted survival models. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CAD + HF have a high prevalence of mechanical dyssynchrony as measured by GSPECT MPI, and a higher mortality than CAD alone. However, clinical outcomes associated with mechanical dyssynchrony did not differ in patients with and without HF.

9.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268487

RESUMO

Importance: Bleeding and thrombotic events (eg, stroke and systemic embolism) are common in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) taking warfarin sodium despite a well-established therapeutic range. Objective: To evaluate whether history of therapeutic warfarin control in patients with AF is independently associated with subsequent bleeding or thrombotic events. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter cohort study of 176 primary care, cardiology, and electrophysiology clinics in the United States, data were obtained during 51 830 visits among 10 137 patients with AF in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) Registry; 5545 patients treated with warfarin were included in the bleeding analysis, and 5635 patients were included in the thrombotic event analysis. Patient follow-up was performed from June 29, 2010, to November 30, 2014. Data analysis was performed from August 4, 2016, to February 15, 2019. Exposures: Multiple measures of warfarin control within the preceding 6 months were analyzed: time in therapeutic range of 2.0 to 3.0, most recent international normalized ratio (INR), percentage of time that a patient had interpolated INR values less than 2.0 or greater than 3.0, INR variance, INR range, and percentage of INR values in therapeutic range. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association of INR measures, alone or in combination, with clinical factors and risk for thrombotic events and bleeding during the subsequent 6 months was assessed post hoc using logistic regression models. Results: A total of 5545 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3184 [57.4%] male) with AF were included in the major bleeding analysis and 5635 patients (mean [SD] age, 74.5 [9.8] years; 3236 [57.4%] male) in the thrombotic event analysis. During a median follow-up of 1.5 years (interquartile range, 1.0-2.5 years), there were 339 major bleeds (6.1%) and 51 strokes (0.9%). Multiple metrics of warfarin control were individually associated with subsequent bleeding. After adjustment for clinical bleeding risk, 3 measures-time in therapeutic range (per 1-SD increase ≤55: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32), variation in INR values (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.19-1.47), and maximum INR (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31)-remained associated with bleeding risk. Adding INR variance to a clinical risk model slightly increased the C statistic from 0.68 to 0.69 and had a net reclassification improvement index of 0.028 (95% CI, -0.029 to 0.067). No INR measures were associated with subsequent stroke risk. Conclusions and Relevance: Three metrics of prior warfarin control were associated with bleeding risk but only marginally more so than traditional clinical factors. This study did not identify any measures of INR control that were significantly associated with stroke risk.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(6): 871-878, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350002

RESUMO

Recently, cluster analysis was used to identify unique clinically relevant phenotypes of atrial fibrillation (AF) in a cohort from the United States (US) and classified clusters according to the presence of comorbid behavioral disorders, those with conduction disorders, or atherosclerotic comorbidities. Whether these phenotypes are consistent in AF cohorts outside the US remains unknown. Thus, we sought to conduct a cluster analysis in a cohort of Japanese AF patients. We conducted a cluster analysis of phenotypic data (46 variables) in an AF patient cohort recruited from 11 Japanese sites participating in the KiCS-AF Registry. Overall, 2,458 AF patients (median [IQR] age, 68.0 [60.0 to 76.0]; 30.3% female; median [IQR] CHA2DS2-Vasc, 2 [1, 3]) were analyzed. Similar to the US cohort, atherosclerotic comorbidities were identified as distinguishing factors to characterize clusters. Distribution of AF type and left atrial (LA) size substantially varied and was the key feature for cluster formation. CHA2DS2-Vasc score also contributed to cluster formation, although behavioral disorders and/or conduction disorders did not readily characterize clusters. Subsequently, the cohort was classified into 3 clusters: (1) Younger paroxysmal AF (n = 1,190); (2) Persistent/permanent AF with LA enlargement (n = 1,143); and (3) Atherosclerotic comorbid AF in elderly patients (N = 125). In conclusion, conventional classifications, such as atherosclerotic risk factors and CHA2DS2-Vasc score contributed to cluster formation in mutually, whereas in nonatherosclerotic clusters, AF type or LA size rather than the presence or absence of behavior risk factors or sinus node dysfunction (tachy-brady syndrome) seemed to contribute to cluster formation in the Japanese cohort.

