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1.
Aust Crit Care ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035691

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines advocate intensive care unit (ICU) patients be regularly assessed for delirium using either the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU) or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Single-centre studies, primarily with the CAM-ICU, suggest level of sedation may influence delirium screening results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the association between level of sedation and delirium occurrence in critically ill patients assessed with either the CAM-ICU or the ICDSC. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a multinational, prospective cohort study performed in nine ICUs from seven countries. Consecutive ICU patients with a Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS) of -3 to 0 at the time of delirium assessment where a RASS ≤ 0 was secondary to a sedating medication. Patients were assessed with either the CAM-ICU or the ICDSC. Logistic regression analysis was used to account for factors with the potential to influence level of sedation or delirium occurrence. RESULTS: Among 1660 patients, 1203 patients underwent 5741 CAM-ICU assessments [9.6% were delirium positive; at RASS = 0 (3.3% were delirium positive), RASS = -1 (19.3%), RASS = -2 (35.1%); RASS = -3 (39.0%)]. The other 457 patients underwent 3210 ICDSC assessments [11.6% delirium positive; at RASS = 0 (4.9% were delirium positive), RASS = -1 (15.8%), RASS = -2 (26.6%); RASS = -3 (20.6%)]. A RASS of -3 was associated with more positive delirium evaluations (odds ratio: 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-3.98) in the CAM-ICU-assessed patients (vs. the ICDSC-assessed patients). At a RASS of 0, assessment with the CAM-ICU (vs. the ICDSC) was associated with fewer positive delirium evaluations (odds ratio: 0.58; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.78). At a RASS of -1 or -2, no association was found between the delirium assessment method used (i.e., CAM-ICU or ICDSC) and a positive delirium evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of level of sedation on a delirium assessment result depends on whether the CAM-ICU or ICDSC is used. Bedside ICU nurses should consider these results when evaluating their sedated patients for delirium. Future research is necessary to compare the CAM-ICU and the ICDSC simultaneously in sedated and nonsedated ICU patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02518646.

2.
Shock ; 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of renal function in clinical practice remains challenging. Using creatinine to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is notoriously inaccurate, and determination of the true GFR, e.g. using inulin or iohexol, is laborious and not feasible in daily practice. Proenkephalin (PENK) is a novel candidate biomarker for kidney function that is filtrated in the glomerulus, shown to represent steady-state GFR in patients with different severities of renal insufficiency. In this pilot study in non-steady-state critically ill patients, we compared plasma PENK concentrations with creatinine-based GFR assessments and validated both against the 'true GFR' measured using a gold standard method: iohexol plasma clearance. METHODS: Twenty-three critically ill patients with septic shock were included. Kidney function was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula (eGFRMDRD), Endogenous Creatinine Clearance (GFRECC), and iohexol plasma clearance (GFRiohexol) during a 6-hour window. Plasma PENK concentrations were measured using the penKid immunoassay. RESULTS: The eGFRMDRD and GFRECC correlated with the GFRiohexol (R = 0.82, p < 0.0001 and R = 0.82, p < 0.0001 respectively), however bias and variability were considerable: the eGFRMDRD overestimated the true GFR with 31 ±â€Š35% (95% limits of agreement: -37 to 100%) and the GFRECC with 37 ±â€Š49% (95% limits of agreement: -59 to 133%). Plasma PENK concentrations showed a very strong inverse correlation with the GFRiohexol (R = 0.90, p < 0.0001) which tended to be better compared to the correlation of eGFRMDRD (p = 0.06) and GFRECC (p = 0.08) with the GFRiohexol. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study in non-steady state critically ill sepsis patients, GFR appears to be more accurately reflected by plasma PENK concentrations compared to conventional creatinine-based methods. Therefore, PENK holds promise as an accurate and feasible biomarker to determine kidney function during non-steady-state conditions in the critically ill.

