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1.
Circulation ; 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in cardiac troponin concentrations by age, sex and time between samples in patients with suspected myocardial infarction are not currently accounted for in diagnostic approaches. We aimed to combine these variables through machine learning to improve the assessment of risk for individual patients. METHODS: A machine learning algorithm (myocardial-ischemic-injury-index [MI3]) incorporating age, sex, and paired high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations, was trained on 3,013 patients and tested on 7,998 patients with suspected myocardial infarction. MI3 uses gradient boosting to compute a value (0-100) reflecting an individual's likelihood of a diagnosis of type 1 myocardial infarction and estimates the sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for that individual. Assessment was by calibration and area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC). Secondary analysis evaluated example MI3 thresholds from the training set that identified patients as low-risk (99% sensitivity) and high-risk (75% PPV), and performance at these thresholds was compared in the test set to the 99th percentile and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) rule-out pathways. RESULTS: Myocardial infarction occurred in 404 (13.4%) patients in the training set and 849 (10.6%) patients in the test set. MI3 was well calibrated with a very high AUC of 0.963 [0.956-0.971] in the test set and similar performance in early and late presenters. Example MI3 thresholds identifying low-risk and high-risk patients in the training set were 1.6 and 49.7 respectively. In the test set, MI3 values were <1.6 in 69.5% with a NPV of 99.7% (99.5%-99.8%) and sensitivity of 97.8% (96.7-98.7%), and were ≥49.7 in 10.6% with a PPV of 71.8% (68.9-75.0%) and specificity of 96.7% (96.3-97.1%). Using these thresholds, MI3 performed better than the ESC 0/3-hour pathway (sensitivity 82.5% [74.5-88.8%], specificity 92.2% [90.7-93.5%]) and the 99th percentile at any time-point (sensitivity 89.6% [87.4-91.6%]), specificity 89.3% [88.6-90.0%]). CONCLUSIONS: Using machine learning, MI3 provides an individualized and objective assessment of the likelihood of myocardial infarction, which can be used to identify low-risk and high-risk patients who may benefit from earlier clinical decisions. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Unique Identifier: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12616001441404. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au.

2.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 274: 66-70, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30297189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We studied the association between heart failure with reduced or preserved ejection fraction (EF) and the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). METHODS: We included all patients who underwent isolated CABG in Sweden 2003 to 2013. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes definition, as an increase in postoperative serum creatinine concentration by ≥26 µmol/L or ≥50%, compared to preoperative values. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for AKI were calculated using logistic regression for patients with and without heart failure, and among patients with heart failure, by EF categories (<30% severely reduced; 30-40% moderately reduced; ≥50% preserved). RESULTS: Included were 36,403 patients of whom 3914 (11%) had heart failure. In patients with heart failure, 26% developed AKI compared with 14% in patients without heart failure. After adjustment for background characteristics, including preoperative kidney function and EF, the OR for AKI was 1.12 (95% CI 1.02-1.23) in patients with heart failure compared with no heart failure. Among patients with heart failure, the adjusted OR for AKI among patients with EF <30% vs. ≥50% was 1.32 (95% CI 1.06-1.65) and for 30-49% vs. ≥50% 1.06 (95% CI 0.87-1.28), respectively. CONCLUSION: Patients with heart failure who underwent CABG had an increased risk for AKI postoperatively even after adjustment for comorbidity such as EF. Among patients with heart failure, having a severely reduced EF was associated with AKI compared to patents with preserved EF.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
JAMA Cardiol ; 3(11): 1108-1112, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30347004

