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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766734

RESUMO

AIMS: We evaluated the occurrence and physiology of respiration-related beat-to-beat variations in resting Pd/Pa and FFR during intravenous adenosine administration, and its impact on clinical decision-making. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coronary pressure tracings in rest and at plateau hyperemia were analyzed in a total of 39 stenosis from 37 patients, and respiratory rate was calculated with ECG-derived respiration (EDR) in 26 stenoses from 26 patients. Beat-to-beat variations in FFR occurred in a cyclical fashion and were strongly correlated with respiratory rate (R2  = 0.757, p < 0.001). There was no correlation between respiratory rate and variations in resting Pd/Pa. When single-beat averages were used to calculate FFR, mean ΔFFR was 0.04 ± 0.02. With averaging of FFR over three or five cardiac cycles, mean ΔFFR decreased to 0.02 ± 0.02, and 0.01 ± 0.01, respectively. Using a FFR ≤ 0.80 threshold, stenosis classification changed in 20.5% (8/39), 12.8% (5/39) and 5.1% (2/39) for single-beat, three-beat and five-beat averaged FFR. The impact of respiration was more pronounced in patients with pulmonary disease (ΔFFR 0.05 ± 0.02 vs 0.03 ± 0.02, p = 0.021). CONCLUSION: Beat-to-beat variations in FFR during plateau hyperemia related to respiration are common, of clinically relevant magnitude, and frequently lead FFR to cross treatment thresholds. A five-beat averaged FFR, overcomes clinically relevant impact of FFR variation.

2.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34617993

RESUMO

AIMS: The SYNTAX II study evaluated the impact of advances in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), integrated into a single revascularization strategy, on outcomes of patients with de novo three-vessel disease. The study employed decision-making utilizing the SYNTAX score II, use of coronary physiology, thin-strut biodegradable polymer drug-eluting stents, intravascular ultrasound, enhanced treatments of chronic total occlusions, and optimized medical therapy. Patients treated with this approach were compared with predefined patients from the SYNTAX I trial. METHODS AND RESULTS: SYNTAX II was a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of patients requiring revascularization who demonstrated clinical equipoise for treatment with either coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or PCI, predicted by the SYNTAX score II. The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE), which included any revascularization. The comparators were a matched PCI cohort trial and a matched CABG cohort, both from the SYNTAX I trial. At 5 years, MACCE rate in SYNTAX II was significantly lower than in the SYNTAX I PCI cohort (21.5% vs. 36.4%, P < 0.001). This reflected lower rates of revascularization (13.8% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001), and myocardial infarction (MI) (2.7% vs. 10.4%, P < 0.001), consisting of both procedural MI (0.2% vs. 3.8%, P < 0.001) and spontaneous MI (2.3% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.004). All-cause mortality was lower in SYNTAX II (8.1% vs. 13.8%, P = 0.013) reflecting a lower rate of cardiac death (2.8% vs. 8.4%, P < 0.001). Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events' outcomes at 5 years among patients in SYNTAX II and predefined patients in the SYNTAX I CABG cohort were similar (21.5% vs. 24.6%, P = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Use of the SYNTAX II PCI strategy in patients with de novo three-vessel disease led to improved and durable clinical results when compared to predefined patients treated with PCI in the original SYNTAX I trial. A predefined exploratory analysis found no significant difference in MACCE between SYNTAX II PCI and matched SYNTAX I CABG patients at 5-year follow-up.