11.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 42(8): 1105-1110, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Micra clinical trials have enrolled more than 2500 patients without any reported device-related infections that required removal during follow-up. Leadless pacemakers might be more resistant to bacterial seeding due to smaller surface area and a greater tendency for encapsulation. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence and outcomes of serious infectious events (SIEs: bacteremia or endocarditis) that developed during follow-up in patients with history of Micra leadless pacemaker implantation. METHODS: SIE and outcomes were characterized based upon adverse event reports. Among 720 patients implanted with Micra in the investigational device exemption trial, we identified 16 patients who had documented 21 SIEs during follow-up. RESULTS: Among patients with SIEs, mean age was 71.9 ± 11.7 years. SIEs occurred at a mean 4.8 ± 4.5 months after implant and patients were followed for 13.1 ± 9.1 months after documentation of SIE. All events were adjudicated as unrelated to the Micra device or procedure. Bacteremia was documented to be related to a gram-positive organism in 13 events (seven Staphylococcus, three Streptococcus, two Enterococcus, and one uncharacterized gram-positive bacteria), and gram-negative organisms in three events. In five events, the type of organism was not characterized (two patients with endocarditis). No persistent cases of bacteremia after antibiotic cessation were seen over the duration of follow-up CONCLUSION: In this small series of Micra patients who developed SIEs postimplant, the occurrence of bacteremia and/or endocarditis did not appear to lead to persistent bacteremia off antibiotics; most events resolved with antibiotic treatment.

13.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(6): 447-456, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146871

RESUMO

Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are 2 common cardiovascular disorders that frequently complicate one another and exert a significant detrimental effect on cardiovascular health and well-being. Both heart failure and atrial fibrillation continue to increase in prevalence as the risk factors underlying each condition become more common. This review encompasses what is currently known about the epidemiology and pathophysiology of these comorbidities along with incorporation of landmark trials that have contributed to current guidelines. The focus is on clinically relevant considerations, including the contribution of inflammation in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and heart failure. We explore the emerging role of catheter ablation relative to medical therapy in the management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, along with indications for biventricular pacing modalities in cardiac resynchronization therapy. We discuss current guideline-directed therapies and how practice models and national recommendations will likely change based on the most recent randomized controlled trials.

14.
Europace ; 21(9): 1284-1285, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31106325
16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(7): 586-598, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of bucindolol with that of metoprolol succinate for the maintenance of sinus rhythm in a genetically defined heart failure (HF) population with atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: Bucindolol is a beta-blocker whose unique pharmacologic properties provide greater benefit in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) who have the beta1-adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) Arg389Arg genotype. METHODS: A total of 267 HFrEF patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <0.50, symptomatic AF, and the ADRB1 Arg389Arg genotype were randomized 1:1 to receive bucindolol or metoprolol therapy and were up-titrated to target doses. The primary endpoint of AF or atrial flutter (AFL) or all-cause mortality (ACM) was evaluated by electrocardiogram (ECG) during a 24-week period. RESULTS: The hazard ratio (HR) for the primary endpoint was 1.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 1.42), but trends for bucindolol benefit were observed in several subgroups. Precision therapeutic phenotyping revealed that a differential response to bucindolol was associated with the interval of time from the initial diagnoses of AF and HF to randomization and with the onset of AF relative to that of the initial HF diagnosis. In a cohort whose first AF and HF diagnoses were <12 years prior to randomization, in which AF onset did not precede HF by more than 2 years (n = 196), the HR was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.33 to 0.87; p = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacogenetically guided bucindolol therapy did not reduce the recurrence of AF/AFL or ACM compared to that of metoprolol therapy in HFrEF patients, but populations were identified who merited further investigation in future phase 3 trials.

17.
Am Heart J ; 213: 81-90, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treatment patterns and outcomes of individuals with vascular disease who have new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) are not well characterized. METHODS: Among patients with new-onset AF, we analyzed treatment and outcomes in those with or without vascular disease in the ORBIT-AF II registry. Vascular disease was defined as coronary disease with or without myocardial infarction (MI) or revascularization, or peripheral artery disease. The primary outcomes included major adverse cardiovascular or neurological events (MACNE) and major bleeding. Cox proportional hazard models were used to adjust the difference in patient characteristics. RESULTS: Overall 1920 of 6203 (31.0%) of new-onset AF had vascular disease. In patients with vascular disease, 62.2% of those were treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and 23.4% with warfarin. Dual therapy and triple therapy were used in 36.9% and 4.9%, respectively. Vascular disease patients had increased risk of MACNE (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.83 [95%CIs 1.32-2.55]), but not major bleeding (aHR 1.24 [0.95-1.63]). Among patients with vascular disease, relative to those on warfarin, those treated with DOACs had similar risk for MACNE (aHR 1.20 [0.77-1.87]) but lower risks for bleeding, although it did not reach statistical significance (aHR 0.70 [0.43-1.15]). Concomitant antiplatelet therapy was associated with higher bleeding (aHR 2.27 [1.38-3.73]) with no apparent reduction in MACNE (aHR 1.50 [1.00-2.25]). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with AF and vascular disease were managed with oral anticoagulation. About half of them were also treated with concomitant antiplatelet therapy, which was associated with increased risk of bleeding, without evidence of improved cardiovascular outcomes.

