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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530447

RESUMO

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral-spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a rare disorder originating from abnormal development of the first and second branchial arch. The clinical phenotype is extremely heterogeneous with ear anomalies, hemifacial microsomia, ocular defects, and vertebral malformations being the main features. MYT1, AMIGO2, and ZYG11B gene variants were reported in a few OAVS patients, but the etiology remains largely unknown. A multifactorial origin has been proposed, including the involvement of environmental and epigenetic mechanisms. To identify the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to OAVS, we evaluated the DNA-methylation profiles of 41 OAVS unrelated affected individuals by using a genome-wide microarray-based methylation approach. The analysis was first carried out comparing OAVS patients with controls at the group level. It revealed a moderate epigenetic variation in a large number of genes implicated in basic chromatin dynamics such as DNA packaging and protein-DNA organization. The alternative analysis in individual profiles based on the searching for Stochastic Epigenetic Variants (SEV) identified an increased number of SEVs in OAVS patients compared to controls. Although no recurrent deregulated enriched regions were found, isolated patients harboring suggestive epigenetic deregulations were identified. The recognition of a different DNA methylation pattern in the OAVS cohort and the identification of isolated patients with suggestive epigenetic variations provide consistent evidence for the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous disorder.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 977-988, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058759

RESUMO

PRKACA and PRKACB code for two catalytic subunits (Cα and Cß) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a pleiotropic holoenzyme that regulates numerous fundamental biological processes such as metabolism, development, memory, and immune response. We report seven unrelated individuals presenting with a multiple congenital malformation syndrome in whom we identified heterozygous germline or mosaic missense variants in PRKACA or PRKACB. Three affected individuals were found with the same PRKACA variant, and the other four had different PRKACB mutations. In most cases, the mutations arose de novo, and two individuals had offspring with the same condition. Nearly all affected individuals and their affected offspring shared an atrioventricular septal defect or a common atrium along with postaxial polydactyly. Additional features included skeletal abnormalities and ectodermal defects of variable severity in five individuals, cognitive deficit in two individuals, and various unusual tumors in one individual. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of the variants identified in PRKACA and PRKACB through the use of several computational and experimental approaches, and we found that they lead to PKA holoenzymes which are more sensitive to activation by cAMP than are the wild-type proteins. Furthermore, expression of PRKACA or PRKACB variants detected in the affected individuals inhibited hedgehog signaling in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, thereby providing an underlying mechanism for the developmental defects observed in these cases. Our findings highlight the importance of both Cα and Cß subunits of PKA during human development.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2087-2093, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906221

RESUMO

Clinical expression of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC) is variable and mild phenotypes have been described, including patients with mostly cardiac and limb involvement. Whether these cases are part of the EvC phenotypic spectrum or separate conditions is disputed. Herein, we describe a family with vertical transmission of atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD), common atrium, and postaxial polydactyly. Targeted sequencing of EVC, EVC2, WDR35, DYNC2LI1, and DYNC2H1 identified different compound heterozygosity in EVC genotypes in the two affected members, consisting of a nonsense (p.Arg622Ter) and a missense (p.Arg663Pro) variant in the father, and the same nonsense variant and a noncanonical splice-site in-frame change (c.1316-7A>G) in the daughter. Complementary DNA sequencing, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence experiments using patient-derived fibroblasts and Evc-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that p.Arg622Ter is a loss-of-function mutation, whereas p.Arg663Pro and the splice-site change c.1316-7A>G are hypomorphic variants resulting in proteins that retain, in part, the ability to complex with EVC2. Our molecular and functional data demonstrate that at least in some cases the condition characterized as "common atrium/AVCD with postaxial polydactyly" is a mild form of EvC due to hypomorphic EVC mutations, further supporting the occurrence of genotype-phenotype correlations in this syndrome.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764417

