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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713408

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Lymphopenia is a key feature of immune dysfunction in patients with bacterial sepsis and COVID-19 and associated with poor clinical outcomes, but the cause is largely unknown. Severely ill patients may present with thyroid function abnormalities, so-called non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), and several studies have linked TSH and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) to homeostatic regulation and function of lymphocyte populations. PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of absolute lymphocyte counts, circulating TSH, T4, free T4 (FT4), T3, albumin and inflammatory biomarkers was performed in two independent hospitalized study populations: bacterial sepsis (n=224) and COVID-19 patients (n=161). A subgroup analysis was performed in patients with severe lymphopenia and normal lymphocyte counts. RESULTS: Only T3 significantly correlated (rho=0.252) with lymphocyte counts in patients with bacterial sepsis and lower concentrations were found in severe lymphopenic compared to non-lympopenic patients (n=56 per group). Severe lymphopenic COVID-19 patients (n=17) showed significantly lower plasma concentrations of TSH, T4, FT4 and T3 compared to patients without lymphopenia (n=18), and demonstrated significantly increased values of the inflammatory markers interleukin-6, C-reactive protein and ferritin. Remarkably, after one week follow-up, the majority (12/15) of COVID-19 patients showed quantitative recovery of their lymphocyte numbers, while TSH and thyroid hormones remained mainly disturbed. CONCLUSION: Abnormal thyroid function correlates with lymphopenia in patients with severe infections, like bacterial sepsis and COVID-19, but future studies need to establish whether a causal relationship is involved.

4.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 61, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP3) is a cytosolic enzyme involved in the degradation of various cardiovascular and endorphin mediators. High levels of circulating DPP3 (cDPP3) indicate a high risk of organ dysfunction and mortality in cardiogenic shock patients. METHODS: The aim was to assess relationships between cDPP3 during the initial intensive care unit (ICU) stay and short-term outcome in the AdrenOSS-1, a prospective observational multinational study in twenty-four ICU centers in five countries. AdrenOSS-1 included 585 patients admitted to the ICU with severe sepsis or septic shock. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included organ failure as defined by the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, organ support with focus on vasopressor/inotropic use and need for renal replacement therapy. cDPP3 levels were measured upon admission and 24 h later. RESULTS: Median [IQR] cDPP3 concentration upon admission was 26.5 [16.2-40.4] ng/mL. Initial SOFA score was 7 [5-10], and 28-day mortality was 22%. We found marked associations between cDPP3 upon ICU admission and 28-day mortality (unadjusted standardized HR 1.8 [CI 1.6-2.1]; adjusted HR 1.5 [CI 1.3-1.8]) and between cDPP3 levels and change in renal and liver SOFA score (p = 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively). The higher the initial cDPP3 was, the greater the need for organ support and vasopressors upon admission; the longer the need for vasopressor(s), mechanical ventilation or RRT and the higher the need for fluid load (all p < 0.005). In patients with cDPP3 > 40.4 ng/mL upon admission, a decrease in cDPP3 below 40.4 ng/mL after 24 h was associated with an improvement of organ function at 48 h and better 28-day outcome. By contrast, persistently elevated cDPP3 at 24 h was associated with worsening organ function and high 28-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Admission levels and rapid changes in cDPP3 predict outcome during sepsis. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02393781. Registered on March 19, 2015.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591006

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety and efficacy of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone-derivative EA-230 in cardiac surgery patients. Cardiac surgery induces systemic inflammation and may impair renal function, affecting patient outcome. EA-230 exerted immunomodulatory and renoprotective effects in preclinical models and was safe and showed efficacy in phase I and II human studies. DESIGN: Double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized study. SETTING: Collaboration of the Cardiothoracic Surgery, Anesthesiology, and the Intensive Care departments of a tertiary hospital in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: One hundred eighty patients undergoing an on-pump coronary artery bypass procedure with or without concomitant valve surgery. INTERVENTIONS: Ninety mg/kg/hr EA-230 or placebo administered during surgery. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: During the study, no safety concerns emerged. EA-230 did not modulate interleukin-6 plasma concentrations (area under the curve 2,730 pg/mL × hr [1,968-3,760] vs 2,680 pg/mL × hr [2,090-3,570] for EA-230 and placebo group, respectively; p = 0.80). Glomerular filtration rate increased following surgery (mean ± SEM increase in the EA-230 vs placebo groups: glomerular filtration rateiohexol measured using iohexol plasma clearance: 19 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.13 and estimated glomerular filtration rate with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation using creatinine: 6 ± 1 vs 2 ± 1 mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.01). The "injury" stage of the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss of kidney function, and End-stage kidney disease criteria for acute kidney injury was 7% in the EA-230 group versus 18% in the placebo group (p = 0.07). In addition, EA-230-treated patients had a less positive fluid balance compared with placebo-treated patients (217 ± 108 vs 605 ± 103 mL; p = 0.01), while the use of vasoactive agents was similar in both groups (p = 0.39). Finally, hospital length of stay was shorter in EA-230 treated patients (8 d [7-11] vs 10 d [8-12]; p = 0.001). Efficacy results were more pronounced in patients that had longer duration of surgery and thus longer duration of study drug infusion. CONCLUSIONS: EA-230 was safe in patients undergoing on-pump cardiac surgery. It did not modulate interleukin-6 plasma concentrations but appeared to exert beneficial renal and cardiovascular effects and shortened in-hospital length of stay.

