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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(3)2022 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35335006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic vaccination against infectious diseases may induce a state of long-term protection in the otherwise healthy host. However, the situation is less predictable in immunocompromised patients and may require adjustment of vaccination schedules and/or basic therapy. METHODS: A patient in full remission of multiple myeloma since the last three years and on long-term maintenance therapy with pomalidomide, a drug inhibiting angiogenesis and myeloma cell growth, was vaccinated twice with Comirnaty followed by two vaccinations with Vaxzevria. Seroconversion and SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular responses were monitored. RESULTS: No signs of seroconversion or T cellular memory were observed after the first "full immunization" with Comirnaty. Consequently, long-term-maintenance therapy with Pomalidomide was stopped and two additional shots of Vaxzevria were administered after which the patient seroconverted with Spike(S)-protein specific antibody levels reaching 49 BAU/mL, mild S-peptide pool-specific T cell proliferation, effector cytokine production (IL-2, IL-13), and T cellular activation with increased numbers of CD3+CD4+CD25+ T cells as compared to vaccinated and non-vaccinated control subjects. However, despite suspension of immunosuppression and administration of in total four consecutive heterologous SARS-CoV-2 vaccine shots, the patient did not develop neutralizing RBD-specific antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite immunomonitoring-based adjustment of vaccination and/or therapy schedules vaccination success, with clear correlates of protection, the development of RBD-specific antibodies could not be achieved in the immunocompromised patient with current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Thus, our report emphasizes the need for improved active and passive immunization strategies for SARS-CoV-2 infections.

2.
Allergy ; 2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357709

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the ongoing global COVID-19 pandemic. One possibility to control the pandemic is to induce sterilizing immunity through the induction and maintenance of neutralizing antibodies preventing SARS-CoV-2 from entering human cells to replicate in. METHODS: We report the construction and in vitro and in vivo characterization of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine (PreS-RBD) based on a structurally folded recombinant fusion protein consisting of two SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor-binding domains (RBD) fused to the N- and C-terminus of hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen PreS to enable the two unrelated proteins serving as immunologic carriers for each other. RESULTS: PreS-RBD, but not RBD alone, induced a robust and uniform RBD-specific IgG response in rabbits. Currently available genetic SARS-CoV-2 vaccines induce mainly transient IgG1 responses in vaccinated subjects whereas the PreS-RBD vaccine induced RBD-specific IgG antibodies consisting of an early IgG1 and sustained IgG4 antibody response in a SARS-CoV-2 naive subject. PreS-RBD-specific IgG antibodies were detected in serum and mucosal secretions, reacted with SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the omicron variant of concern and the HBV receptor-binding sites on PreS of currently known HBV genotypes. PreS-RBD-specific antibodies of the immunized subject more potently inhibited the interaction of RBD with its human receptor ACE2 and their virus-neutralizing titers (VNTs) were higher than median VNTs in a random sample of healthy subjects fully immunized with registered SARS-CoV-2 vaccines or in COVID-19 convalescent subjects. CONCLUSION: The PreS-RBD vaccine has the potential to serve as a combination vaccine for inducing sterilizing immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and HBV by stopping viral replication through the inhibition of cellular virus entry.