RESUMO

Importance: Emergency department (ED) investigations of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are time consuming, partly because of the turnaround time of laboratory tests. Current point-of-care troponin assays shorten test turnaround times but lack precision at lower concentrations. Development of point-of-care troponin assays with greater analytical precision could reduce the decision-making time in EDs for ruling out AMI. Objective: To determine the clinical accuracy for AMI of a single troponin concentration measured on arrival to ED with a new-generation, higher precision point-of-care assay with a 15-minute turnaround time. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational study occurred at a single urban regional ED. Adults presenting acutely from the community to the ED with symptoms suggestive of AMI were included. Troponin concentrations were measured on ED arrival with both a novel point-of-care assay (i-STAT TnI-Nx; Abbott Point of Care) and a high-sensitivity troponin I assay (Architect hs-cTnI; Abbott Diagnostics). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was type 1 AMI during index presentation. We compared the discrimination ability of the TnI-Nx assay with the hs-cTnI assay using the area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and sensitivity, negative predictive value, and the proportion of negative test results at thresholds with 100% sensitivity. Results: Of 354 patients (255 [72.0%] men; mean [SD] age, 62 [12] years), 57 (16.1%) experienced an AMI. Eighty-five patients (24.0%) presented to the ED less than 3 hours after symptom onset. No difference was found between the AUC of the TnI-Nx assay (0.975 [95% CI, 0.958-0.993]) and the hs-cTnI assay (0.970 [95% CI, 0.949 to 0.990]; P = .46). A TnI-Nx assay result of less than 11 ng/L identified 201 patients (56.7%) as low risk, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93.7%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 98.2%-100%). In comparison, an hs-cTnI assay result of less than 3 ng/L identified 154 patients (43.5%) as low risk, with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 93.7%-100%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI, 97.6%-100%). Conclusions and Relevance: A novel point-of-care troponin assay that can produce a result 15 minutes after blood sampling had comparable discrimination ability to an hs-cTnI assay for ruling out AMI after a single blood test. Use in the ED may facilitate earlier decision making and could expedite the safe discharge of a large proportion of low-risk patients.

7.
CMAJ ; 190(33): E974-E984, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testing for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) may assist triage and clinical decision-making in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms of acute coronary syndrome; however, this could result in the misclassification of risk because of analytical variation or laboratory error. We sought to evaluate a new laboratory-based risk-stratification tool that incorporates tests for hs-cTn, glucose level and estimated glomerular filtration rate to identify patients at risk of myocardial infarction or death when presenting to the emergency department. METHODS: We constructed the clinical chemistry score (CCS) (range 0-5 points) and validated it as a predictor of 30-day myocardial infarction (MI) or death using data from 4 cohort studies involving patients who presented to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We calculated diagnostic parameters for the CCS score separately using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). RESULTS: For the combined cohorts (n = 4245), 17.1% of participants had an MI or died within 30 days. A CCS score of 0 points best identified low-risk participants: the hs-cTnI CCS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval [CI] 99.5%-100%), with 8.9% (95% CI 8.1%-9.8%) of the population classified as being at low risk of MI or death within 30 days; the hs-cTnT CCS had a sensitivity of 99.9% (95% CI 99.2%-100%), with 10.5% (95% CI 9.6%-11.4%) of the population classified as being at low risk. The CCS had better sensitivity than hs-cTn alone (hs-cTnI < 5 ng/L: 96.6%, 95% CI 95.0%-97.8%; hs-cTnT < 6 ng/L: 98.2%, 95% CI 97.0%-99.0%). A CCS score of 5 points best identified patients at high risk (hs-cTnI CCS: specificity 96.6%, 95% CI 96.0%-97.2%; 11.2% [95% CI 10.3%-12.2%] of the population classified as being at high risk; hs-cTnT CCS: specificity 94.0%, 95% CI 93.1%-94.7%; 13.1% [95% CI 12.1%-14.1%] of the population classified as being at high risk) compared with using the overall 99th percentiles for the hs-cTn assays (specificity of hs-cTnI 93.2%, 95% CI 92.3-94.0; specificity of hs-cTnT 73.8%, 95% CI 72.3-75.2). INTERPRETATION: The CCS score at the chosen cut-offs was more sensitive and specific than hs-cTn alone for risk stratification of patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Study registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, nos. NCT01994577; NCT02355457.