6.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524124

RESUMO

The clinical spectrum of COVID-19 varies and the differences in host response characterizing this variation have not been fully elucidated. COVID-19 disease severity correlates with an excessive pro-inflammatory immune response and profound lymphopenia. Inflammatory responses according to disease severity were explored by plasma cytokine measurements and proteomics analysis in 147 COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production assays and whole blood flow cytometry were performed. Results confirm a hyperinflammatory innate immune state, while highlighting hepatocyte growth factor and stem cell factor as potential biomarkers for disease severity. Clustering analysis reveals no specific inflammatory endotypes in COVID-19 patients. Functional assays reveal abrogated adaptive cytokine production (interferon-gamma, interleukin-17 and interleukin-22) and prominent T cell exhaustion in critically ill patients, whereas innate immune responses were intact or hyperresponsive. Collectively, this extensive analysis provides a comprehensive insight into the pathobiology of severe to critical COVID-19 and highlight potential biomarkers of disease severity.

7.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(3): 652-664, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression after surgery is associated with postoperative complications, mediated in part by catecholamines that exert anti-inflammatory effects via the ß-adrenergic receptor. Phenylephrine, generally regarded as a selective α-adrenergic agonist, is frequently used to treat perioperative hypotension. However, phenylephrine may impair host defence through ß-adrenergic affinity. METHODS: Human leukocytes were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of phenylephrine and α- and ß-adrenergic antagonists. C57BL/6J male mice received continuous infusion of phenylephrine (30-50 µg kg-1 min-1 i.v.) or saline via micro-osmotic pumps, before LPS administration (5 mg kg-1 i.v.) or caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Twenty healthy males were randomised to a 5 h infusion of phenylephrine (0.5 µg kg-1 min-1) or saline before receiving LPS (2 ng kg-1 i.v.). RESULTS: In vitro, phenylephrine enhanced LPS-induced production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 (maximum augmentation of 93%) while attenuating the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. These effects were reversed by pre-incubation with ß-antagonists, but not α-antagonists. Plasma IL-10 levels were higher in LPS-challenged mice infused with phenylephrine, whereas pro-inflammatory mediators were reduced. Phenylephrine infusion increased bacterial counts after CLP in peritoneal fluid (+42%, P=0.0069), spleen (+59%, P=0.04), and liver (+35%, P=0.09). In healthy volunteers, phenylephrine enhanced the LPS-induced IL-10 response (+76%, P=0.0008) while attenuating plasma concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-8 (-15%, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Phenylephrine exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects, possibly involving the ß-adrenoreceptor. Phenylephrine promotes bacterial outgrowth after surgical peritonitis. Phenylephrine may therefore compromise host defence in surgical patients and increase susceptibility towards infection. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02675868 (Clinicaltrials.gov).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 1/farmacologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Peritonite/imunologia , Fenilefrina/farmacologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/imunologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/sangue , Humanos , Laboratórios , Leucócitos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Peritonite/metabolismo , Fenilefrina/administração & dosagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/metabolismo , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(3): 687-694, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity appears to be an independent risk factor for ICU admission and a severe disease course in COVID-19 patients. An aberrant inflammatory response and impaired respiratory function have been suggested as underlying mechanisms. We investigated whether obesity is associated with differences in inflammatory, respiratory, and clinical outcome parameters in critically ill COVID-19 patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Sixty-seven COVID-19 ICU patients were divided into obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 18, 72% class I obesity, 28% class II obesity) and non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2, n = 49) groups. Concentrations of circulating interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA) were determined from ICU admission until 10 days afterward, and routine laboratory and clinical parameters were collected. RESULTS: BMI was 32.6 [31.2-34.5] and 26.0 [24.4-27.7] kg/m2 in the obese and non-obese group, respectively. Apart from temperature, which was significantly lower in obese patients (38.1 [36.9-38.9] vs. 38.7 [38.0 -39.5] °C, p = 0.02), there were no between-group differences on ICU admission. Plasma cytokine concentrations declined over time (p < 0.05 for all), but no differences between obese and non-obese patients were observed. Also, BMI did not correlate with the cytokine response (IL-6 r = 0.09, p = 0.61, TNF-α r = 0.03, p = 0.99, IP-10 r = 0.28, p = 0.11). The kinetics of clinical inflammatory parameters and respiratory mechanics were also similar in both groups. Finally, no differences in time on ventilator, ICU length of stay or 40-day mortality between obese and non-obese patients were apparent. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation in the ICU, a higher BMI is not related to a different immunological response, unfavorable respiratory mechanics, or impaired outcome.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , /epidemiologia , /mortalidade , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 7, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441124