3.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) related events have been reported between 1 and 3 years - the period of active scaffold bioresorption. Data on the performance of Absorb BVS in daily clinical practice beyond this time point is scarce. AIMS: This report provides the final five-year clinical follow-up of the Absorb BVS in comparison with Xience everolimus-eluting stent (EES). In addition, we evaluated the effect of prolonged dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) administration on events in the scaffold group. METHODS: AIDA was a multicentre, investigator-initiated, non-inferiority trial, in which 1,845 unselected patients with coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to either Absorb BVS (n=924) or Xience EES (n=921). Target vessel failure (TVF), composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularisation, was the primary endpoint. Scaffold thrombosis cases were matched with controls and tested for effect of prolonged DAPT. RESULTS: Through 5 years follow-up, there was no difference in TVF between Absorb BVS (17.7%) and Xience EES (16.1%) (hazard ratio 1.31, 95% CI 0.90-1.41, p=0.302). Definite or probable device thrombosis (DT) occurred in 43 patients (4.8%) of the scaffold group compared to 13 patients (1.5%) of the stent group (hazard ratio 3.32; 95% CI 1.78-6.17; p<0.001). DT between 3- and 4-years occurred six times in Absorb-arm versus three in Xience-arm. Between 4- and 5-years the incidence was 3 versus 2, respectively. Of those three DT in scaffold group, two occurred in Xience EES treated lesions. The odds ratio of scaffold thrombosis in patients on DAPT compared to off DAPT throughout 5-year follow-up was 0.36 (95% CI 0.15-0.86). CONCLUSIONS: The excess risk of Absorb BVS on late adverse events, in particular device thrombosis, in routine PCI continues up to 4-years and seems to plateau afterwards.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34516621

RESUMO

Intracoronary physiology testing has emerged as a valuable diagnostic approach in the management of patients with chronic coronary syndrome, circumventing limitations like inferring coronary function from anatomical assessment and low spatial resolution associated with angiography or non-invasive tests. The value of hyperaemic translesional pressure ratios to estimate the functional relevance of coronary stenoses is supported by a wealth of prognostic data. The continuing drive to further simplify this approach led to the development of non-hyperaemic pressure-based indices. Recent attention has focussed on estimating physiology without even measuring coronary pressure. However, the reduction in procedural time and ease of accessibility afforded by these simplifications needs to be counterbalanced against the increasing burden of physiological assumptions, which may impact on the ability to reliably identify an ischaemic substrate, the ultimate goal during catheter laboratory assessment. In that regard, measurement of both coronary pressure and flow enables comprehensive physiological evaluation of both epicardial and microcirculatory components of the vasculature, although widespread adoption has been hampered by perceived technical complexity and, in general, an underappreciation of the role of the microvasculature. In parallel, entirely non-invasive tools have matured, with the utilization of various techniques including computational fluid dynamic and quantitative perfusion analysis. This review article appraises the strengths and limitations for each test in investigating myocardial ischaemia and discusses a comprehensive algorithm that could be used to obtain a diagnosis in all patients with angina scheduled for coronary angiography, including those who are not found to have obstructive epicardial coronary disease.

5.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both balloon-expandable (BE) and self-expandable (SE) valves for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) are broadly used in clinical practice. However, adequately powered randomized controlled trials comparing these two valve designs are lacking. METHODS: The CENTER-study included 12,381 patients undergoing transfemoral TAVI. Patients undergoing TAVI with a BE-valve (n = 4096) were compared to patients undergoing TAVI with an SE-valve (n = 4096) after propensity score matching. Clinical outcomes including one-year mortality and stroke rates were assessed. RESULTS: In the matched population of n = 5410 patients, the mean age was 81 ± 3 years, 60% was female, and the STS-PROM predicted 30-day mortality was 6.2% (IQR 4.0-12.4). One-year mortality was not different between patients treated with BE- or SE-valves (BE: 16.4% vs. SE: 17.0%, Relative Risk 1.04, 95%CI 0.02-1.21, p = 0.57). One-year stroke rates were also comparable (BE: 4.9% vs. SE: 5.3%, RR 1.09, 95%CI 0.86-1.37, p = 0.48). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that one-year mortality and stroke rates were comparable in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis undergoing TAVI with either BE or SE-valves.

6.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary blood flow in humans is known to be predominantly diastolic. Small studies in animals and humans suggest this is less pronounced or even reversed in the right coronary artery. AIMS: This study aims to characterise the phasic patterns of coronary flow in the left versus right coronary arteries of patients undergoing invasive physiological assessment. METHODS: We analysed data from the Iberian-Dutch-English Collaborators (IDEAL) Study. 482 simultaneous pressure and flow measurements from 301 patients were included in our analysis. RESULTS: On average, coronary flow was higher in diastole both at rest and during hyperaemia both in the RCA and LCA (mean diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio was, respectively, 1.85±0.70, 1.76±0.58, 1.53±0.34 and 1.58±0.43 for LCArest , LCAhyp , RCArest and RCAhyp , p<0.001 for between vessel comparisons). Although the type of RCA dominance affected the DSVR magnitude (RCAdom = 1.55 ± 0.35, RCAco-dom =1.40 ± 0.27, RCAnon-dom = 1.35, (SD not reported as n=3), systolic flow was very rarely predominant (DSVR was greater than or equal to 1.00 in 472/482 cases (97.9%) overall), with equal prevalence in the LCA. Stenosis severity or microvascular dysfunction had negligible impact on DSVR in both RCA and LCA (DSVR x hyperaemic stenosis resistance R 2 = 0.018, p=0.03 and DSVR x coronary flow reserve R 2 <0.001, p=0.98). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with CAD undergoing physiological assessment, diastolic flow predominance is seen in both left and right coronary arteries. Clinical interpretation of coronary physiological data should therefore not differ between the left and the right coronary systems.