4.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 33(2): e13737, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While children usually experience a mild course of COVID-19, and a severe disease is more common in adults, the features, specificities, and functionality of the SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response in the pediatric population are of interest. METHODS: We performed a detailed analysis of IgG antibodies specific for SARS-CoV-2-derived antigens S and RBD by ELISA in 26 SARS-CoV-2 seropositive schoolchildren with mild or asymptomatic disease course, and in an equally sized, age- and gender-matched control group. Furthermore, a detailed mapping of IgG reactivity to a panel of microarrayed SARS-CoV-2 proteins and S-derived peptides was performed by microarray technology. The capacity of the antibody response to block RBD-ACE2 binding and virus neutralization were assessed. Results were compared with those obtained in an adult COVID-19 convalescent population. RESULTS: After mild COVID-19, anti-S and RBD-specific IgG antibodies were developed by 100% and 84.6% of pediatric subjects, respectively. No difference was observed in regards to symptoms and gender. Mounted antibodies recognized conformational epitopes of the spike protein and were capable to neutralize the virus up to a titer of ≥80 and to inhibit the ACE2-RBD interaction by up to 65%. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses in children were comparable to mildly affected adult patients. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic and mildly affected pediatric patients develop a SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody response, which is comparable regarding antigen, epitope recognition, and the ability to inhibit the RBD-ACE2 interaction to that observed in adult patients after mild COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais , Formação de Anticorpos , Criança , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
5.
Allergy ; 77(1): 230-242, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The determinants of successful humoral immune response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of critical importance for the design of effective vaccines and the evaluation of the degree of protective immunity conferred by exposure to the virus. As novel variants emerge, understanding their likelihood of suppression by population antibody repertoires has become increasingly important. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal antibody response in a large population of clinically well-characterized patients after mild and severe COVID-19 using a panel of microarrayed structurally folded and unfolded SARS-CoV-2 proteins, as well as sequential peptides, spanning the surface spike protein (S) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus. RESULTS: S- and RBD-specific antibody responses were dominated by immunoglobulin G (IgG), mainly IgG1 , and directed against structurally folded S and RBD and three distinct peptide epitopes in S2. The virus neutralization activity of patients´ sera was highly correlated with IgG antibodies specific for conformational but not sequential RBD epitopes and their ability to prevent RBD binding to its human receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Twenty percent of patients selectively lacked RBD-specific IgG. Only immunization with folded, but not with unfolded RBD, induced antibodies against conformational epitopes with high virus-neutralizing activity. Conformational RBD epitopes required for protection do not seem to be altered in the currently emerging virus variants. CONCLUSION: These results are fundamental for estimating the protective activity of antibody responses after natural infection or vaccination and for the design of vaccines, which can induce high levels of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies conferring sterilizing immunity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Epitopos , Humanos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
6.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744544, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795666

RESUMO

IgE-mediated allergy to birch pollen affects more than 100 million patients world-wide. Bet v 1, a 17 kDa protein is the major allergen in birch pollen responsible for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma in birch pollen allergic patients. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) based on therapeutic administration of Bet v 1-containing vaccines is an effective treatment for birch pollen allergy but no allergen-specific forms of prevention are available. We developed a mouse model for IgE sensitization to Bet v 1 based on subcutaneous injection of aluminum-hydroxide adsorbed recombinant Bet v 1 and performed a detailed characterization of the specificities of the IgE, IgG and CD4+ T cell responses in sensitized mice using seven synthetic peptides of 31-42 amino acids length which comprised the Bet v 1 sequence and the epitopes recognized by human CD4+ T cells. We then demonstrate that preventive systemic administration of a mix of synthetic non-allergenic Bet v 1 peptides to 3-4 week old mice significantly reduced allergic immune responses, including IgE, IgG, IgE-mediated basophil activation, CD4+ T cell and IL-4 responses to the complete Bet v 1 allergen but not to the unrelated major grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, without inducing Bet v 1-specific allergic sensitization or adaptive immunity. Our results thus demonstrate that early preventive administration of non-allergenic synthetic T cell epitope-containing allergen peptides could be a safe strategy for the prevention of allergen-specific IgE sensitization.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Animais , Camundongos , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/prevenção & controle
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452033

RESUMO

The aim of this prospective study was to assess lymphocyte proliferative and cytokine response prior to and following tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) immunization among patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Seventeen adult patients 11-13 months after HSCT and eight unvaccinated healthy adults received up to three TBE vaccinations. Following in vitro stimulation with TBE-antigen, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion (IL-2, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF) were analyzed by thymidine incorporation assay and the Luminex system. Ten patients (59%) showed significant baseline TBE-specific lymphocyte proliferation (stimulation index (SI) > 3) prior to vaccination, but none of the unvaccinated controls (p = 0.002). All patients with a TBE-specific antibody response after two vaccinations (at least 2-fold increase of neutralization test titers) exhibited a strong TBE-specific lymphocyte proliferative response at baseline (SI > 10). Patients with sibling donors had a significantly stronger baseline TBE-specific lymphocyte proliferative and IL-13 cytokine response than patients with unrelated donors (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a relevant proportion of patients showed TBE-specific lymphocyte proliferative and cytokine responses prior to vaccination after HSCT, which predicted the humoral response to the vaccine. Patients with vaccinated sibling donors were more likely to elicit a cellular immune response than patients with unrelated donors of unknown vaccination status.