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is currently leading to increasing numbers of COVID-19 patients all over the world. Clinical presentations range from asymptomatic, mild respiratory tract infection, to severe cases with acute respiratory distress syndrome, respiratory failure, and death. Reports on a dysregulated immune system in the severe cases call for a better characterization and understanding of the changes in the immune system. METHODS: In order to dissect COVID-19-driven immune host responses, we performed RNA-seq of whole blood cell transcriptomes and granulocyte preparations from mild and severe COVID-19 patients and analyzed the data using a combination of conventional and data-driven co-expression analysis. Additionally, publicly available data was used to show the distinction from COVID-19 to other diseases. Reverse drug target prediction was used to identify known or novel drug candidates based on finding from data-driven findings. RESULTS: Here, we profiled whole blood transcriptomes of 39 COVID-19 patients and 10 control donors enabling a data-driven stratification based on molecular phenotype. Neutrophil activation-associated signatures were prominently enriched in severe patient groups, which was corroborated in whole blood transcriptomes from an independent second cohort of 30 as well as in granulocyte samples from a third cohort of 16 COVID-19 patients (44 samples). Comparison of COVID-19 blood transcriptomes with those of a collection of over 3100 samples derived from 12 different viral infections, inflammatory diseases, and independent control samples revealed highly specific transcriptome signatures for COVID-19. Further, stratified transcriptomes predicted patient subgroup-specific drug candidates targeting the dysregulated systemic immune response of the host. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides novel insights in the distinct molecular subgroups or phenotypes that are not simply explained by clinical parameters. We show that whole blood transcriptomes are extremely informative for COVID-19 since they capture granulocytes which are major drivers of disease severity.


Assuntos
/patologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , /virologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Regulação para Baixo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Neutrófilos/citologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA/sangue , RNA/química , RNA/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Regulação para Cima
11.
Immunity ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296687

RESUMO

Temporal resolution of cellular features associated with a severe COVID-19 disease trajectory is needed for understanding skewed immune responses and defining predictors of outcome. Here, we performed a longitudinal multi-omics study using a two-center cohort of 14 patients. We analyzed the bulk transcriptome, bulk DNA methylome, and single-cell transcriptome (>358,000 cells, including BCR profiles) of peripheral blood samples harvested from up to 5 time points. Validation was performed in two independent cohorts of COVID-19 patients. Severe COVID-19 was characterized by an increase of proliferating, metabolically hyperactive plasmablasts. Coinciding with critical illness, we also identified an expansion of interferon-activated circulating megakaryocytes and increased erythropoiesis with features of hypoxic signaling. Megakaryocyte- and erythroid-cell-derived co-expression modules were predictive of fatal disease outcome. The study demonstrates broad cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection beyond adaptive immune cells and provides an entry point toward developing biomarkers and targeted treatments of patients with COVID-19.