3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922294

RESUMO

Acute infection is characterized by eosinopenia. However, the underlying mechanism(s) are poorly understood and it is unclear whether decreased mobilization/production of eosinophils in the bone marrow (BM) and/or increased homing to the tissues play a role. The objective of this study was to investigate the differentiation and activation status of eosinophils in the human BM and blood upon experimental human endotoxemia, a standardized, controlled, and reproducible model of acute systemic inflammation. A BM aspirate and venous blood was obtained from seven healthy volunteers before, 4 h after, and 1 week after intravenous challenge with 2 ng/kg endotoxin. Early progenitors (CD34+/IL-5Rα+), eosinophil promyelocytes, myelocytes, metamyelocytes, and mature eosinophils were identified and quantified in the bone marrow and blood samples using flowcytometry based on specific eosinophil markers (CD193 and IL-5Rα). Activation status was assessed using antibodies against known markers on eosinophils: Alpha-4 (CD49d), CCR3 (CD193), CR1 (CD35), CEACAM-8 (CD66b), CBRM 1/5 (activation epitope of MAC-1), and by plasma cytokine analysis. Four hours after endotoxin administration, numbers of mature eosinophils in the blood and in the BM markedly declined compared with baseline, whereas numbers of all eosinophil progenitors did not change. The remaining eosinophils did not show signs of activation or degranulation despite significantly increased circulating levels of eotaxin-1. Furthermore, the expression of CD49d and CD193 on eosinophils was lower compared to baseline, but normalized after 7 days. Together these data imply that circulatory eosinopenia after an innate immune challenge is mediated by CD49d-mediated homing of eosinophils to the tissues.

4.
Shock ; 53(2): 171-174, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31008870

RESUMO

AIM: Comparing the effects of different vasopressors in septic shock patients is hampered by high heterogeneity and the fact that current guidelines dictate the use of norepinephrine. Herein, we studied the effects of three vasopressor agents, norepinephrine, phenylephrine, and vasopressin, on the macro- and microcirculation during experimental human endotoxemia, a standardized, controlled model of systemic inflammation in humans in vivo. METHODS: We performed a randomized controlled study in which 40 healthy male volunteers were assigned to a 5-h infusion of either 0.05 µg/kg/min norepinephrine (n = 10), 0.5 µg/kg/min phenylephrine (n = 10), 0.04 IU/min vasopressin (n = 10), or saline (n = 10), starting 1 h before intravenous administration of 2 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The macrocirculation was monitored using arterial catheter-derived parameters with additional blood pressure waveform contour analysis (PCA) until 4.5 h following LPS administration. Sublingual microcirculatory density and flow were assessed using a handheld video microscope until 6 h post-LPS. RESULTS: LPS administration affected all macrocirculatory and microcirculatory parameters. The LPS-induced decrease in blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) was refractory to low-dose norepinephrine and phenylephrine, and to a lesser extent, to vasopressin. Only vasopressin exerted effects on PCA parameters compared with placebo, by mitigating the LPS-induced decrease in diastolic blood pressure by stabilizing SVR and cardiac output. The endotoxemia-induced decreased indices of microvascular flow and density were not influenced by vasopressor therapy. CONCLUSIONS: In a highly controlled model of systemic inflammation in humans in vivo, a 5-h infusion of various vasopressors revealed distinctive effects on macrohemodynamic variables without affecting the sublingual microcirculation.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 931, 2019 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690258