8.
Health Informatics J ; : 1460458218779099, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905094

RESUMO

Clinical pathways are used to support the management of patients in emergency departments. An existing document-based clinical pathway was used as the foundation on which to design and build a digital clinical pathway for acute chest pain, with the aim of improving clinical calculations, clinician decision-making, documentation, and data collection. Established principles of decision support system design were used to build an application within the existing electronic health record, before testing with a multidisciplinary team of doctors using a think-aloud protocol. Technical authoring was successful, however, usability testing revealed that the user experience and the flexibility of workflow within the application were critical barriers to implementation. Emergency medicine and acute care decision support systems face particular challenges to existing models of linear workflow that should be deliberately addressed in digital pathway design. We make key recommendations regarding digital pathway design in emergency medicine.

9.
Eur J Emerg Med ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29878922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe patients presenting with chest pain to the emergency department (ED) according to acute kidney injury (AKI) status at arrival, with a focus on the most common discharge diagnoses and on long-term mortality. METHODS: All adult patients visiting the Karolinska University Hospital ED between December 2010 and October 2014 with a principal complaint of chest pain were included. AKI at arrival was defined as an increase in presentation serum creatinine concentration of at least 26 µmol/l (≥0.3 mg/dl) or at least 50% above baseline. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the AKI and no-AKI groups were calculated for the most common discharge diagnoses in the AKI group. Hazard ratios for long-term mortality were calculated using Cox regression models with adjustment for covariates. RESULTS: In total, 8480 patients were included, of whom 476 (5.6%) had AKI. AKI patients were older and had more comorbidities. It was more common in AKI patients compared to no AKI patients to be diagnosed with heart failure, RR 3.03 (CI: 2.15-4.26) and myocardial infarction RR 1.44 (CI: 1.01-2.04). During a median follow-up of 3.2 years (interquartile range: 2.1-4.3), 37% of the patients with AKI died compared with 16% of patients without AKI. The multivariable adjusted hazard ratio of death for AKI compared with no AKI was 1.30 (95% CI: 1.10-1.53). CONCLUSION: When attending the ED, patients with chest pain and AKI were more likely to be diagnosed with heart failure and myocardial infarction and had an increased long-term mortality compared with patients with no AKI.

10.
Clin Chem ; 64(7): 1044-1053, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29760219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin I or T detected by high-sensitivity assays (hs-cTnI or hs-cTnT) confers an increased risk of adverse prognosis. We determined whether patients presenting with putatively normal, detectable cTn concentrations [> limit of detection and < upper reference limit (URL)] have increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) or all-cause mortality. METHODS: A prospective 5-year follow-up of patients recruited in the emergency department with possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cTn concentrations measured with hs-cTnI (Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Roche) assays. Cox regression models were generated with adjustment for covariates in those without MACE on presentation. Hazard ratios (HRs) for hs-cTn were calculated relative to the HRs at the median concentration. RESULTS: Of 1113 patients, 836 were without presentation MACE. Of these, 138 incurred a MACE and 169 died during a median 5.8-year follow-up. HRs for MACE at the URLs were 2.3 (95% CI, 1.7-3.2) for hs-cTnI and 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.4) for hs-cTnT. Corresponding HRs for mortality were 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.2) for hs-cTnI and 2.3 (95 % CI, 1.7-3.1) for hs-cTnT. The HR for MACE increased with increasing hs-cTn concentration similarly for both assays, but the HR for mortality increased at approximately twice the rate for hs-cTnT than hs-cTnI. Patients with hs-cTnI ≥10 ng/L or hs-cTnT ≥16 ng/L had the same percentage of MACE at 5-year follow-up (33%) as patients with presentation MACE. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients with ACS ruled out and putatively normal but detectable hs-cTnI concentrations are at similar long-term risk as those with MACE. hs-cTnT concentrations are more strongly associated with 5-year mortality than hs-cTnI.