7.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387547

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines recommend the development of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) networks at community, regional and/or national level to offer ideally primary coronary angioplasty, or, at least the best available STEMI care to all patients. However, there is a discrepancy between this clinical recommendation and daily practice, with no coordinated care for STEMI patients in many regions of the world. While this can be a consequence of lacking resources, in reality, it is more frequently a lack of organizational power. In this paper, the Stent-Save a life! Initiative proposes a practical methodology to effectively set up a STEMI network in any region of the world, with existing resources, and to continuously develop the STEMI network once established.

8.
Sports Med Open ; 7(1): 50, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) during sports can be the first symptom of yet undetected cardiovascular conditions. Immediate chest compressions and early defibrillation offer SCA victims the best chance of survival, which requires prompt bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). AIMS: To determine the effect of rapid bystander CPR to SCA during sports by searching for and analyzing videos of these SCA/SCD events from the internet. METHODS: We searched images.google.com , video.google.com , and YouTube.com , and included any camera-witnessed non-traumatic SCA during sports. The rapidity of starting bystander chest compressions and defibrillation was classified as < 3, 3-5, or > 5 min. RESULTS: We identified and included 29 victims of average age 27.6 ± 8.5 years. Twenty-eight were males, 23 performed at an elite level, and 18 participated in soccer. Bystander CPR < 3 min (7/29) or 3-5 min (1/29) and defibrillation < 3 min was associated with 100% survival. Not performing chest compressions and defibrillation was associated with death (14/29), and > 5 min delay of intervention with worse outcome (death 4/29, severe neurologic dysfunction 1/29). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of internet videos showed that immediate bystander CPR to non-traumatic SCA during sports was associated with improved survival. This suggests that immediate chest compressions and early defibrillation are crucially important in SCA during sport, as they are in other settings. Optimal use of both will most likely result in survival. Most videos showing recent events did not show an improvement in the proportion of athletes who received early resuscitation, suggesting that the problem of cardiac arrest during sports activity is poorly recognized.

9.
EuroIntervention ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary vasomotor dysfunction can be diagnosed in a large proportion of patients with angina in the presence of non-obstructive coronary artery disease (ANOCA) using comprehensive protocols for coronary vasomotor function testing. Although consensus on diagnostic criteria for endotypes of coronary vasomotor dysfunction have been published, consensus on a standardised study testing protocol is lacking. AIMS: In this review we provide an overview of the variations in coronary vasomotor function testing used and discuss the practical principles and pitfalls of coronary vasomotor function testing. METHODS: For the purpose of this review we assessed study protocols that evaluate coronary vasomotor response as reported in the literature. We compared these protocols regarding a number of procedural aspects and chose six examples to highlight the differences and uniqueness. RESULTS: Currently, numerous protocols co-exist and vary in vascular domains tested, the manner to test these domains (e.g. pre-procedural discontinuation of medication, provocative agent, solution, infusion time, and target artery) and techniques used for measurements (e.g. doppler vs thermodilution technique). CONCLUSIONS: This lack of consensus on a uniform functional testing protocol hampers both a broader clinical acceptance of the concepts of coronary vasomotor dysfunction, and the widespread adoption of such testing protocols in current clinical practice. Furthermore, the endotype of coronary vasomotor dysfunction might differ between the few specialised centres that perform coronary vasomotor function testing as a result of the use of different protocols. In this review we provide an overview of the variations in coronary vasomotor function testing used and discuss the practical principles and pitfalls of coronary vasomotor function testing.