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The sepsis-induced immunodepression contributes to impaired clinical outcomes of various stress conditions. This syndrome is well documented and characterized by attenuated function of innate and adaptive immune cells. Several pharmacological interventions aimed to restore the immune response are emerging of which interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is one. It is of paramount relevance to obtain clinical information on optimal timing of the IFNγ-treatment, -tolerance, -effectiveness and outcome before performing a RCT. We describe the effects of IFNγ in a cohort of 18 adult and 2 pediatric sepsis patients. METHODS: In this open-label prospective multi-center case-series, IFNγ treatment was initiated in patients selected on clinical and immunological criteria early (< 4 days) or late (> 7 days) following the onset of sepsis. The data collected in 18 adults and 2 liver transplanted pediatric patients were: clinical scores, monocyte expression of HLA-DR (flow cytometry), lymphocyte immune-phenotyping (flow cytometry), IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels (ELISA), bacterial cultures, disease severity, and mortality. RESULTS: In 15 out of 18 patients IFNγ treatment was associated with an increase of median HLA-DR expression from 2666 [IQ 1547; 4991] to 12,451 [IQ 4166; 19,707], while the absolute number of lymphocyte subpopulations were not affected, except for the decrease number of NK cells 94.5 [23; 136] to 32.5 [13; 90.8] (0.0625)]. Plasma levels of IL-6 464 [201-770] to 108 (89-140) ng/mL (p = 0.04) and IL-10 from IL-10 from 29 [12-59] to 9 [1-15] pg/mL decreased significantly. Three patients who received IFNγ early after ICU admission (<4 days) died. The other patients had a rapid clinical improvement assessed by the SOFA score and bacterial cultures that were repeatedly positive became negative. The 2 pediatric cases improved rapidly, but 1 died for hemorrhagic complication. CONCLUSION: Guided by clinical and immunological monitoring, adjunctive immunotherapy with IFNγ appears well-tolerated in our cases and improves immune host defense in sepsis induced immuno suppression. Randomized clinical studies to assess its potential clinical benefit are warranted.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica , Interferon gama/uso terapêutico , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Antígenos HLA-DR/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Interleucina-10/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/microbiologia
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710506

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Interleukin (IL) 18 is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family and elevated blood IL-18 concentrations associate with disease activity in Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) and poor clinical outcomes in severe inflammatory and septic conditions. OBJECTIVE: While recent investigations provide mechanistic evidence for a contribution of IL-18 to (hyper)inflammation in sepsis and MAS, we sought to study regulatory mechanisms underlying human IL-18 expression. METHODS: Samples from in vivo and in vitro endotoxin re-challenge experiments, inflammatory disease patients and isolated human monocytes treated with various stimulants and drugs were tested for cytokine gene and protein expression. Serum IL-18 expression with or without JAK/STAT-inhibition was analyzed in two MAS mouse models as well as a patient with recurrent MAS. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Peripheral blood as well as monocytic IL-18 expression escaped lipopolysacharide (LPS)-induced immunoparalysis. LPS-stimulated primary human monocytes revealed a specific IL-18 expression kinetics controlled by IFNα/ß-signaling. JAK/STAT-inhibition or IFNß-neutralization during LPS-stimulation blunted cytokine expression. Similarly, microtubule destabilizing drugs abrogated LPS-induced IL18 expression, which could be fully reversed by addition of IFNα/ß. Ex vivo analysis of inflammatory disease patients' whole blood revealed strong correlation of type I interferon score and IL18 expression, while JAK/STAT-inhibition in two MAS mouse models as well as a patient with recurrent MAS strongly reduced IL-18 serum levels. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that IL-18 (but not IL-1ß) production from human monocytes requires cooperate toll-like receptor and IFNα/ß-signaling. Interference with IFNα/ß-expression or signaling following JAK/STAT-inhibition may control catastrophic hyperinflammation in MAS. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