12.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 688, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subset of critically ill COVID-19 patients develop a hyperinflammatory state. Anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, is known to be effective in several hyperinflammatory diseases. We investigated the effects of anakinra on inflammatory parameters and clinical outcomes in critically ill, mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients with clinical features of hyperinflammation. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 21 critically ill COVID-19 patients treated with anakinra were compared to a group of standard care. Serial data of clinical inflammatory parameters and concentrations of multiple circulating cytokines were determined and aligned on start day of anakinra in the treatment group, and median start day of anakinra in the control group. Analysis was performed for day - 10 to + 10 relative to alignment day. Clinical outcomes were analyzed during 28 days. Additionally, three sensitivity analyses were performed: (1) using propensity score-matched groups, (2) selecting patients who did not receive corticosteroids, and (3) using a subset of the control group aimed to match the criteria (fever, elevated ferritin) for starting anakinra treatment. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics and clinical parameters on ICU admission were similar between groups. As a consequence of bias by indication, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT) (p = 0.0002), ferritin (p = 0.009), and temperature (p = 0.001) were significantly higher in the anakinra group on alignment day. Following treatment, no relevant differences in kinetics of circulating cytokines were observed between both groups. Decreases of clinical parameters, including temperature (p = 0.03), white blood cell counts (p = 0.02), and plasma levels of ferritin (p = 0.003), procalcitonin (p = 0.001), creatinine (p = 0.01), and bilirubin (p = 0.007), were more pronounced in the anakinra group. No differences in duration of mechanical ventilation or ICU length of stay were observed between groups. Sensitivity analyses confirmed these results. CONCLUSIONS: Anakinra is effective in reducing clinical signs of hyperinflammation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to draw conclusion about the effects of anakinra on clinical outcomes.

13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 559671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251227

RESUMO

Introduction: Sepsis is the most prevalent cause of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). Conversely, in some septic patients the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is augmented. The role of the inflammatory response and blood pressure to induce this increased GFR is unknown. Herein, we relate inflammatory mediators and blood pressure to the iohexol clearance-derived "true" GFR and kidney injury markers during systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers. Methods: Twelve healthy subjects underwent experimental endotoxemia (i.v. administration of 2 ng/kg Escherichia coli-derived lipopolysaccharide, LPS). As a gold-standard to determine the GFR, iohexol plasma clearance (GFRiohexol) was calculated during a 6-h period on the day before (baseline) as well as 2 and 24 h after LPS administration. Intra-arterial blood pressure was recorded continuously using a radial artery catheter. Circulating inflammatory mediators and urinary excretion of kidney injury markers were serially measured. Results: Experimental endotoxemia profoundly increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory mediators, including [mean ± SD or median [IQR] peak values (pg/mL) of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α: 92 ± 40, interleukin (IL)-6: 1,246 ± 605, IL-8: 374 ± 120, IL-10: 222 ± 119, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA): 8,955 ± 2,429, macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1: 2,885 [2,706 - 3,765], vascular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1: 296,105 ± 34,822, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1: 25,0170 ± 41,764]. Mean arterial pressure decreased with 13 ± 11 mmHg (p < 0.0001). No significant increase in the urinary excretion of tubular injury markers was observed following LPS administration. GFRiohexol increased from 97 ± 6 at baseline to 118 ± 10 mL/min/1.73m2 (p < 0.0001) post-LPS administration and returned to baseline levels at 24 h post-LPS (99 ± 9 mL/min/1.73m2). Peak plasma concentrations of IL-6 (R 2 = 0.66, p = 0.001) and IL-8 (R 2 = 0.51, p = 0.009), MCP-1 (R 2 = 0.38, p = 0.03) and VCAM-1 levels (R 2 = 0.37, p = 0.04) correlated with the increase in GFRiohexol, whereas a trend was observed for TNF-α (R 2 = 0.33, p = 0.0509) and IL-1RA (R 2 = 0.28, p = 0.08). None of the kidney injury markers or changes in blood pressure were associated with GFRiohexol. In multiple linear regression analysis, both peak IL-6 (p = 0.002) and IL-8 (p = 0.01) concentrations remained significantly correlated with GFRiohexol, without collinearity. Discussion: Concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not blood pressure, are correlated with the endotoxemia-induced increase in GFR in healthy volunteers. These findings may indicate that inflammatory mediators orchestrate the augmented GFR observed in a subgroup of sepsis patients.