11.
Circulation ; 138(10): 989-999, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining 2 signals of cardiomyocyte injury, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), might overcome some individual pathophysiological and analytical limitations and thereby increase diagnostic accuracy for acute myocardial infarction with a single blood draw. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of combinations of high-sensitivity (hs) cTnI and hs-cTnT for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of combining hs-cTnI (Architect, Abbott) and hs-cTnT (Elecsys, Roche) concentrations (sum, product, ratio, and a combination algorithm) obtained at the time of presentation was evaluated in a large multicenter diagnostic study of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction. The optimal rule-out and rule-in thresholds were externally validated in a second large multicenter diagnostic study. The proportion of patients eligible for early rule-out was compared with the European Society of Cardiology 0/1 and 0/3 hour algorithms. RESULTS: Combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations did not consistently increase overall diagnostic accuracy as compared with the individual isoforms. However, the combination improved the proportion of patients meeting criteria for very early rule-out. With the European Society of Cardiology 2015 guideline recommended algorithms and cut-offs, the proportion meeting rule-out criteria after the baseline blood sampling was limited (6% to 24%) and assay dependent. Application of optimized cut-off values using the sum (9 ng/L) and product (18 ng2/L2) of hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations led to an increase in the proportion ruled-out after a single blood draw to 34% to 41% in the original (sum: negative predictive value [NPV] 100% [95% confidence interval (CI), 99.5% to 100%]; product: NPV 100% [95% CI, 99.5% to 100%]) and in the validation cohort (sum: NPV 99.6% [95% CI, 99.0-99.9%]; product: NPV 99.4% [95% CI, 98.8-99.8%]). The use of a combination algorithm (hs-cTnI <4 ng/L and hs-cTnT <9 ng/L) showed comparable results for rule-out (40% to 43% ruled out; NPV original cohort 99.9% [95% CI, 99.2-100%]; NPV validation cohort 99.5% [95% CI, 98.9-99.8%]) and rule-in (positive predictive value [PPV] original cohort 74.4% [95% Cl, 69.6-78.8%]; PPV validation cohort 84.0% [95% Cl, 79.7-87.6%]). CONCLUSIONS: New strategies combining hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations may significantly increase the number of patients eligible for very early and safe rule-out, but do not seem helpful for the rule-in of acute myocardial infarction. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL (APACE): https://www.clinicaltrial.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00470587. URL (ADAPT): www.anzctr.org.au . Unique identifier: ACTRN12611001069943.

12.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 13(4): 569-576, 2018 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29507005

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In patients with CKD, elevated plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are associated with greater cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the reference method for PTH measurement is disputed. It has been argued that measurement of nonoxidized PTH better reflects biologically active PTH than measurements with conventional assays. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: PTH and nonoxidized PTH levels were measured at study baseline in 535 patients with CKD with an eGFR range between 89 and 15 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Patients were followed over 5.1 years for the occurrence of acute heart failure, atherosclerotic events, CKD progression (doubling of serum creatinine or initiation of RRT), or all-cause death. RESULTS: Atherosclerotic events, acute heart failure, CKD progression, and deaths from any cause occurred in 116, 58, 73, and 85 patients, respectively. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, patients at the highest PTH and nonoxidized-PTH tertile (79-543 and 12-172 pg/ml, respectively) showed a higher rate of atherosclerotic events, acute heart failure, CKD progression, and death from any cause. After adjustment for eGFR and albuminuria, nonoxidized PTH was no longer associated with atherosclerotic events (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 1.04 [95% confidence intervals, 0.62-1.75]), acute heart failure (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 1.24 [95% confidence intervals, 0.59-2.62]), CKD progression (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 0.93 [95% confidence intervals, 0.46-1.90]), and death from any cause (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 1.23 [95% confidence intervals, 0.66-2.31]), and PTH lost its association with atherosclerotic events (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 0.80 [95% confidence intervals, 0.46-1.38]) and CKD progression (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 0.99 [95% confidence intervals, 0.46-2.10]), although it remained associated with acute heart failure (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 2.76 [95% confidence intervals, 1.11-6.89]) and all-cause death (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 2.35 [95% confidence intervals, 1.13-4.89]). After further adjustment for cardiovascular and kidney risk factors, PTH remained associated with all-cause death (hazard ratio third versus first tertile, 2.79 [95% confidence intervals, 1.32-5.89]), but with no other end point. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of patients with CKD, PTH was associated with all-cause mortality; there was no association of nonoxidized PTH with any of the clinical outcomes examined.