9.
Allergo J Int ; 30(5): 155-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) approved in the European Union represent a decisive step in the fight against the pandemic. The application of these available vaccines to patients with pre-existing immunological conditions leads to a multitude of questions regarding efficacy, side effects and the necessary patient information. RESULTS: This review article provides insight into mechanisms of action of the currently available severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and summarises the current state of science as well as expert recommendations regarding tolerability of the vaccines. In addition, the potential to develop protective immune responses is determined. A special focus is given on patients under immunosuppression or in treatment with immunomodulatory drugs. Special groups of the population such as children, pregnant women and the elderly are also considered. CONCLUSION: Despite the need for a patient-specific risk-benefit assessment, the consensus among experts is that patients with immunological diseases in particular benefit from the induced immune protection after COVID-19 vaccination and do not have an increased risk of side effects.

10.
ACS Synth Biol ; 10(5): 1184-1198, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843201

RESUMO

CD19 is among the most relevant targets in cancer immunotherapy. However, its extracellular domain (ECD) is prone to aggregation and misfolding, representing a major obstacle for the development and analysis of CD19-targeted therapeutics. Here, we engineered stabilized CD19-ECD (termed SuperFolder) variants, which also showed improved expression rates and, in contrast to the wild type protein, they could be efficiently purified in their monomeric forms. Despite being considerably more stable, these engineered mutants largely preserved the wild type sequence (>98.8%). We demonstrate that the variant SF05 enabled the determination of the monovalent affinity between CD19 and a clinically approved FMC63-based CAR, as well as monitoring and phenotypic characterization of CD19-directed CAR-T cells in the blood of lymphoma patients. We anticipate that the SuperFolder mutants generated in this study will be highly valuable tools for a range of applications in basic immunology and CD19-targeted cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Substituição de Aminoácidos , Antígenos CD19/genética , Evolução Molecular Direcionada/métodos , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/imunologia , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Antígenos CD19/química , Antígenos CD19/imunologia , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/sangue , Proteínas Mutantes , Mutação , Domínios Proteicos/imunologia , Dobramento de Proteína , Estabilidade Proteica , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/genética
11.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664060

RESUMO

CD8+ T cell immunity to SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated in COVID-19 severity and virus control. Here, we identified nonsynonymous mutations in MHC-I-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes after deep sequencing of 747 SARS-CoV-2 virus isolates. Mutant peptides exhibited diminished or abrogated MHC-I binding in a cell-free in vitro assay. Reduced MHC-I binding of mutant peptides was associated with decreased proliferation, IFN-γ production and cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells isolated from HLA-matched COVID-19 patients. Single cell RNA sequencing of ex vivo expanded, tetramer-sorted CD8+ T cells from COVID-19 patients further revealed qualitative differences in the transcriptional response to mutant peptides. Our findings highlight the capacity of SARS-CoV-2 to subvert CD8+ T cell surveillance through point mutations in MHC-I-restricted viral epitopes.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , COVID-19 , Epitopos de Linfócito T , Antígenos HLA-A/imunologia , Imunidade Celular , Mutação , SARS-CoV-2 , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , COVID-19/genética , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Interferon gama/imunologia , Peptídeos/genética , Peptídeos/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
12.
FASEB J ; 35(4): e21217, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33715236

RESUMO

The importance of cellular metabolic adaptation in inducing robust T cell responses is well established. However, the mechanism by which T cells link information regarding nutrient supply to clonal expansion and effector function is still enigmatic. Herein, we report that the metabolic sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a critical link between cellular energy demand and translational activity and, thus, orchestrates optimal expansion of T cells in vivo. AMPK deficiency did not affect T cell fate decision, activation, or T effector cell generation; however, the magnitude of T cell responses in murine in vivo models of T cell activation was markedly reduced. This impairment was global, as all T helper cell subsets were similarly sensitive to loss of AMPK which resulted in reduced T cell accumulation in peripheral organs and reduced disease severity in pathophysiologically as diverse models as T cell transfer colitis and allergic airway inflammation. T cell receptor repertoire analysis confirmed similar clonotype frequencies in different lymphoid organs, thereby supporting the concept of a quantitative impairment in clonal expansion rather than a skewed qualitative immune response. In line with these findings, in-depth metabolic analysis revealed a decrease in T cell oxidative metabolism, and gene set enrichment analysis indicated a major reduction in ribosomal biogenesis and mRNA translation in AMPK-deficient T cells. We, thus, provide evidence that through its interference with these delicate processes, AMPK orchestrates the quantitative, but not the qualitative, manifestation of primary T cell responses in vivo.