16.
JACC Cardiovasc Interv ; 13(21): 2453-2466, 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33153562

RESUMO

Patients who undergo transcatheter aortic valve replacement often are frail and elderly. Delirium is a frequently observed complication, associated with impaired recovery, prolonged hospital stay, and mortality. In different hospital settings, interventions that reduced the incidence of delirium resulted in improved clinical outcome and reduced costs. In that context, prevention, early recognition, and timely interventions could be the next step toward better outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. This review is focused on awareness and recognition of delirium, including predisposing "vulnerability" factors (such as cognitive impairment and carotid artery disease) and "trigger" factors (such as anesthesia, hemodynamic imbalance, and complications). For prevention and treatment, clinicians should focus on sleep hygiene, orientation, pain management, and early mobilization. In case of delirium, a thorough search and treatment of trigger factors is warranted. Future studies should focus on risk assessment, preventive and therapeutic interventions, and their potential benefit in terms of costs and clinical outcomes.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011289

RESUMO

Patients with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) who develop acute respiratory failure (ARF) are perceived to have worse outcomes than autologous HCT recipients and non-transplant patients with hematologic malignancy (HM). Within a large international prospective cohort, we evaluated clinical outcomes in these 3 populations. We conducted a secondary analysis of the EFRAIM study, a multicenter observational study of immunocompromised adults with ARF admitted to 62 intensive care units (ICUs) in 16 countries. We described characteristics and compared outcomes of patients with HM who did not undergo transplantation and patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic HCT using multivariable logistic regression and propensity score-matched analyses. A total of 801 patients were included: 570 who did not undergo transplantation, 86 autologous HCT recipients and 145 allogeneic HCT recipients. Acute myelogenous leukemia (171 of 570; 30%) was the most common HM and most common indication for allogeneic HCT (76 of 145; 52%). Compared with the patients who did not undergo HCT and autologous HCT recipients, allogeneic HCT recipients were younger, had fewer comorbid conditions, and were more likely to undergo diagnostic bronchoscopy in the ICU. Unadjusted ICU and hospital mortality were 35% and 45%, respectively, across the entire cohort. In multivariable regression analysis, autologous HCT (odds ratio [OR], 1.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], .57 to 2.03; P = .82) and allogeneic HCT (OR, .99; 95% CI, .60 to 1.66; P = .98) were not associated with higher hospital mortality compared with the no-HCT cohort, adjusting for demographic, functional, clinical, malignancy, and ARF characteristics. The results were similar when analyzed using propensity score-matching techniques. Our findings indicate that autologous and allogeneic HCT recipients who develop ARF and require ICU admission have similar hospital mortality as patients with HM not treated with HCT.

19.
J Crit Care ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012580

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Intensive Care Units (ICU) acquired Pneumonia (ICU-AP) is one of the most frequent nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Our aim was to determine the effects of having an ICU-AP in immunosuppressed patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of a multinational, prospective cohort study in 16 countries. SETTINGS: ICU. PATIENTS: Immunosuppressed patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The original cohort had 1611 and in this post-hoc analysis a total of 1512 patients with available data on hospital mortality and occurrence of ICU-AP were included. ICU-AP occurred in 158 patients (10.4%). Hospital mortality was higher in patients with ICU-AP (14.8% vs. 7.1% p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounders and centre effect, use of vasopressors (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.22; 95%CI 1.46-3.39) and invasive mechanical ventilation at day 1 (OR 2.12 vs. high flow oxygen; 95%CI 1.07-4.20) were associated with increased risk of ICU-AP while female gender (OR 0.63; 95%CI 0.43-94) and chronic kidney disease (OR 0.43; 95%CI 0.22-0.88) were associated with decreased risk of ICU-AP. After adjustment for confounders and centre effect, ICU-AP was independently associated with mortality (Hazard Ratio 1.48; 95%CI 14.-1.91; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The attributable mortality of ICU-AP has been repetitively questioned in immunosuppressed patients with acute respiratory failure. This manuscript found that ICU-AP represents an independent risk factor for hospital mortality.

20.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(12): 747-764, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060844

RESUMO

Kidney involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common, and can range from the presence of proteinuria and haematuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT; also known as kidney replacement therapy). COVID-19-associated AKI (COVID-19 AKI) is associated with high mortality and serves as an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. The pathophysiology and mechanisms of AKI in patients with COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated and seem to be multifactorial, in keeping with the pathophysiology of AKI in other patients who are critically ill. Little is known about the prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI. The emergence of regional 'surges' in COVID-19 cases can limit hospital resources, including dialysis availability and supplies; thus, careful daily assessment of available resources is needed. In this Consensus Statement, the Acute Disease Quality Initiative provides recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI based on current literature. We also make recommendations for areas of future research, which are aimed at improving understanding of the underlying processes and improving outcomes for patients with COVID-19 AKI.

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