13.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 32(5): 2190-2200, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29452878

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prognostic utility of multiple novel urinary biomarkers of renal injury when used alone, in pair-wise combination with an early delta serum creatinine (ΔSCr) term, and combined as a broad biomarker panel for the prediction of serious adverse outcomes that may reflect AKI in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of prospective observational study. SETTING: Academic medical center. PARTICIPANTS: 603 adults undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Urinary cystatin-c, kidney injury molecule-1, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 and interleukin-18 were measured at baseline and <1 hour, 3 hours and 18-24 hours after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). ΔSCr-initial was defined as the difference in SCr from baseline to first postoperative measure. The primary outcome of hospital mortality or renal replacement therapy occurred in 25 patients. Concordant elevation of any urinary biomarker measured 3 hours after CPB together with ΔSCr-initial ≥0 mg.dL-1 provided excellent early risk stratification for the primary outcome (OR ≥15.1, 95% CI 4.1-55.4). Combining four urinary biomarkers together with ΔSCr-initial and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, previously reported from the same cohort, to provide a 6-point AKI risk score enabled early identification of patients reaching the primary outcome (ROCAUC 0.86, 95% CI 0.79-0.92) with potentially useful sensitivity and specificity at varied cut-points. CONCLUSIONS: Combining novel urinary biomarkers of renal injury with a creatinine-based metric soon after cardiac surgery provided excellent prognostic utility for serious adverse outcomes. Future studies are required to confirm these findings and determine optimal biomarker combinations for cost-effective risk stratification.

14.
Acad Emerg Med ; 25(4): 434-443, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29131477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Early discharge of patients with presentations triggering assessment for possible acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is safe when clinical assessment indicates low risk, biomarkers are negative, and electrocardiograms (ECGs) are nonischemic. We hypothesized that the Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain Score (EDACS) combined with a single measurement of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) could allow early discharge of a clinically meaningful proportion of patients. METHODS: We pooled data from four patient cohorts from New Zealand and Australia presenting to an emergency department with symptoms suggestive of ACS. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac events (MACE) within 30 days of presentation. In patients with a nonischemic ECG we evaluated the sensitivity for MACE and percentage low risk of every combination of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) concentration with EDACS. We used a standard smoothing technique on the probability density function for hs-cTn and EDACS and applied bootstrapping to determine the optimal threshold combinations, namely, the combination that maximized the percentage low risk with ≥98.5% sensitivity for MACE. RESULTS: From 2,536 patients, 2,258 presented without an ischemic ECG of whom 272 (12.1%) had a MACE within 30 days. The optimal threshold for hs-cTnI was 7 ng/L combined with an EDACS threshold of 16 (36.8% patients low risk). The optimal thresholds for hs-cTnT were 8 ng/L combined with an EDACS threshold of 15 (30.2% patients low risk). CONCLUSION: Single measurements of both hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT at presentation combined with EDACS to identify over 30% of patients as low risk and therefore eligible for safe early discharge after only one blood draw.