Assuntos
Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/fisiologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adenilato Quinase/genética , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Colite/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Th1/fisiologia , Células Th17/fisiologia
13.
Allergy ; 76(8): 2575-2586, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allergy, the most frequent immune disorder affecting 30% of the world's population, is the consequence of immunoglobin E (IgE) sensitization to allergens. Among the genetic factors suspected to be involved in allergy, the HLA class-II genomic region is a strong candidate. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between HLA class-II alleles and specific IgE (sIgE) sensitization to a large number of respiratory allergen molecules. METHODS: The analysis relied on 927 participants of the EGEA cohort, including 497 asthmatics. The study focuses on 26 aeroallergens recognized by sIgE in at least 5% of the study population (determined with the MEDALL chip with sIgE ≥ 0.3 ISU) and 23 imputed HLA class-II alleles. For each sIgE sensitization and HLA class-II allele, we fitted a logistic regression model accounting for familial dependence and adjusted for gender, age, and genetic principal components. p-values were corrected for multiple comparisons (False Discovery Rate). RESULTS: Most of the 19 statistically significant associations observed regard pollen allergens (mugwort Art v 1, olive tree Ole e 1, timothy grass Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and plantain Pla l 1), three were mold allergen (Alternaria Alt a 1), and a single one regards house dust mite allergen (Der p 7). No association was observed with pet allergens. The strongest associations were found with mugwort Art v 1 (OR = 5.42 (95%CI, 3.30; 8.88), 4.14 (2.65; 6.47), 3.16 (1.88; 5.31) with DQB1*05:01, DQA1*01:01 and DRB1*01:01, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results support the important role of HLA class-II alleles as immune response genes predisposing their carriers for sensitization to various major pollen allergens.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Hipersensibilidade , Alelos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Imunoglobulina E , Phleum
14.
FEBS J ; 288(2): 640-662, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386462

RESUMO

Nuclear factor 'κ-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B cells (NF-κB) signaling is a signaling pathway used by most immune cells to promote immunostimulatory functions. Recent studies have indicated that regulatory T cells (Treg) differentially integrate TCR-derived signals, thereby maintaining their suppressive features. However, the role of NF-κB signaling in the activation of human peripheral blood (PB) Treg has not been fully elucidated so far. We show that the activity of the master transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) attenuates p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB proteins p50, p65, and c-Rel following activation in human Treg. Using pharmacological and genetic inhibition of canonical NF-κB signaling in FOXP3-transgenic T cells and PB Treg from healthy donors as well as Treg from a patient with a primary NFKB1 haploinsufficiency, we validate that Treg activation and suppressive capacity is independent of NF-κB signaling. Additionally, repression of residual NF-κB signaling in Treg further enhances interleukin-10 (IL-10) production. Blockade of NF-κB signaling can be exploited for the generation of in vitro induced Treg (iTreg) with enhanced suppressive capacity and functional stability. In this respect, dual blockade of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and NF-κB signaling was accompanied by enhanced expression of the transcription factors FOXP1 and FOXP3 and demethylation of the Treg-specific demethylated region compared to iTreg generated under mTOR blockade alone. Thus, we provide first insights into the role of NF-κB signaling in human Treg. These findings could lead to strategies for the selective manipulation of Treg and the generation of improved iTreg for cellular therapy.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/imunologia , Haploinsuficiência/imunologia , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/imunologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/imunologia , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Transporte Ativo do Núcleo Celular/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/imunologia , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/deficiência , Subunidade p50 de NF-kappa B/genética , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
15.
Allergy ; 76(1): 131-149, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249442