8.
JAMA ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577035

RESUMO

Importance: Norepinephrine, the first-line vasopressor for septic shock, is not always effective and has important catecholaminergic adverse effects. Selepressin, a selective vasopressin V1a receptor agonist, is a noncatecholaminergic vasopressor that may mitigate sepsis-induced vasodilatation, vascular leakage, and edema, with fewer adverse effects. Objective: To test whether selepressin improves outcome in septic shock. Design, Setting, and Participants: An adaptive phase 2b/3 randomized clinical trial comprising 2 parts that included adult patients (n = 868) with septic shock requiring more than 5 µg/min of norepinephrine. Part 1 used a Bayesian algorithm to adjust randomization probabilities to alternative selepressin dosing regimens and to trigger transition to part 2, which would compare the best-performing regimen with placebo. The trial was conducted between July 2015 and August 2017 in 63 hospitals in Belgium, Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the United States, and follow-up was completed by May 2018. Interventions: Random assignment to 1 of 3 dosing regimens of selepressin (starting infusion rates of 1.7, 2.5, and 3.5 ng/kg/min; n = 585) or to placebo (n = 283), all administered as continuous infusions titrated according to hemodynamic parameters. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was ventilator- and vasopressor-free days within 30 days (deaths assigned zero days) of commencing study drug. Key secondary end points were 90-day mortality, kidney replacement therapy-free days, and ICU-free days. Results: Among 868 randomized patients, 828 received study drug (mean age, 66.3 years; 341 [41.2%] women) and comprised the primary analysis cohort, of whom 562 received 1 of 3 selepressin regimens, 266 received placebo, and 817 (98.7%) completed the trial. The trial was stopped for futility at the end of part 1. Median study drug duration was 37.8 hours (IQR, 17.8-72.4). There were no significant differences in the primary end point (ventilator- and vasopressor-free days: 15.0 vs 14.5 in the selepressin and placebo groups; difference, 0.6 [95% CI, -1.3 to 2.4]; P = .30) or key secondary end points (90-day mortality, 40.6% vs 39.4%; difference, 1.1% [95% CI, -6.5% to 8.8%]; P = .77; kidney replacement therapy-free days: 18.5 vs 18.2; difference, 0.3 [95% CI, -2.1 to 2.6]; P = .85; ICU-free days: 12.6 vs 12.2; difference, 0.5 [95% CI, -1.2 to 2.2]; P = .41). Adverse event rates included cardiac arrhythmias (27.9% vs 25.2% of patients), cardiac ischemia (6.6% vs 5.6%), mesenteric ischemia (3.2% vs 2.6%), and peripheral ischemia (2.3% vs 2.3%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with septic shock receiving norepinephrine, administration of selepressin, compared with placebo, did not result in improvement in vasopressor- and ventilator-free days within 30 days. Further research would be needed to evaluate the potential role of selepressin for other patient-centered outcomes in septic shock. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02508649.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507417

RESUMO

Sepsis-related mortality roughly doubles when acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs and end-stage renal disease is more common in sepsis-associated AKI survivors. So far, no licensed treatment for the prevention of AKI is available, however the data on alkaline phosphatase (AP) is promising and might change this. Sepsis-associated AKI is believed to be the result of inflammation and hypoxia combined. Systemic inflammation started by recognition of 'pathogen-associated molecular patterns' (PAMPs) such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which binds to Toll-like receptor 4 and leads to the production of inflammatory mediators. Due to this inflammatory process renal microcirculation gets impaired leading to hypoxia resulting in cell damage or cell death. In the process of cell damage so called 'danger-associated molecular patterns' (DAMPs) are released resulting in a sustained inflammatory effect. Apart from the systemic inflammation DAMPs and PAMPs also interact with receptors in the proximal tubule of the kidney causing a local inflammatory response leading to leukocyte infiltration and tubular lesions, combined with renal cell apoptosis and ultimately to AKI. In the longer-term, inflammation-mediated inadequate repair mechanism may lead to fibrosis and development of chronic kidney disease. AP is an endogenous enzyme that dephosphorylates and thereby detoxifies several compounds, including LPS. A small phase 2 clinical trial in sepsis patients showed that urinary excretion of tubular injury markers was attenuated and creatinine clearance improved in sepsis patients treated with AP. This renal protective effect was confirmed in a second small clinical phase 2 trial in sepsis patients with AKI. Subsequently, a large trial in sepsis patients with AKI was conducted using a human recombinant AP. In 301 patients no improvement of kidney function within 7 days after enrolment was observed, but kidney function was significantly better on day 21 and day 28 and all-cause 28-day mortality was significantly lower (14.4% in AP group versus 26.7% in the placebo group). Possible explanations of this lack of short-term kidney function improvement are discussed and potential effects of AP on renal repair mechanisms, including inflammation-mediated induction of fibrosis, that may explain the beneficial longer-term effects of AP are proposed.