15.
Circulation ; 137(4): 354-363, 2018 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29138293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efforts to safely reduce length of stay for emergency department patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) have had mixed success. Few system-wide efforts affecting multiple hospital emergency departments have ever been evaluated. We evaluated the effectiveness of a nationwide implementation of clinical pathways for potential ACS in disparate hospitals. METHODS: This was a multicenter pragmatic stepped-wedge before-and-after trial in 7 New Zealand acute care hospitals with 31 332 patients investigated for suspected ACS with serial troponin measurements. The implementation was a clinical pathway for the assessment of patients with suspected ACS that included a clinical pathway document in paper or electronic format, structured risk stratification, specified time points for electrocardiographic and serial troponin testing within 3 hours of arrival, and directions for combining risk stratification and electrocardiographic and troponin testing in an accelerated diagnostic protocol. Implementation was monitored for >4 months and compared with usual care over the preceding 6 months. The main outcome measure was the odds of discharge within 6 hours of presentation RESULTS: There were 11 529 participants in the preimplementation phase (range, 284-3465) and 19 803 in the postimplementation phase (range, 395-5039). Overall, the mean 6-hour discharge rate increased from 8.3% (range, 2.7%-37.7%) to 18.4% (6.8%-43.8%). The odds of being discharged within 6 hours increased after clinical pathway implementation. The odds ratio was 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.6). In patients without ACS, the median length of hospital stays decreased by 2.9 hours (95% confidence interval, 2.4-3.4). For patients discharged within 6 hours, there was no change in 30-day major adverse cardiac event rates (0.52% versus 0.44%; P=0.96). In these patients, no adverse event occurred when clinical pathways were correctly followed. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of clinical pathways for suspected ACS reduced the length of stay and increased the proportions of patients safely discharged within 6 hours. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/ (Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry). Unique identifier: ACTRN12617000381381.

16.
Emerg Med Australas ; 30(1): 47-54, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29232768

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop a modified Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score to effectively risk stratify patients presenting to the ED with chest pain. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at two metropolitan EDs. Data were obtained during patient interview. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) within 30 days of presentation. Two separate modifications of the TIMI score were developed. These scores were compared to the original TIMI in terms of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and diagnostic accuracy statistics (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values). RESULTS: Of 1760 patients, 364 (20.7%) experienced 30 day MACE. The first modified TIMI score was a simplified TIMI (s-TIMI) including four variables: age ≥65 years, three or more risk factors, high-sensitivity troponin (hs-cTnI) and electrocardiogram changes. The second score included the same four variables plus two Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) variables (systolic blood pressure and estimated glomerular filtration rate). This score was termed the GRACE TIMI (g-TIMI). s-TIMI had a lower sensitivity compared to the original TIMI score (93.41 and 96.98%), but higher specificity (45.49 and 24.50%). The g-TIMI had a sensitivity of 98.90% and specificity of 14.90%. CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to modify the TIMI score yielded two scores with added predictive utility in comparison to the original TIMI model. The addition of GRACE variables (g-TIMI) increased sensitivity for MACE, but decreased the specificity of the model. The s-TIMI score yielded good specificity but had sensitivity that would not be acceptable by emergency physicians. The s-TIMI may be useful as part of an accelerated chest pain protocol.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/classificação , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/normas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dor no Peito/complicações , Dor no Peito/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Triagem/métodos , Troponina I/análise , Troponina I/sangue
17.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 23(3): 237-246, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27990707

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study is to provide a robust estimate of mortality risk in acute coronary syndrome (ACS)-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) to inform clinical practice and policy. METHODS: A meta-analysis of cohort studies evaluating outcomes of ACS and which reported AKI and AKI-associated mortality. Studies were excluded if they incorporated patients not admitted through the emergency department (i.e. for elective procedures), were limited to cardiogenic shock or cardiac arrest, or relied on registry data for outcomes without further adjudication. The predictor was ACS-associated AKI and outcomes early (30 day or in-hospital) mortality and late-mortality (post-hospital discharge). RESULTS: Thirty-six studies with 37 unique cohorts comprising 100 476 patients were included. The pooled rate of ACS-associated AKI was 15.8%. In 32 cohorts reporting early mortality, the crude early mortality rate was 15.0% amongst those with AKI compared with 2.0% amongst those without AKI. The pooled estimate of the relative risk of AKI-associated early mortality was 4.1 (95% confidence interval: 3.3 to 5.0) with high heterogeneity between studies (I 2  = 84% (61% to 88%)). When heterogeneity was accounted for mathematically using credibility ceilings, the risk of mortality was lower, but still clinically significant (3.1 (2.6 to 3.6)). In 19 cohorts reporting late mortality (1 to 10 years), the relative risk of AKI-associated mortality was 2.6 (2.0 to 3.3) with moderate heterogeneity (I 2  = 65 % [35% to 88%]). Following application of credibility ceiling relative risk estimate dropped to 2.2 (1.9 to 2.6). CONCLUSIONS: Acute coronary syndrome-associated AKI is associated with more than a three-fold increase in early mortality and more than two-fold in long-term mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Lesão Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
JAMA ; 318(19): 1913-1924, 2017 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29127948