RESUMO

Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is an allergen-specific form of treatment for patients suffering from immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy; the most common and important immunologically mediated hypersensitivity disease. AIT is based on the administration of the disease-causing allergen with the goal to induce a protective immunity consisting of allergen-specific blocking IgG antibodies and alterations of the cellular immune response so that the patient can tolerate allergen contact. Major advantages of AIT over all other existing treatments for allergy are that AIT induces a long-lasting protection and prevents the progression of disease to severe manifestations. AIT is cost effective because it uses the patient´s own immune system for protection and potentially can be used as a preventive treatment. However, broad application of AIT is limited by mainly technical issues such as the quality of allergen preparations and the risk of inducing side effects which results in extremely cumbersome treatment schedules reducing patient´s compliance. In this article we review progress in AIT made from its beginning and provide an overview of the state of the art, the needs for further development, and possible technical solutions available through molecular allergology. Finally, we consider visions for AIT development towards prophylactic application.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Vacinas , Alérgenos , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Imunoglobulina E
17.
Allergy ; 76(3): 751-765, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33128792

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has triggered a pandemic that is now claiming many lives. Several studies have investigated cellular immune responses in COVID-19-infected patients during disease but little is known regarding a possible protracted impact of COVID-19 on the adaptive and innate immune system in COVID-19 convalescent patients. METHODS: We used multiparametric flow cytometry to analyze whole peripheral blood samples and determined SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels against the S-protein, its RBD-subunit, and viral nucleocapsid in a cohort of COVID-19 convalescent patients who had mild disease ~10 weeks after infection (n = 109) and healthy control subjects (n = 98). Furthermore, we correlated immunological changes with clinical and demographic parameters. RESULTS: Even ten weeks after disease COVID-19 convalescent patients had fewer neutrophils, while their cytotoxic CD8+ T cells were activated, reflected as higher HLA-DR and CD38 expression. Multiparametric regression analyses showed that in COVID-19-infected patients both CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD8+ effector memory cells were higher, while CD25+ Foxp3+ T regulatory cells were lower. In addition, both transitional B cell and plasmablast levels were significantly elevated in COVID-19-infected patients. Fever (duration, level) correlated with numbers of central memory CD4+ T cells and anti-S and anti-RBD, but not anti-NC antibody levels. Moreover, a "young immunological age" as determined by numbers of CD3+ CD45RA+ CD62L+ CD31+ recent thymic emigrants was associated with a loss of sense of taste and/or smell. CONCLUSION: Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection leaves protracted beneficial (ie, activation of T cells) and potentially harmful (ie, reduction of neutrophils) imprints in the cellular immune system in addition to induction of specific antibody responses.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Convalescença , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 788360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993166