10.
Semin Nephrol ; 39(5): 496-504, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514913

RESUMO

The extent of the systemic inflammatory response following infectious or noninfectious insults is related to impaired patient outcome. Pregnancy is associated with immunotolerance and an increased glomerular filtration rate. EA-230 is a newly developed synthetic linear tetrapeptide derived from the "pregnancy hormone" human chorionic gonadotropin. In this review, we describe the immunomodulatory and renoprotective properties of EA-230 in preclinical animal models, phase 1 studies in humans and phase 2a studies performed during human experimental endotoxemia. In addition, details pertaining to the design of a recently completed phase 2b study in 180 patients who underwent cardiac surgery to investigate the safety and immunomodulatory and renoprotective properties of EA-230 are discussed.

11.
Crit Care Med ; 47(10): e827-e835, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31306177

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To externally validate two delirium prediction models (early prediction model for ICU delirium and recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium) using either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for delirium assessment. DESIGN: Prospective, multinational cohort study. SETTING: Eleven ICUs from seven countries in three continents. PATIENTS: Consecutive, delirium-free adults admitted to the ICU for greater than or equal to 6 hours in whom delirium could be reliably assessed. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The predictors included in each model were collected at the time of ICU admission (early prediction model for ICU delirium) or within 24 hours of ICU admission (recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium). Delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Discrimination was determined using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. The predictive performance was determined for the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist cohort, and compared with both prediction models' original reported performance. A total of 1,286 Confusion Assessment Method-ICU-assessed patients and 892 Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist-assessed patients were included. Compared with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.71-0.79) in the original study, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the early prediction model for ICU delirium was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.64-0.71) for delirium as assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66-0.74) using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Compared with the original area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77 (95% CI, 0.74-0.79), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.72-0.78) for assessing delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.75) using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. CONCLUSIONS: Both the early prediction model for ICU delirium and recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium are externally validated using either the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist for delirium assessment. Per delirium prediction model, both assessment tools showed a similar moderate-to-good statistical performance. These results support the use of either the early prediction model for ICU delirium or recalibrated prediction model for ICU delirium in ICUs around the world regardless of whether delirium is evaluated with the Confusion Assessment Method-ICU or Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist.

12.
J Leukoc Biol ; 106(1): 11-25, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169935

RESUMO

Secondary infections are a major complication of sepsis and associated with a compromised immune state, called sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. Molecular mechanisms causing immunoparalysis remain unclear; however, changes in cellular metabolism of leukocytes have been linked to immunoparalysis. We investigated the relation of metabolic changes to antimicrobial monocyte functions in endotoxin-induced immunotolerance, as a model for sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. In this study, immunotolerance was induced in healthy males by intravenous endotoxin (2 ng/kg, derived from Escherichia coli O:113) administration. Before and after induction of immunotolerance, circulating CD14+ monocytes were isolated and assessed for antimicrobial functions, including cytokine production, oxidative burst, and microbial (Candida albicans) killing capacity, as well metabolic responses to ex vivo stimulation. Next, the effects of altered cellular metabolism on monocyte functions were validated in vitro. Ex vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation induced an extensive rewiring of metabolism in naive monocytes. In contrast, endotoxin-induced immunotolerant monocytes showed no metabolic plasticity, as they were unable to adapt their metabolism or mount cytokine and oxidative responses. Validation experiments showed that modulation of metabolic pathways, affected by immunotolerance, influenced monocyte cytokine production, oxidative burst, and microbial (C. albicans) killing in naive monocytes. Collectively, these data demonstrate that immunotolerant monocytes are characterized by a loss of metabolic plasticity and these metabolic defects impact antimicrobial monocyte immune functions. Further, these findings support that the changed cellular metabolism of immunotolerant monocytes might reveal novel therapeutic targets to reverse sepsis-induced immunoparalysis.