10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 77(22): 2761-2773, 2021 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal revascularization strategy for the elderly with complex coronary artery disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to investigate 10-year all-cause mortality, life expectancy, 5-year major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (MACCE), and 5-year quality of life (QOL) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in elderly individuals (>70 years old) with 3-vessel disease (3VD) and/or left main disease (LMD). METHODS: In the present pre-specified analysis on age of the SYNTAX Extended Survival study, 10-year all-cause death and 5-year MACCE were compared with Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models among elderly or nonelderly patients. Life expectancy was estimated by restricted mean survival time within 10 years, and QOL status according to the Seattle Angina Questionnaire up to 5 years was assessed by linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: Among 1,800 randomized patients, 575 patients (31.9%) were elderly. Ten-year mortality did not differ significantly between PCI and CABG in elderly (44.1% vs. 41.1%; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.84 to 1.40) and nonelderly patients (21.1% vs. 16.6%; HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.69; pinteraction = 0.332). Among elderly patients, 5-year MACCE was comparable between PCI and CABG (39.4% vs. 35.1%; HR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.56), whereas it was significantly higher in PCI over CABG among nonelderly patients (36.3% vs. 23.0%; HR: 1.69; 95% CI: 1.36 to 2.10; pinteraction = 0.043). There were no significant difference in life expectancy (mean difference: 0.2 years in favor of CABG; 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.7) and 5-year QOL status between PCI and CABG among elderly patients. CONCLUSIONS: Elderly patients with 3VD and/or LMD had comparable 10-year all-cause death, life expectancy, 5-year MACCE, and 5-year QOL status irrespective of revascularization mode. (Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery: SYNTAX Extended Survival [SYNTAXES]; NCT03417050) (SYNTAX Study: TAXUS Drug-Eluting Stent Versus Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Narrowed Arteries [SYNTAX]; NCT00114972).


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária/mortalidade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/complicações , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Am Heart J ; 239: 19-26, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992606

RESUMO

Angiography-derived physiological assessment of coronary lesions has emerged as an alternative to wire-based assessment aiming at less-invasiveness and shorter procedural time as well as cost effectiveness in physiology-guided decision making. However, current available image-derived physiology software have limitations including the requirement of multiple projections and are time consuming. METHODS/DESIGN: The ReVEAL iFR (Radiographic imaging Validation and EvALuation for Angio-iFR) trial is a multicenter, multicontinental, validation study which aims to validate the diagnostic accuracy of the Angio-iFR medical software device (Philips, San Diego, US) in patients undergoing angiography for Chronic Coronary Syndrome (CCS). The Angio-iFR will enable operators to predict both the iFR and FFR value within a few seconds from a single projection of cine angiography by using a lumped parameter fluid dynamics model. Approximately 440 patients with at least one de-novo 40% to 90% stenosis by visual angiographic assessment will be enrolled in the study. The primary endpoint is the sensitivity and specificity of the iFR and FFR for a given lesion compared to the corresponding invasive measures. The enrollment started in August 2019, and was completed in March 2021. SUMMARY: The Angio-iFR system has the potential of simplifying physiological evaluation of coronary stenosis compared with available systems, providing estimates of both FFR and iFR. The ReVEAL iFR study will investigate the predictive performance of the novel Angio-iFR software in CCS patients. Ultimately, based on its unique characteristics, the Angio-iFR system may contribute to improve adoption of functional coronary assessment and the workflow in the catheter laboratory.


Assuntos
Angiografia Coronária , Estenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Software/normas , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Angiografia Coronária/tendências , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasos Coronários/fisiopatologia , Precisão da Medição Dimensional , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
12.
Am J Cardiol ; 151: 30-38, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049676