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, there have been two major outbreaks where the crossover of animal Betacoronaviruses to humans has resulted in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In December 2019, a global public health concern started with the emergence of a new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV) which has rapidly spread all over the world from its origin in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus, which includes human SARS-CoV, MERS and two other human coronaviruses (HCoVs), HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. The fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is lower than the two previous coronavirus epidemics, but it is faster spreading and the large number of infected people with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness, showed SARS-CoV-2 to be highly contagious. Based on the current published evidence, herein we summarize the origin, genetics, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, preventions, diagnosis and up to date treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infections in comparison with those caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Moreover, the possible impact of weather conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to reconsider the two previous pandemics and provide a reference for future studies as well as therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(8): e1336, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) is one of the most frequent Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. However, genetics underlying isolated forms is still poorly recognized. Here, we report on two female familial cases with partial ACC. The proband shows isolated partial ACC and a mild neurodevelopmental phenotype. A fetus from a previous interrupted pregnancy exhibited a complex phenotype including partial ACC and the occurrence of a de novo 17q12 microduplication, which was interpreted as probably disease-causing. METHODS: A trio-based clinical exome sequencing (CES) was performed. RESULTS: Clinical exome sequencing data analysis led to identifying a heterozygous nonsense variant (NM_139058.3:c.922G>T; NP_620689.1:p.Glu308Ter) in the aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX) in the proband, with a putative de novo occurrence, producing a hypothetical protein lacking two essential domains. Sanger analysis confirmed the wild-type status of both parents in different tissues, and disclosed the occurrence of the nonsense variant in the fetus of the interrupted pregnancy, suggesting a formerly unrecognized contribution of the ARX mutation to the fetus' phenotype and gonadal or gonadosomatic mosaicism in one of the parents. CONCLUSION: This study describes the phenotype associated with a heterozygous loss of function variant in ARX. Moreover, it highlights the importance of investigating both chromosomal and genetic contributions in cases of complex syndromic phenotypes involving CNS.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(10): 1428-1441, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007050

RESUMO

Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) may occur as part of a complex disorder (e.g., Down syndrome, heterotaxy), or as isolate cardiac defect. Multiple lines of evidence support a role of calcineurin/NFAT signaling in AVSD, and mutations in CRELD1, a protein functioning as a regulator of calcineurin/NFAT signaling have been reported in a small fraction of affected subjects. In this study, 22 patients with isolated AVSD and 38 with AVSD and heterotaxy were screened for NFATC1 gene mutations. Sequence analysis identified three missense variants in three individuals, including a subject with isolated AVSD [p.(Ala367Val)], an individual with AVSD and heterotaxy [p.(Val210Met)], and a subject with AVSD, heterotaxy, and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) [p.(Ala696Thr)], respectively. The latter was also heterozygous for a missense change in TBX1 [p.(Pro86Leu)]. Targeted resequencing of genes associated with AVSD, heterotaxy, or OAVS excluded additional hits in the three mutation-positive subjects. Functional characterization of NFATC1 mutants documented defective nuclear translocation and decreased transcriptional transactivation activity. When expressed in zebrafish, the three NFATC1 mutants caused cardiac looping defects and altered atrioventricular canal patterning, providing evidence of their functional relevance in vivo. Our findings support a role of defective NFATC1 function in the etiology of isolated and heterotaxy-related AVSD.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/genética , Heterozigoto , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/genética , Alelos , Animais , Deleção Cromossômica , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos/diagnóstico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Transcrição NFATC/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(23): 4556-4571, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28973407

RESUMO

GLI1, GLI2 and GLI3 form a family of transcription factors which regulate development by mediating the action of Hedgehog (Hh) morphogens. Accordingly, inactivating variants in GLI2 and GLI3 are found in several developmental disorders. In contrast, loss-of-function mutations in GLI1 have remained elusive, maintaining enigmatic the role of this gene in the human embryo. We describe eight patients from three independent families having biallelic truncating variants in GLI1 and developmental defects overlapping with Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC), a disease caused by diminished Hh signaling. Two families had mutations in the last exon of the gene and a third family was identified with an N-terminal stop gain variant predicted to be degraded by the NMD-pathway. Analysis of fibroblasts from one of the patients with homozygous C-terminal truncation of GLI1 demonstrated that the corresponding mutant GLI1 protein is fabricated by patient cells and becomes upregulated in response to Hh signaling. However, the transcriptional activity of the truncated GLI1 factor was found to be severely impaired by cell culture and in vivo assays, indicating that the balance between GLI repressors and activators is altered in affected subjects. Consistent with this, reduced expression of the GLI target PTCH1 was observed in patient fibroblasts after chemical induction of the Hh pathway. We conclude that GLI1 inactivation is associated with a phenotypic spectrum extending from isolated postaxial polydactyly to an EvC-like condition.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Ellis-Van Creveld/genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/genética , Criança , Síndrome de Ellis-Van Creveld/metabolismo , Síndrome de Ellis-Van Creveld/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Inativação Gênica , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Polidactilia/genética , Polidactilia/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transdução de Sinais , Transativadores/genética , Transcrição Genética , Proteína GLI1 em Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
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