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Molecules ; 27(2)2022 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35056815


The storage of plant samples as well as sample preparation for extraction have a significant impact on the profile of metabolites, however, these factors are often overlooked during experiments on vegetables or fruit. It was hypothesized that parameters such as sample storage (freezing) and sample pre-treatment methods, including the comminution technique or applied enzyme inhibition methods, could significantly influence the extracted volatile metabolome. Significant changes were observed in the volatile profile of broccoli florets frozen in liquid nitrogen at -20 °C. Those differences were mostly related to the concentration of nitriles and aldehydes. Confocal microscopy indicated some tissue deterioration in the case of slow freezing (-20 °C), whereas the structure of tissue, frozen in liquid nitrogen, was practically intact. Myrosinase activity assay proved that the enzyme remains active after freezing. No pH deviation was noted after sample storage - this parameter did not influence the activity of enzymes. Tissue fragmentation and enzyme-inhibition techniques applied prior to the extraction influenced both the qualitative and quantitative composition of the volatile metabolome of broccoli.

Brassica/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Congelamento , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
Carbohydr Polym ; 256: 117566, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483067


This study presents a novel model of homogalacturonan (HG) based on the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). The model was applied to investigate the mechanism of self-aggregation of low-methoxylated homogalacturonan in aqueous solutions in the absence of cations. The coarse-grained model provided new insights into the structural features of HG aggregates and networks in aqueous solutions. Depending on the properties and concentration of polysaccharides, two major patterns of self-assembly were observed for HG - ellipsoidal aggregates and a continuous three-dimensional network. Simulations showed that a decrease in the degree of dissociation of HG results in a higher rate of self-aggregation, as well as facilitating the formation of larger assemblies or thicker nanofilaments depending on the type of final self-assembly. Simulations of polysaccharides of different chain lengths suggested the existence of a structural threshold for the formation of a spatial network for HG consisting of less than 35 GalA units.

Ácidos Hexurônicos/química , Pectinas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Calibragem , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Cátions , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32517129


The enzyme driven changes in plant cell wall structure during fruit ripening result in debranching, depolymerization and solubilization of pectin polysaccharides, which has an effect in terms of the postharvest quality losses in fruit. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has revealed that diluted alkali soluble pectins (DASP) from fruit and vegetables have an interesting tendency to self-assemble into regular structures. However, the mechanism is not yet fully understood. The current study is aimed at investigating the role of neutral sugars, namely galactose, rhamnose and arabinose in the formation of the branched structure of DASP. ß-galactosidase, α-L-rhamnosidase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase enzymes were used for the treatment of DASP extracted from Golden Delicious apple flesh (Malus domestica cv. Golden Delicious). The effects of the selective degradation of pectic polysaccharides after 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min of incubation were observed using AFM. The α-L-rhamnosidase enzyme activity on pectin extracted with Na2CO3 did not cause any visible or measurable degradation of the molecular structure. The moderate effects of ß-galactosidase enzymatic treatment suggested the possible role of galactose in the branching of DASP molecules deposited on mica. Data obtained for α-L-arabinofuranosidase indicated the crucial role of arabinose in the formation and preservation of the highly branched structure of the DASP fraction.

Frutas/química , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Malus/química , Pectinas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , beta-Galactosidase/química , Carbonatos/química , Hidrólise , Microscopia de Força Atômica
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(4)2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617343


The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle) method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma). Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε) provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes.

Lycopersicon esculentum , Carotenoides , Lasers , Luz
Sensors (Basel) ; 16(5)2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27171093


Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the "Ligol" and "Szampion" apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson's correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre-harvest development. Despite this, at the current state of development the BA method cannot be used as an indicator alone. Due to rather poor results for prediction in OHW the BA measurements should be supported by other destructive methods to compensate its low selectivity.

Agricultura , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Frutas , Malus