13.
J Crit Care ; 53: 120-124, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many intensive care unit (ICU) patients suffer from delirium which is associated with deleterious short-term and long-term effects, including mortality. We determined the association between different delirium subtypes and 90-day mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in ICU patients admitted in 2015-2017. Delirium, including its subtypes, was determined using the confusion assessment method-ICU (CAM-ICU) and Richmond agitation sedation scale (RASS). Exclusion criteria were insufficient assessments and persistent coma. Cox-regression analysis was used to determine associations of delirium subtypes with 90-day mortality, including relevant covariates (APACHE-IV, length of ICU stay and mechanical ventilation). RESULTS: 7362 ICU patients were eligible of whom 6323 (86%) were included. Delirium occurred in 1600 (25%) patients (stratified for delirium subtype: N = 571-36% mixed, N = 485-30% rapidly reversible, N = 433-27% hypoactive, N = 111-7% hyperactive). The crude hazard ratio (HR) for overall prevalent delirium with 90-day mortality was 2.84 (95%CI: 2.32-3.49), and the adjusted HR 1.29 (95%CI: 1.01-1.65). The adjusted HR for 90-day mortality was 1.57 (95%CI: 1.51-2.14) for the mixed subtype, 1.40 (95%CI: 0.71-2.73) for hyperactive, 1.31 (95%CI: 0.93-1.84) for hypoactive and 0.95 (95%CI: 0.64-1.42) for rapidly reversible delirium. CONCLUSION: After adjusting for covariates, including competing risk factors, only the mixed delirium subtype was significantly associated with 90-day mortality.

14.
Anesthesiology ; 131(2): 328-335, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium incidence in intensive care unit patients is high and associated with impaired long-term outcomes. The use of prophylactic haloperidol did not improve short-term outcome among critically ill adults at high risk of delirium. This study evaluated the effects of prophylactic haloperidol use on long-term quality of life in this group of patients and explored which factors are associated with change in quality of life. METHODS: A preplanned secondary analysis of long-term outcomes of the pRophylactic haloperidol usE for DeliriUm in iCu patients at high risk for dElirium (REDUCE) study was conducted. In this multicenter randomized clinical trial, nondelirious intensive care unit patients were assigned to prophylactic haloperidol (1 or 2 mg) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride). In all groups, patients finally received study medication for median duration of 3 days [interquartile range, 2 to 6] until onset of delirium or until intensive care unit discharge. Long-term outcomes were assessed using the Short Form-12 questionnaire at intensive care unit admission (baseline) and after 1 and 6 months. Quality of life was summarized in the physical component summary and mental component summary scores. Differences between the haloperidol and placebo group and factors associated with changes in quality of life were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 1,789 study patients, 1,245 intensive care unit patients were approached, of which 887 (71%) responded. Long-term quality of life did not differ between the haloperidol and placebo group (physical component summary mean score of 39 ± 11 and 39 ± 11, respectively, and P = 0.350; and mental component summary score of 50 ± 10 and 51 ± 10, respectively, and P = 0.678). Age, medical and trauma admission, quality of life score at baseline, risk for delirium (PRE-DELIRIC) score, and the number of sedation-induced coma days were significantly associated with a decline in long-term quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic haloperidol use does not affect long-term quality of life in critically ill patients at high risk for delirium. Several factors, including the modifiable factor number of sedation-induced coma days, are associated with decline in long-term outcomes.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Delírio/tratamento farmacológico , Haloperidol/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Idoso , Estado Terminal , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Crit Care ; 23(1): 152, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether influenza infection and associated co-infection are associated with patient-important outcomes in critically ill immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: Preplanned secondary analysis of EFRAIM, a prospective cohort study of 68 hospitals in 16 countries. We included 1611 patients aged 18 years or older with non-AIDS-related immunocompromise, who were admitted to the ICU with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. The main exposure of interest was influenza infection status. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause hospital mortality, and secondary outcomes ICU length of stay (LOS) and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Influenza infection status was categorized into four groups: patients with influenza alone (n = 95, 5.8%), patients with influenza plus pulmonary co-infection (n = 58, 3.6%), patients with non-influenza pulmonary infection (n = 820, 50.9%), and patients without pulmonary infection (n = 638, 39.6%). Influenza infection status was associated with a requirement for intubation and with LOS in ICU (P < 0.001). Patients with influenza plus co-infection had the highest rates of intubation and longest ICU LOS. On crude analysis, influenza infection status was associated with ICU mortality (P < 0.001) but not hospital mortality (P = 0.09). Patients with influenza plus co-infection and patients with non-influenza infection alone had similar ICU mortality (41% and 37% respectively) that was higher than patients with influenza alone or those without infection (33% and 26% respectively). A propensity score-matched analysis did not show a difference in hospital mortality attributable to influenza infection (OR = 1.01, 95%CI 0.90-1.13, P = 0.85). Age, severity scores, ARDS, and performance status were all associated with ICU, hospital, and 90-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Category of infectious etiology of respiratory failure (influenza, non-influenza, influenza plus co-infection, and non-infectious) was associated with ICU but not hospital mortality. In a propensity score-matched analysis, influenza infection was not associated with the primary outcome of hospital mortality. Overall, influenza infection alone may not be an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in immunosuppressed patients.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/mortalidade , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/imunologia , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109985