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated a paradoxical association between higher baseline body mass index (BMI) and lower long-term mortality risk after coronary revascularization, known as the "obesity paradox", possibly relying on the single use of BMI. The current study is a post-hoc analysis of the SYNTAX Extended Survival (SYNTAXES) trial, which is the extended follow-up of the SYNTAX trial comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in patients with left-main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) or three-vessel disease (3VD). Patients were stratified according to baseline BMI and/or waist circumference (WC). Out of 1,800 patients, 1,799 (99.9%) and 1,587 (88.2%) had available baseline BMI and WC data, respectively. Of those, 1,327 (73.8%) patients had High BMI (≥25 kg/m2), whereas 705 (44.4%) patients had High WC (>102 cm for men or >88 cm for women). When stratified by both BMI and WC, 10-year mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with Low BMI/Low WC (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09 to 2.51), Low BMI/ High WC (adjusted HR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.12 to 6.69), or High BMI/High WC (adjusted HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.27) compared to those with High BMI/Low WC. In conclusion, the "obesity paradox" following coronary revascularization would be driven by low long-term mortality risk of the High BMI/Low WC group. Body composition should be assessed by the combination of BMI and WC in the appropriate evaluation of the long-term risk of obesity in patients with LMCAD or 3VD.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Mortalidade , Revascularização Miocárdica , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Circunferência da Cintura , Idoso , Composição Corporal , Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
13.
Int J Cardiol ; 336: 22-28, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34004231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Up to 24% of patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) show resolution of ST-elevation and symptoms before revascularization. The mechanisms of spontaneous reperfusion are unclear. Given the more favorable outcome of transient STEMI, it is important to obtain further insights in differential aspects. METHODS: We compared 251 patients who presented with transient STEMI (n = 141) or persistent STEMI (n = 110). Clinical angiographic and laboratory data were collected at admission and in subset of patients additional index hemostatic data and at steady-state follow-up. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) was performed at 2-8 days to assess myocardial injury. RESULTS: Transient STEMI patients had more cardiovascular risk factors than STEMI patients, including more arterial disease and higher cholesterol values. Transient STEMI patients showed angiographically more often no intracoronary thrombus (41.1% vs. 2.7%, P < 0.001) and less often a high thrombus burden (9.2% vs. 40.0%, P < 0.001). CMR revealed microvascular obstruction less frequently (4.2% vs. 34.6%, P < 0.001) and smaller infarct size [1.4%; interquartile range (IQR), 0.0-3.7% vs. 8.8%; IQR, 3.9-17.1% of the left ventricle, P < 0.001] with a better preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (57.8 ± 6.7% vs. 52.5 ± 7.6%, P < 0.001). At steady state, fibrinolysis was higher in transient STEMI, as demonstrated with a reduced clot lysis time (89 ± 20% vs. 99 ± 25%, P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Transient STEMI is a syndrome with less angiographic thrombus burden and spontaneous infarct artery reperfusion, resulting in less myocardial injury than STEMI. The presence of a more effective fibrinolysis in transient STEMI patients may explain these differences and might provide clues for future treatment of STEMI.


Assuntos
Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Volume Sistólico , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
14.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 98(4): E513-E522, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000088

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the predictive ability of the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score 2.0 in contemporary acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients, and its relation to antiplatelet strategies. BACKGROUND: The predictive value of the GRACE risk score in the contemporary ACS cohort and the appropriate antiplatelet regimen according to the risk remain unclear. METHODS: This is a subgroup analysis of the all-comers, randomized GLOBAL LEADERS trial, comparing ticagrelor monotherapy versus conventional dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The GRACE risk score 2.0 with 1-year mortality prediction was implemented. The randomized antiplatelet effect was assessed in predefined three GRACE risk-groups; low-risk (GRACE <109), moderate-risk (GRACE 109-140), and high-risk (GRACE >140). RESULTS: The GRACE risk score was available in 6,594 out of 7,487 ACS patients among whom 1,743, 2,823, and 2,028 patients were classified as low-risk, moderate-risk, and high-risk, respectively. At 1 year, all-cause mortality occurred in 120 patients (1.8%). The discrimination ability of the GRACE model was moderate (C-statistic = 0.742), whereas 1-year mortality risk was overestimated (mean predicted mortality rate: 3.9%; the Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square: 21.47; p = 0.006). There were no significant interactions between the GRACE risk strata and effects of the ticagrelor monotherapy on ischemic or bleeding outcomes at 1 year compared to the reference strategy. CONCLUSION: The GRACE risk score 2.0 is valuable in discriminating high risk ACS patients, however, the recalibration of the score is recommended for better risk stratification. There is no significant differences in efficacy and safety of ticagrelor monotherapy across the three GRACE risk strata.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Humanos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
EuroIntervention ; 17(9): 757-764, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The influence of age-dependent changes on fractional flow reserve (FFR) or instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) and the response to pharmacological hyperaemia has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the impact of age on these indices. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the ADVISE II trial, including a total of 690 pressure recordings (in 591 patients). Age-dependent correlations with FFR and iFR were calculated and adjusted for stenosis severity. Patients were stratified into three age terciles. The hyperaemic response to adenosine, calculated as the difference between resting and hyperaemic pressure ratios, and the prevalence of FFR-iFR discordance were assessed. RESULTS: Age correlated positively with FFR (r=0.08, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.15, p=0.015), but not with iFR (r=-0.03, 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.04, p=0.411). The hyperaemic response to adenosine decreased with patient age (0.12±0.07, 0.11±0.06, 0.09±0.05, for the 1st [33-58 years], 2nd [59-69 years] and 3rd [70-94 years] age tertiles, respectively, p<0.001) and showed significant correlation with age (r=-0.14, 95% CI: -0.21 to -0.06, p<0.001). The proportion of patients with FFR ≤0.80+iFR >0.89 discordance doubled in the first age tercile (14.1% vs 7.1% vs 7.0%, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: The hyperaemic response of the microcirculation to adenosine administration is age dependent. FFR values increase with patient age, while iFR values remain constant across the age spectrum. These findings contribute to explaining differences observed in functional stenosis classification with hyperaemic and non-hyperaemic coronary indices.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Reserva Fracionada de Fluxo Miocárdico , Adulto , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677526