RESUMO

Importance: High-sensitivity cardiac troponin I testing is widely used to evaluate patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. A cardiac troponin concentration of less than 5 ng/L identifies patients at presentation as low risk, but the optimal threshold is uncertain. Objective: To evaluate the performance of a cardiac troponin I threshold of 5 ng/L at presentation as a risk stratification tool in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Data Sources: Systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, and Web of Science databases from January 1, 2006, to March 18, 2017. Study Selection: Prospective studies measuring high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentrations in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome in which the diagnosis was adjudicated according to the universal definition of myocardial infarction. Data Extraction and Synthesis: The systematic review identified 19 cohorts. Individual patient-level data were obtained from the corresponding authors of 17 cohorts, with aggregate data from 2 cohorts. Meta-estimates for primary and secondary outcomes were derived using a binomial-normal random-effects model. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was myocardial infarction or cardiac death at 30 days. Performance was evaluated in subgroups and across a range of troponin concentrations (2-16 ng/L) using individual patient data. Results: Of 11 845 articles identified, 104 underwent full-text review, and 19 cohorts from 9 countries were included. Among 22 457 patients included in the meta-analysis (mean age, 62 [SD, 15.5] years; n = 9329 women [41.5%]), the primary outcome occurred in 2786 (12.4%). Cardiac troponin I concentrations were less than 5 ng/L at presentation in 11 012 patients (49%), in whom there were 60 missed index or 30-day events (59 index myocardial infarctions, 1 myocardial infarction at 30 days, and no cardiac deaths at 30 days). This resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% (95% CI, 99.3%-99.6%) for the primary outcome. There were no cardiac deaths at 30 days and 7 (0.1%) at 1 year, with a negative predictive value of 99.9% (95% CI, 99.7%-99.9%) for cardiac death. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome, a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I concentration of less than 5 ng/L identified those at low risk of myocardial infarction or cardiac death within 30 days. Further research is needed to understand the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of this approach to risk stratification.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina I/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Morte , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos
20.
Clin Kidney J ; 10(3): 323-331, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616210

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common condition in multiple clinical settings. Patients with AKI are at an increased risk of death, over both the short and long term, and of accelerated renal impairment. As the condition has become more recognized and definitions more unified, there has been a rapid increase in studies examining AKI across many different clinical settings. This review focuses on the classification, diagnostic methods and clinical management that are available, or promising, for patients with AKI. Furthermore, preventive measures with fluids, acetylcysteine, statins and remote ischemic preconditioning, as well as when dialysis should be initiated in AKI patients are discussed. The classification of AKI includes both changes in serum creatinine concentrations and urine output. Currently, no kidney injury biomarkers are included in the classification of AKI, but proposals have been made to include them as independent diagnostic markers. Treatment of AKI is aimed at addressing the underlying causes of AKI, and at limiting damage and preventing progression. The key principles are: to treat the underlying disease, to optimize fluid balance and optimize hemodynamics, to treat electrolyte disturbances, to discontinue or dose-adjust nephrotoxic drugs and to dose-adjust drugs with renal elimination.

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