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We wished to explore the use, diagnostic capability and outcomes of bronchoscopy added to noninvasive testing in immunocompromised patients. In this setting, an inability to identify the cause of acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure is associated with worse outcome. Every effort should be made to obtain a diagnosis, either with noninvasive testing alone or combined with bronchoscopy. However, our understanding of the risks and benefits of bronchoscopy remains uncertain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a pre-planned secondary analysis of Efraim, a prospective, multinational, observational study of 1611 immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory failure admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). We compared patients with noninvasive testing only to those who had also received bronchoscopy by bivariate analysis and after propensity score matching. RESULTS: Bronchoscopy was performed in 618 (39%) patients who were more likely to have haematological malignancy and a higher severity of illness score. Bronchoscopy alone achieved a diagnosis in 165 patients (27% adjusted diagnostic yield). Bronchoscopy resulted in a management change in 236 patients (38% therapeutic yield). Bronchoscopy was associated with worsening of respiratory status in 69 (11%) patients. Bronchoscopy was associated with higher ICU (40% versus 28%; p<0.0001) and hospital mortality (49% versus 41%; p=0.003). The overall rate of undiagnosed causes was 13%. After propensity score matching, bronchoscopy remained associated with increased risk of hospital mortality (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.08-1.81). CONCLUSIONS: Bronchoscopy was associated with improved diagnosis and changes in management, but also increased hospital mortality. Balancing risk and benefit in individualised cases should be investigated further.

17.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 7(1): 25, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sepsis still represents a major health issue, with persistent high morbidity and mortality rates. Cardiovascular dysfunction occurs frequently during sepsis. Adrenomedullin has been identified as a key mediator in vascular tone regulation. A non-neutralizing anti-adrenomedullin antibody, Adrecizumab, may improve haemodynamic dysfunction during caecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock in a murine model. Our objective was to determine the role of Adrecizumab on haemodynamics in a rat model of sepsis. METHODS: For the induction of sepsis, caecal ligation and puncture were performed in Wistar male rats. Single blinded administration of Adrecizumab (2 mg/kg) or placebo was injected i.v. 24 h after the surgery, and norepinephrine was infused as the standard of care. There were > 7 animals per group. Invasive blood pressure and cardiac function (by echocardiography) were assessed until 3 h after Adrecizumab injection. RESULTS: A single therapeutic injection of Adrecizumab in septic rats induced rapid haemodynamic benefits with an increase in systolic blood pressure in septic-Adrecizumab rats versus untreated-septic rats (p = 0.049). The shortening fraction did not differ between the untreated-septic and septic-Adrecizumab groups. However, cardiac output increased during the 3 h after a single dose of Adrecizumab compared to untreated septic rats (p = 0.006). A single dose of Adrecizumab resulted in similar haemodynamics to the continuous administration of norepinephrine. Three hours after a single injection of Adrecizumab, there was no change in the inflammatory phenotype (TNFα, IL-10) in the hearts of the septic rats. By contrast, 3 h after a single Adrecizumab injection, free-radical production decreased in the hearts of septic-Adrecizumab vs untreated septic rats (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In a rat model of sepsis, a single therapeutic injection of Adrecizumab rapidly restored haemodynamic parameters and blunted myocardial oxidative stress. Currently, a proof-of-concept and dose-finding phase II trial (Adrenoss-2) is ongoing in patients with septic shock and elevated concentrations of circulating bio-adrenomedullin.