RESUMO

AIMS: Our purpose was to perform a systematic review to assess the prevalence of microvascular angina (MVA) among patients with stable symptoms in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We performed a systematic review of the literature to group the prevalence of MVA, based on diagnostic pathways and modalities. METHODS AND RESULTS: We defined MVA using three definitions: 1. suspected MVA using non-invasive ischemia tests; proportion of patients with non-obstructive CAD among patients with symptoms and a positive non-invasive ischemia test result, 2. suspected MVA using specific modalities for MVA; proportion of patients with evidence of impaired microvascular function among patients with symptoms and non-obstructive CAD, 3. definitive MVA; proportion of patients with positive ischemia test results among patients with an objectified impaired microvascular dysfunction. We further examined the ratio of women-to-men for the different groups.Of the 4547 abstracts, 20 studies reported data on MVA prevalence. The median prevalence was 43% for suspected MVA using non-invasive ischemia test, 28% for suspected MVA using specific modalities for MVA and 30% for definitive MVA. Overall, more women were included in the studies reporting sex-specific data. The women-to-men ratio for included participants was 1.29. However, the average women-to-men ratio for the MVA cases was 2.50. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with stable symptoms of ischemia in the absence of CAD, the prevalences of suspected and definitive MVA are substantial. The results of this study should warrant cardiologists to support, promote and facilitate the comprehensive evaluation of the coronary microcirculation for all patients with symptoms and non-obstructive CAD.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539048

RESUMO

AIMS: We aimed to update the logistic clinical SYNTAX score to predict 2 year all-cause mortality after contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 15,883 patients in the GLOBAL LEADERS study who underwent PCI. The logistic clinical SYNTAX model was updated after imputing missing values by refitting the original model (refitted original model) and fitting an extended new model (new model, with, selection based on the Akaike Information Criterion). External validation was performed in 10,100 patients having PCI at Fu Wai hospital. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, prior stroke, current smoker, hemoglobin level, and white blood cell count were identified as additional independent predictors of 2 year all-cause mortality and included into the new model. The c-indexes of the original, refitted original and the new model in the derivation cohort were 0.74 (95% CI 0.72-0.76), 0.75 (95% CI 0.73-0.77), and 0.78 (95% CI 0.76-0.80), respectively. The c-index of the new model was lower in the validation cohort than in the derivation cohort, but still showed improved discriminative ability of the newly developed model (0.72; 95% CI 0.67-0.77) compared to the refitted original model (0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.74). The models overestimated the observed 2 year all-cause mortality of 1.11% in the Chinese external validation cohort by 0.54 percentage points, indicating the need for calibration of the model to the Chinese patient population. CONCLUSIONS: The new model of the logistic clinical SYNTAX score better predicts 2 year all-cause mortality after PCI than the original model. The new model could guide clinical decision making by risk stratifying patients undergoing PCI.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e044035, 2021 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452200