18.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 5(5): 599-605, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine how frequently patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are collected in registered clinical studies of atrial fibrillation (AF). BACKGROUND: Improving symptom burden and quality of life are important goals in the treatment of AF and are best measured with PROs. METHODS: Data from Clincaltrials.gov were studied to identify PROs in AF studies. All studies reporting AF as the disease condition were included, and PROs were identified by search terms within the outcome measures field. Generic and AF-specific PROs were identified and assessed by study type and year. Clinicaltrials.gov reporting was compared with published reports of linked studies in PubMed. RESULTS: From 1999 to 2018, 1,709 studies including AF patients were posted; 238 studies (14%) included PROs. Collection of PROs was reported in 22% of trials (n = 83 of 386) studying procedural interventions and 11% of all Phase 3 studies (n = 18 of 168). Among the 238 studies with PROs, most described "quality of life" (n = 194 [82%]), and most (n = 198 [83%]) included only generic (not AF-specific) PROs. Only 17% of studies (n = 40) reporting PROs specified a previously published AF-specific tool, most commonly the AFEQT (Atrial Fibrillation Effect on QualiTy-of-life) form (n = 20 [8.4%]). Among the available PubMed citations of 391 studies, 74 studies (19%) described collecting a specific PRO tool (n = 29 [7.4%]) for an AF-specific PRO. CONCLUSIONS: Despite increased emphasis on the importance of PROs in AF, a minority of registered clinical trials reported collecting PROs, with very few using validated, AF-specific PROs. Improving outcomes that are most important to patients will necessitate increased emphasis on these PROs in pivotal clinical studies.

19.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(5): e005358, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092022

RESUMO

Background The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life (AFEQT) questionnaire has recently been validated to measure the impact of atrial fibrillation on quality of life, but a clinically important difference in AFEQT score has not been well defined. Methods and Results To determine the clinically important difference in overall AFEQT (score range= 0 [worst] to 100 [best]) and selected subscales, we analyzed data in the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF) registry, a United States-based outpatient atrial fibrillation registry. AFEQT was assessed at baseline and 1 year in a subset of 1347 ORBIT-AF patients from 80 US sites participating in ORBIT-AF from June 2010 to August 2011. The mean change method was used to relate changes in 1-year AFEQT scores to clinically important changes in the physician assessment of European Heart Rhythm Association functional status (1 class improvement and separately 1 class deterioration). Clinically important differences and 95% CI corresponding to either a 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class improvement or deterioration were 5.4 (3.6-7.2) and -4.2 (-6.9 to -1.5) AFEQT points, respectively. Similarly, clinically important difference values were seen for a 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class improvement for the AFEQT subscales Activities of Daily Living and Symptoms: 5.1 (2.5-7.6) and 7.1 (5.3-9.0) AFEQT points, respectively. Conclusions Based on the anchor of 1 European Heart Rhythm Association class change, changes in AFEQT score of + or -5 points are clinically important changes in patients' health. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01165710.

20.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(9): e011205, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023126

RESUMO

Background Patient satisfaction with therapy is an important metric of care quality and has been associated with greater medication persistence. We evaluated the association of patient satisfaction with warfarin therapy to other metrics of anticoagulation care quality and clinical outcomes among patients with atrial fibrillation ( AF ). Methods and Results Using data from the ORBIT - AF (Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation) registry, patients were identified with AF who were taking warfarin and had completed an Anti-Clot Treatment Scale ( ACTS ) questionnaire, a validated metric of patient-reported burden and benefit of oral anticoagulation. Multivariate regressions were used to determine association of ACTS burden and benefit scores with time in therapeutic international normalized ratio range ( TTR ; both ≥75% and ≥60%), warfarin discontinuation, and clinical outcomes (death, stroke, major bleed, and all-cause hospitalization). Among 1514 patients with AF on warfarin therapy (75±10 years; 42% women; CHA 2 DS 2- VAS c 3.9±1.7), those most burdened with warfarin therapy were younger and more likely to be women, have paroxysmal AF , and to be treated with antiarrhythmic drugs. After adjustment for covariates, ACTS burden scores were independent of TTR ( TTR ≥75%: odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI , 0.99-1.03]; TTR ≥60%: odds ratio, 1.01 [95% CI , 0.98-1.05]), warfarin discontinuation (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI , 0.97-1.01), or clinical outcomes. ACTS benefit scores were also not associated with TTR , warfarin discontinuation, or clinical outcomes. Conclusions In a large registry of patients with AF taking warfarin, ACTS scores provided independent information beyond other traditional metrics of oral anticoagulation care quality and identified patient groups at high risk for dissatisfaction with warfarin therapy.

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