RESUMO

Objectives: Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) shares many similarities with de novo autoimmune disorders, being associated with the presence of autoantibodies. However, data on the implication of autoantibodies in paediatric HSCT recipients are scarce. In this single-centre study of paediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) surviving longer than 3 months, our objectives were to evaluate autoantibody expression and investigate the correlation with cGvHD and immune reconstitution using serially monitored parameters. Methods: We investigated circulating autoantibodies together with cellular and humoral parameters [including major T- and B-cell subsets, natural killer (NK) cells, and immunoglobulin levels] in 440 samples from 74 patients (median age 10.9 years, range 2.7-22.2 years) serially during long-term follow-up of median 8 years (range 0.4-19.3 years). Evaluations comprised of patient and transplant characteristics, precisely reviewed details of National Institute of Health (NIH)-defined cGvHD, and outcome data such as relapse, overall survival (OS) and mortality. Analysis of these clinical parameters was performed to identify possible associations. Results: Autoantibodies were detected in 65% (48/74) of patients. Anti-nuclear antibodies were the most common, occurring in 75% (36/48) of patients with autoantibodies. When comparing demographic data and transplant characteristics, there were no significant differences between patients with and without autoantibody expression; 5-year OS was excellent, at 96.4 and 95.8%, respectively. Neither the expression of autoantibodies nor the occurrence of cGvHD correlated with significantly worse OS or relapse rate. Furthermore, there was no significant association between autoantibody profiles and the incidence, overall severity or organ involvement of cGvHD. Patients with autoantibodies showed significantly better immune reconstitution, with overall higher numbers of T cells, B cells, and serum immunoglobulins. In autoantibody-positive patients with cGvHD, autoantibody production positively correlated with the expansion of CD56+ NK cells (236.1 vs. 165.6 × 103 cells/mL, respectively; p = 0.023) and with signs of B-cell perturbation, such as higher CD21low B cells (23.8 vs. 11.8 × 103 cells/mL, respectively; p = 0.044) and a higher ratio of CD21low B cells/CD27+ memory B cells (1.7 vs. 0.4, respectively; p = 0.006) in comparison to autoantibody-positive patients without cGvHD. Furthermore, when assessing the correlation between autoantibody positivity and the activity of cGvHD at time of analysis, indicators of aberrant B-cell homeostasis were substantiated by a lower proportion of CD27+ memory B cells (9.1 vs. 14.9%, respectively; p = 0.028), a higher ratio of class-switched CD27+IgD-/CD27+ memory B cells (3.5 vs. 5.1%, respectively; p = 0.013), significantly elevated numbers of CD21low B cells (36.8 vs. 11.8 × 103 cells/mL, respectively; p = 0.013) and a higher ratio of CD21lowB cells/CD27+ memory B cells (2.4 vs. 0.4, respectively; p = 0.034) in the active vs. the no cGvHD group. We then assessed the potential role of autoantibody expression in the context of elevated CD19+CD21low B cells (cutoff >7%), a well-known marker of cGvHD. Surprisingly we found a significant higher proportion of those cases where elevated CD21low B cells correlated with active cGvHD in samples from the autoantibody-negative group vs. the antibody-positive group (82 vs. 47%, respectively; p = 0.0053). When comparing immune parameters of the large proportion of survivors (89%) with the small proportion of non-survivors (11%), data revealed normalisation within the B-cell compartment of survivors: there were increased numbers of CD27+ memory B cells (54.9 vs. 30.6 × 103 cells/mL, respectively; p = 0.05), class-switched CD27+IgD- B cells (21.2 vs. 5.0 × 103 cells/mL, respectively; p < 0.0001), and immunoglobulin G4 (40.9 vs. 19.4 mg/dL, respectively; p < 0.0001). Overall mortality was significantly associated with an elevated proportion of CD21low B cells (13.4 vs. 8.8%, respectively; p = 0.039) and CD56+ NK cells (238.8 vs. 314.1 × 103 cells/mL, respectively; p = 0.019). In multivariate analysis, better OS was significantly associated with lower numbers of CD56+ NK cells [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, p = 0.041] and higher numbers of CD27+ memory B cells [(HR) 1.62, p = 0.014]. Conclusion: Our data shows that autoantibody profiles are not suitable biomarkers for diagnosing cGvHD in children or for predicting cGvHD severity, disease course and outcome. We identified a number of indicators of aberrant immune homeostasis associated with active cGvHD in paediatric ALL patients after HSCT. These findings confirm published results and suggest that candidate B cell subpopulations may serve as a surrogate measure for characterisation of cGvHD in paediatric HSCT for malignant diseases, and warrants confirmation in larger, multicentre studies.

20.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1368, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733455

RESUMO

Vaccines for infectious diseases have improved the life of the human species in a tremendous manner. The principle of vaccination is to establish de novo adaptive immune response consisting of antibody and T cell responses against pathogens which should defend the vaccinated person against future challenge with the culprit pathogen. The situation is completely different for immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy, an immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity which is already characterized by increased IgE antibody levels and T cell responses against per se innocuous antigens (i.e., allergens). Thus, allergic patients suffer from a deviated hyper-immunity against allergens leading to inflammation upon allergen contact. Paradoxically, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), induces a counter immune response based on the production of high levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies and alterations of the adaptive cellular response, which reduce allergen-induced symptoms of allergic inflammation. AIT was even shown to prevent the progression of mild to severe forms of allergy. Consequently, AIT can be considered as a form of therapeutic vaccination. In this article we describe a strategy and possible road map for the use of an AIT approach for prophylactic vaccination against allergy which is based on new molecular allergy vaccines. This road map includes the use of AIT for secondary preventive vaccination to stop the progression of clinically silent allergic sensitization toward symptomatic allergy and ultimately the prevention of allergic sensitization by maternal vaccination and/or early primary preventive vaccination of children. Prophylactic allergy vaccination with molecular allergy vaccines may allow halting the allergy epidemics affecting almost 30% of the population as it has been achieved for vaccination against infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Vacinação , Vacinas/imunologia , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Epitopos de Linfócito B/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Peptídeos/imunologia , Gravidez , Prevenção Primária , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/administração & dosagem , Vacinas de Partículas Semelhantes a Vírus/imunologia
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