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recent randomised clinical trials showed benefit of non-culprit lesion revascularisation in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. However, it remains unclear whether revascularisation should be performed at the index procedure or at a later stage. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) Guided Multivessel Revascularisation During Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Acute Myocardial Infarction trial is a multicentre, randomised controlled prospective open-label trial with blinded evaluation of endpoints. After successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), eligible STEMI patients with residual non-culprit lesions are randomised, to instantaneous wave-free ratio guided treatment of non-culprit lesions during the index procedure versus deferred cardiac MR-guided management within 4 days to 6 weeks. The primary endpoint of the study is the combined occurrence of all-cause death, recurrent myocardial infarction and hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months follow-up. Clinical follow-up includes questionnaires at 3 months and outpatient visits at 6 months and 12 months after primary PCI. Furthermore, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Permission to conduct this trial has been granted by the Medical Ethical Committee of the Amsterdam University Medical Centres (loc. VUmc, ID NL60107.029.16). The primary results of this trial will be shared in a main article and subgroup analyses or spin-off studies will be shared in secondary papers. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03298659.


Assuntos
Estenose Coronária , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Adolescente , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(2): 494-499, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a minimally invasive, life-saving treatment for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis that improves quality of life. We examined cardiac output and cerebral blood flow in patients undergoing TAVI to test the hypothesis that improved cardiac output after TAVI is associated with an increase in cerebral blood flow. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: European high-volume tertiary multidisciplinary cardiac care. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-one patients (78.3 ± 4.6 years; 61% female) with severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. MEASUREMENTS: Noninvasive prospective assessment of cardiac output (L/min) by inert gas rebreathing and cerebral blood flow of the total gray matter (mL/100 g per min) using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging in resting state less than 24 hours before TAVI and at 3-month follow-up. Cerebral blood flow change was defined as the difference relative to baseline. RESULTS: On average, cardiac output in patients with severe aortic valve stenosis increased from 4.0 ± 1.1 to 5.4 ± 2.4 L/min after TAVI (P = .003). The increase in cerebral blood flow after TAVI strongly varied between patients (7% ± 24%; P = .41) and related to the increase in cardiac output, with an 8.2% (standard error = 2.3%; P = .003) increase in cerebral blood flow per every additional liter of cardiac output following the TAVI procedure. CONCLUSION: Following TAVI, there was an association of increase in cardiac output with increase in cerebral blood flow. These findings encourage future larger studies to determine the influence of TAVI on cerebral blood flow and cognitive function.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo , Circulação Cerebrovascular , Qualidade de Vida , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/psicologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Débito Cardíaco , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Cardiovasc Revasc Med ; 25: 29-35, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109476

RESUMO

AIMS: The objective of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel Magic Touch sirolimus coated-balloon (SCB) when compared to the SeQuent Please Neo paclitaxel coated balloon (PCB) for the treatment of de-novo small vessel coronary artery diseases (SVD). STUDY DESIGN: The TRANSFORM I study is a randomized, multicenter, non-inferiority trial with the intent to enroll a total of 114 patients with a de-novo SVD (≤2.5 mm). Vessel size will be pre-screened by on-line QCA. After successful pre-dilatation without major coronary dissections (type C-F) nor Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction trial [TIMI] grade flow ≤2, patients will be enrolled in a 1:1 randomization to receive treatment with either the novel SCB balloon or the comparative PCB balloon. The balloon sizing will be selected according to the lumen-based approach derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT). The primary endpoint is 6-month mean net lumen diameter gain (6-month minimum lumen diameter [MLD] minus baseline MLD) assessed by quantitative coronary analysis (QCA) with non-inferiority margin of 0.3 mm in per-protocol analysis. The clinical follow-up will be conducted up to 1 year. The enrollment started in September 2020 and will complete in April 2021. CONCLUSIONS: The TRANSFORM I trial will assess the efficacy of novel SCB in terms of non-inferiority to conventional PCB with a novel OCT measurement approach in patients with a de-novo SVD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03913832.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão , Fármacos Cardiovasculares , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Humanos , Paclitaxel , Estudos Prospectivos , Sirolimo , Resultado do Tratamento
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