18.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol ; 14(6): 941-953, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101671

RESUMO

AKI is a global concern with a high incidence among patients across acute care settings. AKI is associated with significant clinical consequences and increased health care costs. Preventive measures, as well as rapid identification of AKI, have been shown to improve outcomes in small studies. Providing high-quality care for patients with AKI or those at risk of AKI occurs across a continuum that starts at the community level and continues in the emergency department, hospital setting, and after discharge from inpatient care. Improving the quality of care provided to these patients, plausibly mitigating the cost of care and improving short- and long-term outcomes, are goals that have not been universally achieved. Therefore, understanding how the management of AKI may be amenable to quality improvement programs is needed. Recognizing this gap in knowledge, the 22nd Acute Disease Quality Initiative meeting was convened to discuss the evidence, provide recommendations, and highlight future directions for AKI-related quality measures and care processes. Using a modified Delphi process, an international group of experts including physicians, a nurse practitioner, and pharmacists provided a framework for current and future quality improvement projects in the area of AKI. Where possible, best practices in the prevention, identification, and care of the patient with AKI were identified and highlighted. This article provides a summary of the key messages and recommendations of the group, with an aim to equip and encourage health care providers to establish quality care delivery for patients with AKI and to measure key quality indicators.

19.
J Crit Care ; 52: 68-74, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981928

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Insufficient sleep burdens critically ill patients, optimizing sleep may enhance patient's outcomes. Current assessment methods may unnecessary burden patients. Therefore, a single numeric rating score was validated for sleep assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, two cross-sectional measurements on two separate days, from cooperative patients from 19 centers assessed their sleep sufficiency, the numeric rating score (NRS) and the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire (RCSQ). Assessments were compared using a Bland Altman plot. A NRS cut-off was determined using regression analysis. Second, daily sleep assessment was implemented and monitored single center for a year. RESULTS: Multicenter, 194 patients assessed sleep quality, of which 53% was rated as sufficient. Mean (±SD) difference between RCSQ and NRS-Sleep using Bland-Altman analysis was 0.25 (±1.21, 95% limits of agreement -2.12 to 2.62). The optimal cut-off was >5. Single center, 1603 patients ranked 4532 ICU nights of sleep, of which 71% was sufficient; median NRS was 6 [IQR 5-7]. CONCLUSIONS: A single numeric rating score for sleep is interchangeable for the RCSQ score for assessment of sleep quality. Optimal cut-off is >5. Use of a numeric rating score for sleep is a practical way to evaluate and monitor sleep as perceived by patients in daily ICU practice.

20.
Blood Purif ; 47 Suppl 3: 1-9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Septic shock is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Endotoxins and cytokine levels are associated with the occurrence and severity of AKI, and different blood purification devices are available to remove them from circulation. One such device, oXiris, is a hollow-fibre purification filter that clears both endotoxins and cytokines. Due to limited evidence, clinical use of this device is not currently advocated in guidelines. However, clinics do regularly use this device, and there is a critical need for guidance on the application of it in sepsis with and without AKI. METHOD: A modified Delphi-based method was used to collate -European experts' views on the indication(s), initiation and discontinuation criteria and success measures for oXiris. RESULTS: A panel of 14 participants was selected based on known clinical expertise in the areas of critical care and sepsis management, as well as their experience of using the oXiris blood purification device. The participants used different criteria to initiate treatment with oXiris in sepsis patients with and without AKI. Septic shock with AKI was the priority patient population, with oXiris used to rapidly improve haemodynamic parameters. Achieving haemodynamic stability within 72 h was a key factor for determining treatment success. CONCLUSION: In the absence of established guidelines, users of hollow-fibre purification devices such as oXiris may benefit from standardised approaches to selecting patients and initiating and terminating treatment, as well as measuring success. Further evidence in the form of randomised clinical trials is urgently required.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Hemofiltração/instrumentação , Membranas Artificiais , Sepse/terapia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Hemofiltração/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
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